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equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh

equine colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention .
antibiotics, analgesic and laxatives in colic treatment.
colic in horses.types of colic

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equine colic.types of colic, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pervention by salam elayh

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Presented by: Salam Elayh; DVM Urmia University College of veterinary medicine 2014.5.5 2
  3. 3. 3  Not a disease  General term indicating abdominal pain  Every case should be taken seriously
  4. 4. 4 Stomach Small intestine Cecum Colon Small colon Rectum
  5. 5. 5 Several classification systems of equine colic have been described including a disease-based system classifying the cause of colic as:  Obstructive  Obstructive and strangulating  Non strangulating infarctive  Inflammatory (peritonitis, enteritis)
  6. 6. 6 1-luminal → sand colic 2-mural blackage→ neoplasia 3-extra mural blackage →large colon displasmen 4-functional→ paralytic ileus
  7. 7. 7 Infarction→ thromboembolic colic
  8. 8. 8 infection(salmonella , actinobacillus) → peritoneitis and enteritis
  9. 9. 9 Torsion Intussusception Diaphragmatic and Inguinal hernia
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12 Colic cases can also be classified on the basis of the duration of the disease: acute « 24-36 h), chronic (> 24- 36 h) and recurrent (multiple episodes separated by periods of > 2 days of .normality)
  13. 13. 13  Equine colic accurs world wide.  The incidence rate: 3.5-10.6 percent  Mortality: 2.5 percent  The case fatality rate:  6-13 percent
  14. 14. 14 1) intrinsic horse characteristics 2) Management those associated with feeding practices medical history parasite control
  15. 15. 15 Age Horses 2-10 years of age are 2.8 times more likely to develop colic that horses less than 2 year.
  16. 16. 16 Breed There is a consistent finding that Arabian horses are at increased risk of colic, but the reason for this apparently greater risk has not been determined.
  17. 17. 17 Environmental or feeding change Watering Housing change in the amount of physical activity
  18. 18. 18 Horses with a history of colic are 6 times more likely to have colic again Previous abdominal surgery are 5 times as likely
  19. 19. 19 Inadequate parasite control programs have been estimated to put horses at 2-9 times greater risk of developing colic.
  20. 20. 20 The features common to severe colic, and often present to a lesser degree in milder colics, are pain, gastrointestinal dysfunction, intestinal ischemia, endotoxemia and compromised cardiovascular function (shock )
  21. 21. 21 Distension of the gastrointestinal tract stimulation of stretch receptors and pain → inhibits normal gut motility and function → accumulation of ingesta and fluid further destination and pain
  22. 22. 22 Alterations to motility or absorptive function Examples spasmodic colic→ severe contraction of intestine Impaction → blockage of the intestine
  23. 23. 23 Ultimately → most forms of lethal colic involve some degree of ischemia of the intestine because of loss of barrier function
  24. 24. 24 ► because of restricted respiration by pressure on the diaphragm and reduced venous return to the heart because of pressure on the caudal vena cava ► endotoxemia and hypovolemia
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26  stamping or kicking at the belly  looking or nipping at the flank
  27. 27. 27  pacing in small circles and repeatedly getting up and lying down
  28. 28. 28  rolling, and lying on the back
  29. 29. 29  Vomiting  Sweating is common  Abdominal destination
  30. 30. 30  ↑pulse rate with ↓pulse amplitude  Endotoxemia → bright red mucous Membranes  Terminal stages of disease→ cold, purple, dry mucous with CTR of more than 3 seconds and toxic line
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34  Patient history and signalment  Physical exam  Rectal palpation  Naso-gastric intubation  Ultrasonography  Radiology  CBC, biochemistry  Exploratory surgery 
  35. 35. 35  Patient history and signalment  Physical exam  Rectal palpation  Naso-gastric intubation  Ultrasonography  Radiology  CBC, biochemistry  Exploratory surgery 
  36. 36. 36  All four quadrants of the abdomen should be  examined for at least 1 minute at each site.  Continuous, loud borborygmi→ intestinal hypermotility  Absence of sounds→ ileus
  37. 37. 'pinging‘ sound → the tightly gas-distended bowel near body wall 37
  38. 38. 38 Normal anatomy
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 42  All four quadrants of the abdomen should be  examined for at least 1 minute at each site.  Continuous, loud borborygmi→ intestinal hypermotility  Absence of sounds→ ileus
  43. 43. 43  The structure is often compressible, akin to  squeezing a fluid-filled tubular balloon, and slightly moveable. is suggestive of a small-intestinal obstructive lesion or anterior enteritis
  44. 44. 44  Gas and fluid distension of the large colon is evident as large (> 20 cm) taut structures often extending into pelvic canal. Tenial bands are often not palpable.  Impaction is evident as columns of firm ingesta. The most common site is the pelvic flexure
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48 1-Ultrasonography 2-radiology 3-Course of the disease Spasmodic and gas colic: usually resolves within hours of onset. Horses with strangulating lesions have severe clinical signs and usually die within 24 hours of the onset of signs. Horses with non strangulating obstructive lesions : have longer courses, often 48 hours to 1 week
  49. 49. 49  Hematocrit and plasma total protein  blood leukocyte:  Combination of leukopenia and a left shift are consistent with the endotoxemia  Hyperkalemia → in horses with severe acidosis
  50. 50. 50 Hypokalemia → in horses with more long- standing colic  Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia →severe colic  (GGT)→its activity is elevated in 50% of horses with right dorsal displacement of the colon (compression of bile duct).
  51. 51. 51 Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine Prerenal azotemia is common in horses Acid-base status: Most horses with severe colic have metabolic acidosis
  52. 52. 52  Abdominocentesis  The presence of intracellular bacteria, plant material and degenerate neutrophils is indicative of Gastrointestinal rupture
  53. 53. 53  Arterial systolic blood pressure →90 mmHg (12 kPa) having a 50% chance  below 80 mmHg→ fewer than 20%  Capillary refill time: 3 seconds or more→30%  HR: 8O/min →50% chance of survival  50/min → has a 90% chance
  54. 54. 54  The nature of the necropsy findings depends on the underlying disease
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 57 1-Provision of analgesia 2-Correction of fluid, electrolyte and Acid- base abnormalities 3- Gastrointestinal lubrication or administration of fecal softeners 4-Treatment of underlying disease
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59  A suitable regimen includes anaminoglycoside and a penicillin, possibly with metronidazole
  60. 60. 60  Preferably a balanced,  isotonic, polyionic  Fluid such as lactated  Ringer's solution.
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63  adequate parasite control  Feeding large quantities of forage  minimizing the amount of concentrate fed  providing dental care

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