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حياة آينشتاين وعالمه

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حياة آينشتاين وعالمه

  1. 1. ?r. .-AL Y +MI ISBN 978 977 6263 40 6 @ +I3 +i;U &3aU3 , A L L ! 3 4 1 (;J>- G i r , ali &,A) Arabic Language Translation Copyright O 2010 by Kalima and Kalimat Arabia O 2007 by Walter Isaacson All Rights Reserved.
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  3. 3. 0 T r o t o 0 0 0 0 7 T o v v 7 7 Y Sources ,Notes Illustration Credits
  4. 4. &I+ ,&JI,&I - Diana Kormos Buchwald dl&, Y44J&Ijha ai-,i & 5 s a w dbfg b s ~ j & l +k+Jw!I b - &(;,Lyjf &IS iJe3!;I,JFJI Q di J! Gby4 ~ A C L U ~'aladl ;o + d l I;JI 335 .Y. - 7 +jLL .-.-:.A JI :++I s3; J! .. - ;&I t3+ J! SL, C ~ lI L ~b3LI&ijl13 +I;$, ,+,Xi + .L-JJqilill I;&K +U Cg- Einstein Papers Project .& - # jKLa 9 3 '*%ICJ z3J3 J - 4 .5++1 A&YI & ~ S Y I &i~i~k,!.. j&4c +~ Y L;o$ jK3 jkb; elJGi .+All irUl J + LLiivj + Jl +dl a w l js LA .Ij&!l- 4 1 +> & elJ3 .@I&I ALL +WI Tilman Sauer 2F JWI ++ >d;up LWI+ i l l ~ Y J Lria U l .. 4, - &L& *,l;ll ,&I - Ze'ev Rosenkranz j i l f i ~ , +j ?G3 4g jiI%j3j +j3b L S ~ ~ ~- - d,,! b e 3 b e &-i J~ +E .YAlq +$I k a g 4 +,l;ll &(;,Lyji a+J $WI +Ll L W L. . a-I b b ;)t UWI ril+dl Barbara Wolff Lkl- 12,& - azfg b & w > b & 4 $uG'L UE 63 9 5YM4 &- &I > j;,L G3 bLd-3 5 4 Cjy *J a- G~~t . ~I&!J ~ i 9.LB;+~ JI a ~ d ~ajliio~LLL- j- 4.. .JLA +I Rani Grosz >'J.,4ALL The +L;S dG3b d & &I+ j 4 9 l Brian Greene j4,! &!S- . 5 + s a I 4 ~p+Gi f 4 ; c L;LP 1 13-3 Fabric of the Cosmos u b +I + ,+L 93 .+WI UI i33.+MI J ~ Iiib +fg
  5. 5. Case Western L&~L+ill- - i d -Lawrence Krauss irsl$ +lJJ 12 $1 rlj?'ll elJ3'23- L&f - Hiding in the Mirror ,liS d+3Reserve aLlg.dl & +dl,G3 ';@I e3LWI LAl,-. L W 1 LA-. J3LX . r ~ 4- - &, ,L L&i+J ; K ~ , ~ + L IG L Y + ~.- Craig u;!& =$9&.LA% & b 1 3 Z i L ' d l J- i)ugl$ j a L G3 &h+I9 cl*y e -1 G3 r&&ll $A eJJ;! e% sill J. Copi . U l & + 1 i r l J jip.lib 'i.l+LJlg L&f - J,-- LL.. cL+ilI- - ilivi -Douglas Stone ;gu elJ G3 Condensed U1&3U1~ 6 2Q ak&l-19 & &'13 ',WI J +&I &JUI G3 'PI J &I iL&! ;c l&p GliS d>&I Matter Physics d3L $I J d l L W J - Ul cl>'lI +I9 t;b J! - j a L j3s &ti+! a g ~ ~ s'PIq~~~ q . 0,L + P+I am + .X&I L&13 'Einstein-Bose Statistics c & S l Q JJ$ ;ij;bJL &W -Murray Gell-Mann ;L-3_Lt gJ40;K j a L G.i '&b eg_f;i.tl $I+ & U 3 GIJ I;;19 - q,q ?If L L o 3- - Ludl-. JsLX $1 J+l -3 ~ p 3rJ$l 3 ! 3 4 ! +Iy 4 i+ JL &LI+Id 3 ~$1 c~>9~GIA- J a~~'PI ;il.Lyb t.1 esJs esllp'dl ;i.L,& e k( e L l g .,&I1 II=;L- Q- &I .LC+ &A +I & & ;i 1 a U L L&,&I Us&& J- s>- i ~ i'Arthw I. Miller gi jJi 3LL ip i3'Empire of the Stars3 Picasso3 Einstein qiS d> ';d U L-. JaL- kci,- L L ;+aak19 J aL3L+!dl J+I LIP- ijelg .PI&+3 LWI ~ l g(!aJ @ d i $I) LWI- P L ~ I- - i ~ !- SylvesterJames Gates Jr. &'dl + j;&U $19 j.p;+ Jd J! .4 L.;. &.I>JL - LL.. alwl- L L r X i l l a U L $2 Lh e b i . - - sstls"2 - .u1
  6. 6. jlS;l L I ~ J9 & L j & ;KI bk! +Gill -.- &I2 4 &+&Lo +U & JiirgenRenn &j ej2h3:G&& &L+i . L M Lb & Michel Janssen ;rclYjb &+3 sp-5 d - George Stranahan j&I- ,?j-+I3 .I+~I 4 ;,+;K> 6 b I p 3 SJ& S C I ~C ~ L&i - .&MI +I &jL3 .+l_q+ll SpJ(gce+l SMb.. L W I Ll+ ?+I U iLi- Robert Rynasiewicz &5+JLja2>, .IJ3 41;,a- I;G~ Z+3 +I J+I & +&I - ~9 3;* .LUI U I-. ;i?wl =L_)-L61.. - j l i - N. David Merrnin &* -3 &.a! It's About Time: Understanding Einstein's ?IS Jh3J&& L l , J! &L~$=Iul;YI L d j W I &I & a$& - Relativity . 0 A+ SI& h i ;y3& &UI &u3*MI MI bi9 - aJLij18 L&E@I! jLi - Gerald Holton ;+I9 dlp-. 3 3 ~ ( gWILL- A.. A s3‘9 ,JI, &., JI> y3 L l j ~g J ~ J I ~15,.I% d -.*- - t . a-3 'GLSL. tl&3 &IS 6elJ IZl&l Llic J b Q $ill tG ,ill Dudley Herschbach JJIJ J,L,L Q +j r c s .j J - JL i- LULL ~ $ 9 ~i~.L+I ~9?+I ejs e3aLI$YI +!J;+I9 +a 3 ?k3I S& 4 fiiihL +&- .*ju! S- *> Ll+ q3d! ;@b ?+I jLi - Ashton Carter sJK -i 19 Fritz ;$A j j j ?3iig .+3 JgY! sl~&! & 6bI3 I ~ & A- ~jLj18 U l - Einstein's German World ,IS - &d& Lk Stern bi Robert Schulmann ;U+ s~~~&4 ?li3.J331 .ii.#I3 Jeremy &GeLPie&LJ .&&i(f&irg- jJib31 +- ~b& - &b+i ;,;iL;l,ell +I & +&I t;S Gill- Bernstein-k .&i~ i lLi3 .L ;K= .+I .I+~I
  7. 7. j;k3i%4 GL*- - L L Nancy Stravinsky Isaacson ;&I>! M l j L.. e2JJ+J k3'JAG HurricaneKatrina LJJK .Lac! GI+,+ G3 'University of Chicago Lab School LJ&- t L 9- l2.L David Derbes .LSJWI- hJWI J! Z4.a93 1& G O LPB;U;YL&!A >I alJl JS j K L.~A &I A+ L;ill &ill f+.l +-. LILA,,- .Lb j j ~ (ji3.GLkjVl JLirr Jfbj ;+ 'L, ,ljS Lgli el2 . G k 9 l ~ G.+ ?+I Q +-JJl J?i + GIJI +J ~ J j K ;~s,' L J ~ IG~j+i+& & ,,& + +i &la3-- 'Orville Wright a!,- &iJ3b- 'William Mayer :GY&~ ;r,+ Strobe 34.113 ,3jig'Steve Weisman ;L>U +L3'Daniel Okrent &53f .Talbott LJ+Alice Mayhew *LO SJ- &K &&.c3 L.&Jl& - Amanda j&*!l c ~ j ~ o fJ k f- ;iLSa &lSg 'Simon & Schuster jL&3(j44w ;r h i;;K J,.L.+ &&I ;r4$ J-i ,$d'lJ 'ICM j Urban G+J d S K &I fib .J c9 +WI (jc W L L &K3 iCiYL;_ dL 'Roger Labrie d2Y eS3'David Rosenthal Jll;j3jA+J~ 'Carolyn Reidy- jje LJp3 'Elizabeth Hayes &A 'Victoria Meyer 2 L o bJfi3 s" Judith Hoover 99 +~*3 'Mara Lurie GJ IJb'Serena Jones- $LA& ?Sib .j;,G3 L h Dana Sloan ;JLY b!J3 'Jackie Seow 9 JI Patricia Zindulka QcLjj l 4 ~ 3 4 ~Elliot Ravetz 31,a& - .a!+ Jl& &I+ J1+ James &9 -3 -. Natasha Hoffmeyer 2Li.a UbL J -3 Jiig- 21a + d l SJUILL, . i t j ~ S l ~iill~+ a4w3~ L I * Hoppes Jay &.JS - ?U Jii3 .pd3~ J & Y j;, -3 Jii jSj+ AJGI* - eb J.YJ &I+$$ 13- ;!A - Colton *+' WI Ije jF (jc @I Q @I+!- -jJl
  8. 8. jy* +I pi G3.jfii L& '$1 . l l ~ ~ ~ J e $ &.. .Julanne JS a!$ $1 Cathy $K +3j +J ;ys +i j K ;JI ~$91ZJWI - - .-.L/ &JW! -3 6 & 4 -3 !4L3s d u l b**v .. 21m~L,K~ '$M +Z ~ L =~+iQJU =,isJI Betsy &I- .. - .. .+ a;;,l,niLL. @ C I ~+I+ LA+ b ~ iaJ-i
  9. 9. &L+i&- :(1q oO- AvT) Michele Angelo Besso -...wi... & S L.... .. 'tJ3j3 .. J~li. '$;;I!J! +4 GI+ j K r&l eIS L U I U I... +& a J G 9 d& &c3 6&etIjr;Yl a ! ~ ! ~+A Q- .J;YI &A 'Anna winteler S;i Idp c3s . 4 0 a d-. +&K c j l l f j L 9.. - :( qV*-AAY) Max Born &LO - &t&+itwl J>L 'GLC*,,I +> 4+ a ~ ~ 9&w+i. . &MI++4 &LA+! &,,L.; Hedwig &+a +>j &IS3 '+I IS.$& . U I 4ul,,b'ZiJl &IL&,L~.. Br;&- :(qhY-Aq7) Helen Dukas W K ~ J&I+ .dL?iJdl;;I ipL Bj y,cJb3.&lid 4 Y h ?LC LA4+iJ9 'Wl &L2 +LC :( q L 5-1 AAY) Arthur StanleyEddington&l+~!$Uvl $J 4 4 ,LC A I d& ~ A J&IS U I-. +lLLL(S W I cL_.),t411Q- .&jWl ,J+ c&I c L 1 ,,I& JP (j?L+i JL,d&1 -L"Oj j L 9.. - :( q W - Ah *) Paul Ehrenfest d.. J3?- yL ' 4 ~?LC g J b j & &L+i 'udl t+>tl&l + .-&w+i+A+ &IS +'Leiden ;+.I Q I L L !
  10. 10. 9 +-% ,+WI e33,&L.+i p &I :( 9Y7- A V ~ )Elsa Einstein &-i h J 1 Max JLZJ &L. &I 2G j.J ~ Ib b j j.Ilse Margot $ !eb$l 3t;j awl ,I J!bl+b adlc 9 h ?lc 4 @a+3 ,Lowenthal - &Idjiij~~ g ; i l - b l i j + & ~ ,1414 tis;yt+&-333L&' - .&S LM GAL- - &ill &YI :( IVY- 9 + t) Hanz Albert Einstein &139;r?i ~ $ 1jib + g L ~ IC Y J J ~ .& -blr; ,3d s.s ,&l;=;ri3 l+L .9YV ?lc (?oh-h40) Frieda Knecht ;Sj$ I++ cgdjs ~ t j ~ '&L &;rb ('I'A-qYY) Klaus UY3S3(-4Y.) Bernard djL2 LM &d3 jE"b ,9Yh ?lc f d l aI+YJl J! ;ib >L .(-'If) Evelyn &+! j.c3j; d l + > fh3 +3 .seL+ i&3j&l ~i.gll~ S l i i+ ~ g i l ~ r@ G dJLd3 . 90 4 ?lr( 440- 9 .L ) Elizabeth Roboz j23j ,&t+i ~ 4 9&>+I G~++JI ALYI C C +i j. ,I :( 9 T- AN) Hermann Einstein &%i + p a di, ~tjgp3 r L 4 i K > +64b+L +.,IJ urkJi p .WL&KG &3 'WLL! Q 'J3vl b19; ;.&l;;;;f L J ! :( 4 Y f -1 A ~ V )Ilse Einstein &lG+f j l ! ,George Nicolai GY& c j e &+ >LL 4 +I$ GAG@ i j K G~~ '~udolphKayscrr J~~ duJ &+ ,,i p-- p 9Y L ,A -3;s Anton dl, & L f +. l;LiiLILQ G I L~AL- & - & ~ u - ~ + d i .Keiser G3&l;=;ri .. +I :(3- 9 Y) Lieserl Einstein &~ir;iui- JJLUJ. . - L I J ~~gl;l I - ~ .~&ib2 $ &wi_ 0-ieJY13 t b 1 9 j 3t;j
  11. 11. Z L i G :(40-AA) Maria "Maja" in stein +Lo)) kJLo- - +i$J'Paul Winteler &A & +>5 'QJ! &$I ;y0 :&Is c 8 ~ , J J l . b f p &ail ~ 4 i j . l ~JJ1 l+lLLl &A IAJ& &I 9 Y A 'JLbk! & +I &L+i :( 4 Y - A0A) Pauline Koch Einstein &L&i t$ ;tJp- . 'Wiirttemberg c++ ;r.U&l Q *l;J GJN- &L h3;Ijl d3'SJI~>I&$- - . AVI ?L &+I GL- *35 ,i .&i + :( 4 04- A m ) Abraham Flexner JLSA4 CL%191 .C &l;z;li.li;h .;n;,r;u* jInstitute of Advanced Study LJiiill LlJI -.e w &- Lhl; G ~ ~ L I L P ~j L >- - :(477-AAf) Philipp Frank &I> d.--.. .drGM u? lqti +is3 +u91 -WI j&l;t;~i A ++A LI~J&j :( 4Y7- AV7) Marcel Grossmann (jkLu9* JLujLo c& Li+Y a L L J I- - al+L +& ;K ,ZurichPolytechnic iJ9>.. . 41@I L@ itik3'~IGYI ar12 4 +i3 ~rJ+I jdj" ~YLUS .LMI UI... ++ +&I A G ~ J I ~1 &u+i ;,i c a , p t ~j I I I u 'I+& :( 4 Y f -A7A) Fritz Haber *L%. r ' - 4;>;h3-. L-.lusp;??2 j &u+iJ+.l jYL cU3&~ g LWI ;K> .WL Gui &ZJ>L j+I J! J+ @dset g3' A ~ L . I+, .UI ; ~ ? ~ L I I ;l J! L U ~ I &wj- ~ L ~ Y IJLL. ++i- L
  12. 12. ;.&Ia jlti j L >- - :( 9V7- 9 ) Werner Heisenberg c&&+&.. $9-" .+A= sl- -I+ -';elJL C i ~ ~&I- .. i+,+ l~jbdhJ f,j?L; .SU &L., :( 4 L Y - A ~ Y )David Hilbert 5- +J .Law1 +&JI JldLrll dWI 'j 9 0: p ;uk $493 &LJ :( 4 m - 4 7) Banesh Hoffmann 5 L d ~a 4 .4ic L;U I+ 4 3 ;4t;r* 'j &l;;;ri $Ljri :( 4YA-AoY) Hendrik Antoon Lorentz jZj4 (j4hji &A& kU;ll" a ;ir!@ &+I &&& a* 63 L G W l zJ3-4 .&+Y GlI dj+ p/&' L U I &pi+LC :( 4 O r - A M ) Robert Andrews Milikan &L&a jJJ&i ~ ~ 3 .. IJL~ ;+ bJlj;lg i ; y ~ ~$3d3fi $91 ;+iu ir;i-+ill C L ~ I- - j- ..WK j- I3lj L>OJ+ ;IS :( 4 *4- A7 t) Hermann Minkowski &ui$Ly Gbfi.... .((w4. +;IS3 itJ9?>@I 4 1 - - ;@&A1 .+i iu,t yj ;Lj e ~ !JC LWI u... iL*phJ+&I s3
  13. 13. . 4 0 ++.u - tx.- &t+i 4 crL JJdl C;d9,JL :(ye - 4 A) Abraham Pais *@ ?&I>! .GC +S* +S3';w24 d-3 &aj ?i .&+I G&>I S ~ S Ij&-&Lw ~~2 $L :(4fV-AoA) Max Planck .+Lo. GL); +G3 g +G ,&&LO&&6r lj40 GIJ;IS '&Jail1 bj- .. a '&1;.';;i;rO +I & - FLSJS SUI - UUI . u l & j x j u l JS;..! ;i 31-3 &3 ,Lai ,JL :(41-AAV) Envin Schrodinger +J& Nd!- & d l-. g- - dJk 4jy (S_;LS-YI- - jlgJ & +MI F k ~ lg- . b ~ iJ= 21AWJS&I- - ts z~;il~ g &,L3JLdi dLL :(1 4 0A- AVO) Maurice Solovine &t+g @AIj w ! ?i, '&b3 & ~ i( ( ~ ~ i++~i,)-1 .j2 .+I C ; b 4LYl_ta3 *La 'JdI w3J jm- - :( 4OY- h V f ) Chaim Weizmann ;rLoj+G yL..- ~4'IT ? h $&I wJE"& I s ! J!- - eL ;K .aL+ll& &dJ ,$.< 'Sso Jg61 + ~ fJ! .&wi- - & 41IL pJ;~4ic3 dJj3i&j;lu 4 r(LL 93 +&ILL+! j K :TheWinteler Family U L s 3 I S I I I -JLQ1 pj+J+ iux j K .Ifle- $ .&&U- - Jal + d l ;.-:.-I $1 -L +I &(yi ipl,.$I IjsJ - -
  14. 14. c h 9 I &U3 $c i ~ i:( qoV-Avf) Heinrich Zaogger p i l j &&b L+LG i) ~ $ 1 4UL> ;;;iJ4&L+Y 8- 6 4 'tJ%j~k .'49J53
  15. 15. prince m yshkin
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  17. 17. hUbJI&l ?+ I- 'djc j L L j S b& 3 +iJJC I&> G+ j K 'dJll ub ;re> Jb;,&$A b j +.!%I ijK3 '+I . & J L 4jd ,j F& 5- 9 hJb &j bg+ '&&I ?j& 1;- !+I +- - JLS '4-~LLJI dP L- ,j J ~ Itsi j ~ A,A ~ I+* +&I ~ikl+z .+SI+LYI +i4ji + +I ,dU I.& 6.~.Jl a3Ul b+js$-lU I 31 AIYI d3Jl &IJ 4in ,ai& b & L$wlg$l CCf J ~ c Y ~&g ~ L I I . L ~ '+k ;K .+wl +I& S Y J L el2&a 4L;. ;i J1) .el+ .+d4ioglhq) 9k ;=3 'g* M+J ' ~ U U I- JL41j@MI+ +I J ~ ipi +L +G> 4jlJLaijl ;O ;$ 3 3 9 + - Uj Log .jflI ~dJ! sL$+II & G I + +AL54~bJ9Y ? ~ i+L :&u+i,dlc ,j - +I L FJIJc 'Q4; JL &AX dl &i& ; i i i t i j J l o ~ 3 ~ ~ J i 3 .++;r. $*3&l b u u ! * d l 4 1 r=~kd& & G k +3 a L 4 I bI+T +.3 ~Lkbll +I3 $+I1 cb4)Y13+>dlGLkJ13J$l13 FranklinRoosevelt iJ.ijsJ @I> Jj GLk; p3siig .Lib& J! +e$ ;i;iWL U l ~ J Lcb3p 4 3 AJj L@ +kjL! ;O I;L .css4JI.l+YI ++Ul +I41 & +LJ- L&c~iihjiJj iCUb d d G ~ l+pi21- S ~ y ~L& +lc JL&u+i&I bi. &Is3 !G&I G L IJL +iWI &Cfth GA js GI+! 9 9 ?lc/I r L jL& ?i z .S&I ;.++ ++I+ -3 -I3 -p i i ~ I & ,UI ,li,.+~sy~+~c biYG .&LL!1sJ3.+I ~+JJ Jlj24 ;I$ '+*I +* J! b r j J 3 'Ob& ,+d l:k . & d l &ibjl+iWI j@l ILL3' 4 1 ;O i$WI dwl & 4j $ + ;)b &u, &L +.+jK - +& &+ - ++I '?+I +j j K
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  27. 27. 1sd.i;sy~ a+ JL $141.1p dig+I p s& C I I I ~b;iqJJ83 + u ! L'U &pa $IY3 4&d .((&I A? L& )) : g J k L,p& LJ + d l 3 4 1 J! a & M I b k ~ + 3G3 'L+G d j ~Y &dl ."Ripley's Believe It or Not'" &I -5u bk& '&*I &tiJu1p IF eJw?a a+ ;! Lii~7:Qcj.+A2Q ~ 3 % ?ILL+ YO ,L p;, !&pa &&I3 & dl- '((LLLJI j ,;ct"kJl +in :;I& Riple) &J+ p- - - GWI +I- aisd' a + k ~ ~4 -Ji $)):L 3 ~ d&ti+i 2P((.s+ L ~ I,+i;i & & u l g 4;liul L j d l J3 '+&dl Glill + $YI JL $Lk j K 61$Id1 &1;.4;iJ.- wL~,, :&w~j ;K ~s;,dhi&tid' d iJL J ~ Y I;K L~;UI+ib& ;K ++WI j3,.G+igy J$ +3 .b' 4 ; ~ t ~ ~JL &I) u 1 'Lhdl &Jl && & ;i,rjLg?.llg ;tiiiSUI JL & ~ i;K SI~AIb~ 4 +;y ,((f14~3&w4 ; j j '@I 63% &i+&+i ;K Lo- &I+ rskjJ11 JL '&+WI &,dl Q &dl ,+dl ,L! Jp w-dlie ;jK3 ".@ ;K $1 akJ.d! t k J ! & & +u& & d 1 ~ 1LJd ;IW GK ' ~ 1s L &t+i ;K ' s + ~ I j3 J-lCjtP JAIL +d ;K)) is+ +Wl @ L- GIG.+L - $Xi3 N$& L J d l ++ ;i ;K cj! s2 '~~~.+Lll? U I $c ,jg a l &U ;.Y- .GG, +I .IJ~I~41-1 s3'41~i-41L+ e3I&, i3p41 ;PBI~I&+i ++3 .-I - - ;i;k21JYL L+L *I t+J :a::,: .-; J ~ G ~C+ 4 ;i &i J S L 4 ',+-i+I iq ;, 3 L+.,;iLPLO Lki a~++ As'413bJ3 41 ;K)) 3 1CC.~++ 14 JL 41icLg?blg +d~)):d jti3.&I 41p~ J! &u-i @+I u el;~i (@) pJL h+$1 pJi'b3Jlk; *dl ;&I i+l+ Y Ls;, '(+a
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  29. 29. b~smi;& ALALJI- - +I+ AXLI jJ-YI & &eiJ+ SL &l;;;ii- LL- ~i G, .;wkwb3 j+kju;i J+ LGIjGlJ31 ; ~ I;bL K ) ):&ti j1gYL 4 i ~LA+ ;Kg ' ( t L t u d l +I L - I +K))-I+ Y ;pa,-. ~ v lA $1 . a ~ buj ALLGJ ,+lb; JL, .L+ JIJ c + ~ ~IL LJs, . j y h y ~~r&I, irvl bie4 .&I p +L++ a+& j,I+ ;.,..AWL a 41-. f+dY I$ 4 $ &I, di +u .&I+ jLL L t u ~ !J+ + 1110:&&iJU LA-. . 39((.& 1- +,JJY+ $1 JjUl & uyhh jlS J5 S&3p.b ;I5 L ;Ly ;Y ,+l+lI jGSLt+Y? 3p.b ;Kg rtyY1 J% LqL Q 69 G ;IS - 4 1 LA - 5 4 iiyi +)) J+, .+bi+&3 s &I L ;ICY, ... L d I A&&~_JIL I j J 6s&i& +WI &a %.+~i;i +i +LLJI- L*- . ;r JL, iu~+& &&ityh! J! &I +I +ILJ+ 1% Jl> .laid1dl1j;K oi e43 .Kant kiI5 +dl dp,Gbll J iztj),:A1 41 Y $1 - k ; ~j ~ i;i ,s-;, .b* p ii+ WWI j4~.. ;.iiyi w1A+I k ; ~?i ((-4&I, ;;rs - ; 2 3 ~ ~ -3 JL!jd l J! 9Y1 A Critique of Pure Reason +K 63L3 'pill &i+& L &&Q #Ig .Ernst Mach eL d 3 L 3 David Hume i.+ .&I;r +MI j.j&JI i F 3 ~ +I p+ LYi G, I j.J J J & JZ++ ;I &+ill p ;IS &dl aZJI j'ii+ L b +I 6. jI ee & E p-.;IS .(LA&!.. - ZLJI- j- s+ WWI +) &dl- - Ljill &, : a 9 ~ 1 . jJL G3 I & J ~+I + L G I ~ I& J&dl + - t;p + L+ - ;@I ~ia;& +I ~5 ;I+, Q +I ~ 4 1Q IJ -L! & JLis ;b .+& 9 & .JI.&JI ;.J& 6 + ~&
  30. 30. +k3 UI+YI L ~ J I j- &I- 15jl ijl~: ~ l i j ~.&I .I!>& +jb ++ $ jpjL +k3 kLYJd.1 - &Ig- t@l- - J- J1jdI ~4%6G3 ((.@I ;! C. P. Snow gj ,!(r >Lk/JJl p W b +lvl &l;;;li JLS~ alj >i J b y l L ~ L jfg 4;& c 9 ; ~ ~+I& L+~Y1 Zwang a ~ i ) ~ );K +I+! J ~ &?lij GI&+i +kL .dl& ;r 41L3 .b~sy~3i? u y l dj j,&;.A;tpsL, +dQ S d l I& 3cL ii3'eP dL3& J Zcvang - I ~ . + J I $ jk 6 ~ bJ- S- - L, SAW 3 ~ h ~ gd 3 1L A ~ L ~~1 ?i ,,IT 9;FkLYJL-31 ;&';dl ;!)) : 4 ' pk+YI kl* b e ,&d+u& 3 5 ( . w 1C~3 >i ~~9-3 6 ~ iG I ~- d+ L 21WI ~bJI+> G~+&i & p~yj 4 -41 I& SL- uu L+ ~ g l4 i b J ~C ~ J &I ‘1-52 ;!)) :s&I GI+ J- &1;.4;ih3L+;K csdl ;kip &LL- . Jlij & ; K W ‘ ~ L j i ~j ~ - k i i ~ ~ ~ f l ; i p- csd l - U I '&IJ & a& GdL u I G LS;)!L $ l & g-1 4j9+ g((.6ks1+3- S& &slda!, d; ~ idd +i3.L~JLL ju91+&, J! p 4kw J~~~ IL ,I LA, .WIg +++9+w d:u 4;lij3 ;i hJb 413 & m .p+ I& :+I dj 'UL, +i+ci2+ ~i "((-3W l el;il lib ddes 3-3 6-3 +Y1 _ ) b y eJdp LJ -, J? - rtJ3J! &l;.~;;~i539; x+ &K .ILj~~~;K~ 'ii ~i-. s3& LJ+I LA - 41 e~ d3 +wi- - ujd +JG. G.L & u i jkd ELJgi~ $ 3 3.ApLliL Lg, jll A h 0 GL@I +s; ~ j l iLIWI U l a1+1 JG.3 - . Oktoberfest - AYI S+ L & L d3c & &+a @I* p +LA &3 -*I$ zA5i.l
  31. 31. sF 'LZ &J a+ 4 g UI 41>I IL & ' ? ~ iJI+ YUI 5 1((.,a3a!j I> & pG JLs, 491 Jkg- G L ~- ;)?I+;lS ' J U I.. 14- d+l + I.;L I?$ LI.I+19 - - d L 4 3 Z g l t J! @L p LJi)p a13 $S3L+!i41 & iL] 9 L L d 3 L ~ L J ILSJJ&Jb JJI 9L_rz ;K 'I+ILL! JL& d'>L ;U91 &qIn ,y+iL &LLyI ((ZLk,,ZGK ~i'>UYI +I L p + (,.?~,~i;+I &I & SUYI +i + ab, 66 GYi &, G &I+i;K J+ Je +X ~ ~ 3 1d d ''Zurich Polytechnic d l fJ9?j+9 '+ - 32, 6 & 1 d l 3 1 3 ~ fjgJg c&>I ZWI Jules i ' i o l l e J P ~ 4 +,, :J$, & +G a&! J.dl g GIJL;i u g 6lJ,i, ud,'+;91 J! LA+ k- ;K a+ L-- " jJ.K J+ 4 3 ysJlt1JIJj i--.& &yL+53- e.3 'i+a h ;K 41- p iIF91 p ~ J W Iz,,,Il ;i GJd. d S . l& i:! 5 ((.&A ;I p c L 9 l g dL d - L J W I+4 9, - L l d 3 4-.. " ;Y L& t4.;.4l ;K3 '((&Li- JL- J- $91 dL +n :;I+ pic +@I di g F ~ W I;K . U l a 4 3 g &Lf 15,. +didF $91 a& +++ ;i + 9 ;&IGi l+>1 dd, L ~oipdl +sJl 'awl,LiX 1a44dJ A$ jlSm & 4 G9 Z J L Jr JL 1&b '-1 ah41d+A, &h, &Y z+.+ & CUI;f L.~L 3 k(dJl d 3 3 &I &) &L&i ;K3 '$41 ,-I ~ J U Ia L + G+ -1 $Y1 4 &&I JL;II ;!n :dL2 c k G i '&&I ((.+Jll X p l l .j4,-1+,+& + 4 ?Gd3c E i d g n o ~ ~ i ~ ~ h ePolytechnische Schule 9 4-JI yVl ;K' ,k3.l-dfl y e d l ijl,$l 41giEidgeniissischc Technische IIochschule J! yYI egol,+lll .>I t,*j -s .Zuricher Polytechnikum JU Gg@I dj4 >+i 4fG $.hig .ETH Jig1 cjg&L GL]!
  32. 32. l*&i. &iJ~ GUI ~411))ji ri . ui - c~ +I awl .im 4 $ 9 1L~~&&I ~ 9 ) )I- j& I~B&i L ( ( c r ! ~J~ (Lcr;'&I _)@L W I U I... JL i+cW! U * &y iLljGl L+ ?+ GK06 kip++WI 4irIjd $ ,ill + J U l &i;cl LjYIl 314.1 u M t c i K U)):djs 4 3 ,J& ;;?IJ! ;i j3jLii I& I~+G ri F ~ ~ L.JLIIJ, p -i kJ3J! ~+JI +J ;*Y~LI '3cc.+l JL LSLc 4;iJL J I>L ;K 'Caesar Koch ~6 dL J! +I &f-. - I>& ;;?L+f &+I3 rJUL. ELI- D L L ~ ~;Kg ,&I +Jljiip 1L133 +LL ;O p+ 9 LS 'Lo L;+ ;itlU13 c j U L +e l :el+lL .&I tjzj JLIl + d l J- J d l- ;K &LC, ;i &Li3.(,&.. +A ic;;.? pij6i ;i L v ~ ~U-(I p -1 4ir jtl kiGK GJ ''((.&YI + @ . 1 2 h J ! k ; ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ I ; i t i i C J L + l Q d i ~ ~ t U jc @ ,ill ,dl AJ p ? U I Lii ,A-I;Y~~'rLZLl4in ; k I G-1.6&%A! p- iiidj y g L~?9C$I& M IJhkll))IiB J$ a- l>LL)) A 4 0 Jirl & ~ / ~ g i l i4 tJ2jJ!+I J U l *I3 'J+JI cl. b j ? d ';Lbl J &I3 i.FkJ4 L W l r+A!l jk&/&dl & 1ka3 ;!&I +3 ++!I hilllg +Jrl G w i +S ?WI +I ;P ruJGJ Heinrich 4 414J3~kj+ll j ~ iC>13 c L & - d 3 ilfill $c3 d &+ +Jui l + u I A 3 t ~ * j4 & ;f Weber J LJ+ ;iL & ;i - + d l 2~ ;i-:i JL PI+ - J~ - - ".+A &A &&3 21gjl $3 & + U ~ l k l j i e J l i i ) l j K i i i L & ~ Y k L J L L- .. d l &K JohannHeinrich &JL;w &+A;Lbz 9+C @I ;A1 &13i 4 ,,,&i p& ;Kg Lid! & JL U r n ! & p& j K &I! Pestahzzi
  33. 33. b+ p&>13 A+&JI +I$ +Li*I p j~~i 6 . b ~ ~- ~ 4 ~ .tWl S W l J3i3 ' j l & u Y I++g e 5K3 '41+G3+&I +I ; I K : J i - -7 +GI;K~ '+I j 3 4 1+ -I 47 G ~ IJ+- L~JI 4 5 3 ' 5 9 gi* 3; j~;!J+ 'UI jpj p >j 4;j JL j3& bs G~~?u91+ &I sJF di ;K a((.+s;L LL ++l:; ~ u > l ~ oj 41;i=ulJd1 S I ~ L1.;,~iLO-)) :- . - & ~- jb3 ;itl+dlg d d l GF & +.I j+ G~ c + ~dj3i '++ ijui 57((.GjL&!1 u l ,& cSj.! & -1 b.-? bpkp3 +di - -31 - ) d ~-I ?i 9+141)):cSji91+ 4Ji3.&+i +& j & +I+-J4 ,+ - . -.L=,YI3r, +I1 4A.S- - +I LGAIl3- - ; i Y L Q s-Jl L J I iXK.&w~i?;Jl j hilllg ?L;Y >i;I b33 e3 +@I $ 4 4 L,dl dk j eLh; &A &&i ,I L h J j l & Y (nag J 3 L esb- J &c +i jJ4 ;i & a u k dF $1 .+&I j),:- . u- 4 ~ - I ~9 jb3 ' G ~ Ik iSIL+ +I 67 J A- L J+ j l$b IS^ $41b b ajh'&&!I J L dj?J4i J3& 3j7 . G ~ IL? ++ kp++ ; i t ~ k i ~ lU ;I& .-MI UI-. 5g~(.~t;-.pi+4 lira3 .+$I ;C GW 6ep?uij 5 6 4+ L% Gedankenexperiment k W I- - L G I wl+Jl p t4JI lLa -1zL+ J;.l j F ~ L J J+ a+ J1A $+ dF3 ‘;)11. a k j G,l;l & u l g G U IJ k L4hY13 t 3 kx s l aIJLkii1b 341 3.dcYl p &;6LF J! L L j L '+ ;LA & ~653$1 +E .L~u LL+CI>I L~~yp - c& ,jiiY~& - 3~ -I J+igPi i,,&Ij Syi Cm J+;K .3JiJ YJJ~&L+i j K L+ Jost Winteler J+ L I L L U ~dim &K LG 5 9 4?LW- .L~JI>!k;-. - $1 ;K $I Rosa Ij3j43t3j3 '&dl 9- -LL4JI- hilllg ,LjUl -3U L&K - v'
  34. 34. .LL L A l. . &L&i~i ++I L ~ Ib4;+L&t+i41+014fiiu9? ;YI ;K 4_ - -L L J I 4;1L3QG!JCL4 c e C c +3 &$I b L 3 LUYl mir p - ~ - ~- c-u3 .&t+i,J +L+I WI ;La! t,c @ a l ~ J IUI-Yb d l +3 JSJI- ;3Wb LLWl ; t l 1 3 ~ d.. - % 9 3 4'%* & GLL $1 fiLLL+ usdlSLJI JL 4.. . ;i.. J+ gYi G 61-3 d-ii JI% Y ;K GIC4J .mi>I3;LYL tar ;K, :lji91u3.GI- & L Y ~e3WL +;i ~r 4;Yn 'GUI6 s Lg.. 6L-f- $I& ;K3 '((+ jki & &- L-1.. ijK3 c+LJ1 "(c.;i~UlJP ;il;Wl t,& ;K ;l+Y1 +Lg- u"+, - d3h;YO sbl3 JL L+- - ..lip, ~ I L. CIA. &mi.. 3L dpv! +J j K ((.;-,dl + c W I J+ +I+ j K usill.. r+Ill jr G3&i P S I'jK k 3 . 3 ~ )'zJI J! & ;K3 6 - 9 +-3 <;'Jp;+3 'EL+- (<.+A+Cc >I& -J! &+-3 & J4yLll L3- Hans Bjrland l;&4 jib - & I ~ J ~ % jbi 4 L+ Gib ;K)) :J& '- Y 13i43 usdl( ( ~ 4 1&I+)) LA b L& +;K3 6-1 3pvYl Jr ~1~41J! L+AGJLJI -3 &b;t *J--; u tsJ&I - ;+I J$i k?, - ery-ll @yL db.3 '@1+!1 -141 &- - & jib, C$ ,& $ .b9&- & &dl 6$u! L&Ys 'h&a& & 6 E;JU~Id;*.-; ,% && c c . 4 ; k l L ;r J W I 9a- +A g +I b j ~ j48 ,MI & ~ i.. ;<.A-. & 2 L j2i;i l;+ ~ ~ ; 3 i >.. Ljslll +, &K3 ,&Lb A& +MI ts-, +Is G))';I+.Yl & 'I' ((.LklW13331;ll JF JS ; i s +L ~ ~ 1 ~ + i ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 o ~ ~ + l s. . - j;)?~,+i9~- i;c3 .+I 43s... +.+ +lJ3 b d ei 5 ijl13 .I+JI~ L L ~ I
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  36. 36. 4 & c_jL- - .U S LILL A f ~ J J C&lyl+sU, iJ2j+&I +I ;IS S+ +WI s.s $+i . . &IL~;C;+13 G ~ J I c,LWI3 S,,~I+J.ItJ4?j &LObp ck Jiii,- K , A 9 7 JgYl ~j?r' d3)* l J 3 J l c j k J d TLd; CLK 21 <JjL3 A++ Q c5_j61 Eidgenossische p L,,-1 +L&c 9 ?IsQ &l +I LgtllJ-+ ; + ,(~idgcniissischeTechnische Hochschule J! Polytechnische Schule &,,& &* ;K3 +J3 L-1 Q G p 9 LCLt, "K 4 1 LL ,ui p bb J> ++ ,,+ & &. J r k s 1 + 41; K ~ ,(;?&iI~?+LI is+ &MI) ++;$ >+ ~4;9wy1 .&LUG &+ A-l S*& S*> &L,a+ 4 1 4.. - . I&+ 0~ & p l i 1 3 ;K J-C &3 L + h l l + Q +;K3 ' I I P L ~ I ~- - A U ~ J I ~- adl))- &I .id LLL p +,,?Jup + GEP ~9 . . & A3J-.. +@I J ~ J ~ $ I ? , J I & ~ ~ ~ & '.+*&I -1 & J 3 d "$1 ~Liur;- - J @JKI +AS LS+ L&Li i I i + l l rL;rhll- .. CLK .~;i j 5 s J ~ IIL -MI ijs3.sfu ?WI
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  38. 38. a U M U $i@i94... i l + L 3 4t9 & C;li j K in ;o I;+ p3C5JJlJames Clerk hlxxwell djAS J?+L 4+ d l ;i=LoWl ab&l 3&! ..- &Ij a d d 4 &&.A a&& A00 ,k j,d I;&,,:;?-I c L j ;,$7 kJL 4 3 ' c d l & +Ls&I 5B.Lh41;sf&l;li;;UijK3 '&+L ;i=)& Ls*+ LIALI ub j l y 1s3. b s ~ j r ~ i +,Jg j 4 l u... IS LL, &dl &I+ Glgl G3 '$L & ,J&Jl &l;;i;uiSI~J;Iclj! I+ 4 Q I j L S LiK ;ihSA; 11 ~1 &l;;i;uig L ;k a JL $7 . . j ~4 j~9 - - - .. .. a d &!&&!I & $!>g bdlsr3~ll:L!&l-. b 9 j 3 &b c j L ' Z L U l jG6rb cljQ ~ l - l a 3 r e l l i i l l t+I o L ; @dl di3.43 rgdk o ~ + ~ + J + + & - J ~ ~ + & - + + c I ) ji J!& j~ .Herr Professor ctiLgl +I)) ;,$+ Herr Weber ((4... +I))- (JL 4 +.j K L ~ ~ !(JL p?l $7 L K & bj- &h LJLC~- - .- . . Gal+ ,+ J+i +&WI L J d l j+&L j K +I +J &L &J 'PKJI+Li 3 LdLL+i b I& &i s!, :&l;li;;U'd 4 JL3 ,.hiQU&I... d &! : I s... lL19 .- +J ~iJL 2-.- &l;li;;~ia3 IL. j- WI- ip C$ JJL j~ $+.!id1 -1 &j & $ LjA+I+ 9 c & s p!k 9 C'.aLLUI-. +2 +L $91 S ~ + I i ~ iy, a j ~ i dLj-.hll- - . . ,&I! ,+ &d 'Z+LdI ,&I1 & 9- ;K Jean Pernet jpi L~~ L ~ J I$1 &9 <gb13 +JJ 4i2 +i ++A - . L L b &e,,Jj 4 41;K3 ~ c L s l 3 + 3 ,& - . U . " " J . +(JL plL3 rj>l GI+& L I ~ J Lj K &l;li;;Uiji J! L J! &l;;i;uqJ f- L4> - - - - J -. - d l 4t3,,' ~ 7 7J~i'i/pj~3 +i2 2 'cc.cksl 9- &dl- jA4 bd&l ,dS
  39. 39. j;K <+i2 3 J p a d & e l + - - ;I5 $1 i&IL.Ll 43 9, ziJ3 + +I ?&I di JL .LP;LL j- GLI- L G ~WGYI 41~3 :Carl Seelig +JjK @I 4 ; ~+iK3 +- J+3 ;i?& akLLii ++I +L,law~L ziJd &u+i$1 Z~UI GGY 1%)) 1 2 ~ ~ c & m i- -j siJ- ~o,,:+SLCILLLLQ -i J'L .Z-UI - . + ((.+.>I Lo i-3 .+ J+ J!+ . i ~ i4LLdi J+ e ~ ) ):YUI JJ q<(.LuLa2+ ti& ~ - i A 9 9 j+/&% LJ+& ~91a1. +L= a~Lctlgill d3 J! +;u &I R~~ ALL!)) +2 +I;+I -91JL ."G .iCcyijr JZ Y a d +WI ;.t&~b3IC&~ ZLW :,,i g ;w! & L,+, JA ;K af>~ 43'jbi ;lay( ~rd91jr ;.hi ~ . j jY liU JcL;;&f &- - & LL &jL.& jr &dl J! aJJ-Al)) d* JLLo ;Lm l0((._j'i dLo ;ij- a 3 L $iL & I ' J ~ ~ I&i3- . y J e ~+L J! 4i. ;kill J! +>i4 i ~ t ,JU;, I+ ZAWI ju < j W ~r LLYI ;p ' G G ~ I+&i&J+G & ~ I & s2;K ~i;.+I &3 ;L* LG&_>~I id@ &- .4 9 1 $91 >Yl $7 d ;& @I sL~AWI- - $197 j .ddl iSY9J 'Hermann Minkowski ..(.J&+- & kJ21+JJ& -i G, Le9& li3 G3;IS, ip +I 9lb3 ‘+- S % I&IJ* &Li4iy 'a&Ab_>14cLdI+*- - GG&J& ,+s ;4 'I.~& +)) e& ckog +fi- ;i g "((.gslfiy & GLLLY k3.&&-I ;.&I3i-1, $I+ ;i ;IS ~ W IJ3jrI+ . K - ~ "IL~)) 4;& p&J I ~Y ;K ei p3 116dp3 el>Lill sG-Yl> ;i6l-~GF prt;Urth,dl - - a ~ l ~ f i.;.&I- ;& G .JI+AI JL G3p ;K ei p3 .LI,JI c h i 3 .&L- j- &UI piip ,-.-:.litJ2j4 &lJ
  40. 40. :k; L ~ ~b39& ~ ; i JG e3L3~+u~J~ I & I ~A .ilLL;osll ~ l J i i Y lS3i,L ;K L-9 '-9 ;i &-dl&a jI5)) JALA IJL GJJi y3 ,J S ~ I3~ S K ~ 6 a ~ ~ ~ ~b~ 2- GIA ;K ((.al$lb h &3+ h3=IS ~ I;b3LL ;&I;LA ; L ~ ~ ~;E ;L3- JGg 'ijl-0-J AliLLb JL J4?gj, 4 U I Jp clJ9I AM I((* lLJ &a ,a* 'j JL &LA+! LUj A*)) &+kg JL J+I Q *LL.. L- SF$ b L &A 4 -Lt! $.!I - - L ~ U !14 dji Lm b*& ICSe& tI-'IIl &lc12 u;Sa! I 3 . L l c k+ J! L U l kLuvill&+-. kLI JG , & ~ ~ ic;ha;13 U >.t; 4141a!+& &a +JI;;IS U3 -i A)) :&+i J + ~'pJj+ ~~i b;~-i3 &wii2 ;a ;K, '((41Q +LLpiny P&*I SSLY ;ipg '1% 41 ;$ ;Lop3 'tLt;;!I Q Gustav Kirchhoff A&& dLp : J I ~ J I s.Y+ & Heinrich j;p&.h9,;i=rJl&1 L L d l Q Hermann von Helmoltz ;;I+- - I .kiL!l l . L i U l- - -Q Boltzmann t + L 9 & l Q Hertz sli,ill august ~ o p p i -3i ss 5 4 si&t 6 ~ 1 4 4&i;b ,Introduction to Maxwell's Theory of Electricity ;I* Y& GbS A9 f ?lc +A J?$ +lil;i J! Gerald Holton ~$9dl? ?&I tJ$J ~ i 3 s *;K .&c;liJ L ~j L jlcy 21 &&I), f- i- J -L . iu,.- .X&I G L ~L&I-. ill), J! +& b+- @ X&I +AS - ~ I LLJJI ;i $k3 '((WI J& L12&'.-;,La .I$ +.I$ ?tiL+J! &+ J b p g '$7 &K ?i +G +A ~ $ 1 ~J~e4 s &LA ; ~ iF ~ y ) ) :J + ~'&L Q ',-i- - -. d+ ' a G &&ill3 LI- $1- d- +&I s~IJI ir,ch q - o ?lc ~ A Iiul;l-. &+ ;r & &wi- ... ((,;rijw~w 1 -I .t+41.1&
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  58. 58. 43((.2&l+gb2&&41 $ d l JL GJJl kJdl J ~ f+hi!-. & Ge 4- sl;Lhll$ s k d m dsJJ ~ 3 ~ ~ 1+&I ds1 & b i- - b J d L b 3'+L&g iJl&l &$ dk3c ~ l j l d lslL+ 4- ++I ;c j4 LI,J :u;iilJuj ~ i r g'L J!I+++i -LUS.((LWI LWI +& g~ I+ip +$I & 'siiki L.S i1.-:2 iJeaJJ+SCLkJ)):JU LU(>ladl?Y 34idL53 '$1 &i ( ( . & ~ iJ! +Y J! &&I +I ;Ix>/~r;* 4 J ~ J JJ! +LJs- 'GI+41 +S 5 3 +ik& Y, t&J j])):BL& 3 A j U JU3 6&lkie$l L 9 i i p &,, ({.GLG LA^ 1+6r jLkI>I & -+ +L '+L3 JL J3d,lit1 W I-. 9 spy $W L4C;Il 44.+JG ,&kis ~ ~ j t c ~+Jd;iLLJI Y L, 'LL dad ;I J U ~'b $ J ~ ~ ) ) : & J L J ! J S J J J ~ - ~ ~ ~ Z- &&I LL~ =wij]IULA $1 p3'$1 jij [ d pi+ J ~+K ~.LJJL p b +I sbJ3a ;P i d 1 9 +- 41li p GI? - ,++i dF3 . u ~ ~.~j.J! ..GL;~3.u J! I!+ ~ 4 ; ~ j ipi++ % ,;4k;~:~ d - b+~ G~~ 93 'L&i J+ J! A+! ;c ;)?1;.4;yi .lYi ~i9 ZLU @YI r g a L l I ;i 6 % ~d +U g .b3.SJ 4 +I e3'L.vi$~IL dJI+ ' U l ;c Gj.L 4J Gj dJ dx:+JU3 .Z+ll 45((.&L.- QLQt $ Q CUPk &$I IL GJ! (('uI > b$l)) &A$ I L Gl &&Y L J 4 1 &LJl d- $ + +UJL ;c +i &J -4 p +I +cjy 'dSJd b ~ j JL+I ++ IL i%;~& edj 41IL ;i + .b u;iilJh G+- ikiA) :j&i/++3 ;L~&+s3L ; ~ ~ 4 ! &LW g &lZ+i L+i;s +UI +I ?Cdl jSifiljW *&I +&I >jL;;14! Jki4 47((.biJAA ! &Ed- 6 a d ~ ua ad&l & I d 1 &C I w
  59. 59. ;i J, 'aily.~~ j l f - u ~& Js ;+MI 1 4 ~L+3 ;+WJ cS+i LII;D> '&I d9JJWI J! ; ~ W I;r0 +sJe +'L j- itl+l- 9iJ%YI + J ~ d3. L ( 3 ~ 2 !y ~ iJ,j l l l l - Jul&-. & -&dl 3 1 f U 9- . rLg~;l-. SJbjJ! & GLhl;& ,+G ;i LJLII LL+ j + IS '&A! 'c3L@I LLJI. . & . L L j J I. . J! & @Lib&dl alL+ J+ ?JL JL &UI- - - ;i @ ;~9~LKL &K i&9s21j; 1 ~A- ;! +I +di J,~'24 k3y~ii;i & &dl ak+ ;i +I>I &L ;j .LJLJILWI + &I J, 3ii;;; ;f J+ e L @ - sJ1& ;i >idG+isp + ~ J I4 ;i & e- ';Log9 % j? d l Qkitl K L && '&L J! J J ~ - I),:JLJ JL ' ~ k ~ l ga ~ J ~ ~j + c S ~ ~JLJ ,A+UP " TLP; d &L- - - ,FBI& J! LW1Q- U l 9 I & l l- -. P-L45 JI-1 kjlSm! S$ " . p ' G L ' G ~ L A L&!f&ps 144 e G I C I +&I 9l&ll ;tLL e s cc.*+ a Y J L y L & L > &y d "+J-> 'Ul ;LoJi-!&! JJ+ . ~ ! ~ r s & k ~ + + F + & +a ~ & ~&sLI- ;i - L+II LWI - +I L@ ;K '+ J L I I ; L Q & ~ r i ; t L , W Q + ~ j J l j ~ & s ~ L + ~- - . - . ,lJsi >Lp J+ J b l + 31J.I &Ik,, 'Giiljll 48.sp &Lo L&L + '.&A1*3 J! W I D"9 4;i 4 . ~&i/+g J,$! ;,C& ,-&f Lo-> .j,i~ - ~ iGJ '&> L+ ?j+ 4i! JU I ; ~ ~ 4 !3 ~ ~ !ujx s ~ a &&I- - , G+!l d. LA-. &&4 Annalen der Physik +,J! I.& +41-+LLL ;,+I I+ p~ eJ4;;.s A J, AX 49 .J>;;Y!s jcw -.---, a k ~ ~b~ ;i e3i3';~oji~> "~JL!b~ + a Y b j+LsJe +,-L + 'GI~IAIa sJI&l JUI +
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  62. 62. e e 9 9 dL, ;I,,,, ;!, :&,U &k+i JJU3 .kJ1;11+I A I S I Nl(.32d~+3 & 4Lb L ~ + ij3dg&&;~+~ 4 4& ke;kk &,L I~L,h3;,J! &jrl;;;i jF3+ ?hiL+ r! A J L C- & b J & yl & ~ 7 3~ J L94, 4 k4;'i+ 3 Ji$1 LJb Gj3 '+U SK ~~141$ JL 4 ;i &i .& - J+ t+i &a3 C d &a)):yG&&,Lo J! 4 &a ?>I yI'+ C+ +>i kiJL CLI+ 3+ +s C+ ... ~ s ~ , . ! ; ~ ~ ; ~ ~ i + i i j i ~ ~ ~ + i ~ i . ~ k i . ,Lkh]L +I J! -32 $ & z,* c& jK LPgil6kl4y ;i 3+ 6'.U&&I JL194; J! @v13'J& dp LL;JU-~ + ,i j3G+ d3 ~i&&i- & , = J LB;S t3t A ~ ; ~ ~+s3iCi3 LB~C?+i 4ji ~rJ+ L JL 4 4ji ~ q " SJI G L I ~ + ,iI j- b3.j.'~i& . L J ~A 3i~i hj% 9, L+ G3~ S ~ L A I +I G~ '&,h3 A 4 ~hrk. IS L+ d k i 3~)r3 4 ;+t+116~+ i3'1 9A7 ?IL ;Y '.J& bd9 + &,L J!+L g - j- +WI WI +~ j j;Ib&d4t+ +A Lgii +r :+JJU si .z$I+ l<.+ ;iii_Lii &&, L .A& ;yOj & u ++.I r ~ iJ ~ IL);u). +y.. J! +.WI & sSrl&i ~ ~ 6 r 1 + ,,,J, :J&- - g ;I%! JUI g 13 ‘tl&Yl ~ 1 ~ 1+ & ~ L I I'&&iaJ ;i;i+ (nw,+ ... S L ~ I ~- - +A&JI j- L-.. ll.k;L, i-4 -... &I 41+ 'y,JijI-
  63. 63. LA^ jsj+J-YIJ s a kjj &LA,+ J J& dyr &iaJ! . * d l F%W LHki.&3U (-23 .;U!L j L l J s+ .L24 4 .@.;P G$l. &4 +j!.J(s*)9b&3 CIL~> ~ % 36dGb~Lg b& $9 b b - 4 h & p! &,L $ 6 3 ( < ! b . b 31 4%5 1 9 ' y ;i t3dD ye4YJ @4LA40 $ 13 G Q F - 3 9 d- ejzj JI4 1 sCjjiJLa~lcdj ;P J+>.&+I .& J& LE +3 ~ J ~ _ Y JL S L& +bj3 +dl JS s9 Y! b ~ i lLA* j13 $21 bJ + +b ;?ki;i 3Jt?3 q3.!9 Y &+I/++J +lc $19rU dj3.+;JI & L I ~ J sub.. +jlii JLJ$ J W l &> dj ;r;3J3.. .Z&b dj + Lgis C+ ..I+&&XI +a b ,+G ki+ ;i &LA,+ ++wu.-iJ bi -Gs"?F k 4 0 p 4 b'+$1 +jl*dI ++dl3 ;K kj J& +kj & G~~ @AJI ;i J! e b + +Jlh3 ~$JU JI Helene Kaufler SaviC. $iL Jid,&a $&I &b3L &A& - 4 K 3 c t - j J &A1 &I CrV6j Lg ;I+% L K L ~ i fA99 ,I,&jL - 69'. r k ~ F ~ j y . + 9 j ; . l i i j ~ g i ~ > + J M ~ ~ ~ c ;.. ;f & &> b L @ A Y G @I+ GLk; c ~ f&jL @ 4 3 L@A@ s j 3 ~@! J& d p & && @ &%fi JG.9 4 ~ ~ 4 4b 3 J;.;?3~ ..- J& ;r .A.. b+ d&.. Lj;l-i& JI+ ;i + Y D :dli3'+~b +II ...aup+c;itju+;i J.. b&L; +d ..+A ;ill WLi,
  64. 64. cS-l .j2kloL..U l @J+l$log~Maurice Solovine $dF eJ9;IS ;%?I &y3 J 9 Y +I Z J ~P ~ it2 a ~ jb+ 93 +ej9 '(((++ &+ -,)) G&S a++ @&A ~u+i &-i 03- ;s3 +L ;- + I j ;& I& &i+dF ;K> G&w;i+2;~;[-j~s&+d6j~+ejLkui& - . - iy-A W iu3'@&I jb3;I& J! +4; lil ' A j $ ti@ k sti A a,,:+dF J+> J W ~g GL~;I&+i ~~i.((+L)) JIC 76 ((.Lg-JdJ+Q (>JLI_JI_CL &i+4 J! &dF &l;8;i$1, A; '+L J ~ Y I L,I~ -I ,j3.?MI ,JI "",;i J, G L ~.,si LL uc l i +.tJw 'J+L+ e 3 j ~ ~GL! ;pGLL si&I hjlP ;i &l;8;i&!WUI -I L&LhL Jlr; l ~ L d l- - a- G,A LL LY I& ilLvJ sf)):&dpd Jli> ,d d r u i J I &* ;i l j s s3..d+I[ +d&-i '-3 .L,L~ &I+ &i. -. J+ &I ;K> '41.~136!+I wjk ;K -AK& +i I- s3.&I1 tj2j ~l+kJl 4 l&L@Lk3 ;K ~ L + I ;I p3 .LLJI PLY ~ l jUI ; . e l & rgillu 9 i... - &A J W Lj& Z A ~ & $dF UL '&JI ~jjl;;l& 'L-31
  65. 65. .LJIWI &A b ~ s L ,+L 4- ;,a- - .L&;i I,> 2&h3$ 4 ~ k;S-. .j l i l l ,d&k- - . i+,JtLi ;P Ii- &L+ijK3 .sdLtl & 'L+ 4;i 3+ ji j g J ,I+KII ;,,;6r1 + ; i i i t ~ ~i ~ t;K 9 d+ &a)) : + U I 9 +JF4 f 3 ,.Ua l s l &JF3 2&h J J ~ ( ( c J s ~ ~ILL u3 '((!& j;- ,JI j~~~IL GK jii !PL+)) :&elc~ IS,, j] +i +L JL- e~~61ISL ~ l r k&o ILL L)): i b ~ k l +u (,.dl'+ j ~ L ~ i i b &j ~ i ; K - @ I JI&p;;o;JI-@WLlug ( g c ~ b l + ; ~ ~ l + g ~ + ~ $ & j . $ L & ~ l ~ $ ~ K 3 . ; ~ GL~;I ui j c_hlj r i f ~ l * ~ ~ jK)>:(j?4JF J&3 </I 339 GL .. A~&G d3/I JG~&.& m3 'UI j 2 1 . x ~' j ~~3~~ A9 '"p!, Gk.9&& +6r1J k & e . 9 ~ 3u& & +&I $ &3 6$6r1 4 I& ;i J+ 6 4 1 I+ &I &I &A & ji d L j3+ I@K3 .i241kiJ! be&s +I d .&+ & j f j j l . 1 > ;i"LL j- > &JF & L9 AIL & Lsgl d33 '* 8 L J Liup d L - d L &A d+ - &-I-. - - .&VL- - I++ 316 4 1 d~~j GI+ L=L 1+3 6.y. ~ 1 1... ,I~~TYI GLL,- , 6 m i l 3 .$I ~ L J&dF b$ Gb GL* +h3 &+i GK :+YIL- . .LS, .2&~3 9 d i + i g & ~ iw&9 9 ,-I, ;+I L A SlYull ;LJ ;o 841+JK G! +JFJ S g ((.+3 +~ L J R &ji '&I- JL SGWI ~ , 4 i ~+ii.*L si6 .LG 'ji-, '",.&I J! &G 53K &ill ~K6r1LgS *&I &i;ro -tL);LLtY k.j3‘;)?%6r 41FLU! A h 3-. $JF c- 21L ~ IGI++K~I & +L-. &i6~21-I +3~i))G$i c.t)JL & &jf &- %+>si.lk,& b 3 ~93 ((.u>& - &,FC :JG + 3 K ~ ~& & ~ i$ l&b &I b ~ % +L 9 ~ E Y I b+j
  66. 66. 3. J+JI ;c L+JAI &+4u.' ;i=u- ccAeis& '&!& &l;dlii 'GI& &A gjJ!dI & Lytfl;k- jgJ))g c u l i l a l bW1 . LX. j g c + ZWI L-JIZYI- - c L c i jlS j@l+ 3 $3 David ?+ +Id A Treatise of Human Nature "IX & ;iiLLhll_,?&I &-. Mechanics and its Development3 Analysis of the Sensations &IS3 'Hume "I;13 'Baruch Spinoza ;&I zsJ@Ethics "IX3 'Ernst Mach ZLO bJ: cY&a g~l_>ljh38U.~enriPoincare +,ELI9 CS&lScience and Hypothesis .+I 4 "owl u6... "WI ~ 1 ~ 1 ~-L i+-41 d~~A+I 4m GUI si;1! - jb3 $ 2 3 4 4 3;; +9 +i.39 ;rK3 L(VVT - v ) F+ *3 CS.LLLYl UI-.. &I$ G>I+ p ~ d ~b3-i LO A+ L+ U-i4 " c ~ ,& 5s ?ILL .slY JLJI wi :& LJILD biJ- j.. 1;;~LIJI ~ 1 3 & l L ~ ' g y - g y ~ * & l $ & & c & > l * + ~ * s :&hiJL3 .L~LhllgAl 3- - & && J E U LP+ &J Y JU! 'k JL -1 F* & +L i i z e 9 's* i.4_LB GK)) cc.,l+ L k L + 3& &!JAji (-& -&sf s--l_pll UL . C ~ u i- -3 - WI b ~ ~ F ;.?&6r ailJ s3.g$& 5- &LG >I 9lgkll A3jgGe l b D 4i W l 3 &I3 3~. UL)l-. ;ii& A!)) :Jb3I+ldl. j- $91 & ;ihLLLLhllb L ~ 9 3el. -YL9 JL +C $k C S + J I&I I d jK G3 .kJIJl + ;ik3g j i i J+ ,+ Treatise of Human Nature +IX WJJ CS31 81 (,.;it,,;~l k& dm( ... ;Y;; ji $ d l >+j j l Jb3 .+$I F~ & I l i ~ l 4SCZ ,a+ & u p . ~2 1 3'WI~J! >I rGYI & LGLL liZ3 j4~lji & ;c Lfi &ZG d+iYl3 J K 3 ~+ik+ I ) :+X3'+$I JL j&&lSP +$4 LO J*> FAC ;fi3( ( . b b 3 +$I & ;)I J + d l &3 '+$I dj p3 ' & W 3.. kLuill... k+ 9.. +le;llj Lbl- IgJ j& dF &!dl
  67. 67. 4 ; ~;i&&ib ~ S + ~ l ~ & c P & ~ d i ) 4 ~- - b+3n J ~ J I+L! 4 ; ~ y- .. JgCYl ~4~,ILL- - LLG~I-+tk;2;i + ‘GL- 14- &-b L- 4 1 4;& b~~ 5Y -3 -k3' ( ( ~ J Lj- l>i &miLI.LZCQ ;if ijdl$I$ JA ' 6 4 ;itiiC h l j i ZJWI b L , ;i pi " . $ ~ A ~ LL& p eb;" a.- .4L'd +L _ L I > ~ ~,+dF e3yi ~ i ~ ~-. LJCYL- - &-i Lpj e l 9 J L & ~ , M L L L ~ S - J ~ ~ . Yj L 1 1 " q j K / 3 2 1 L ~ e ~ W I Q L L ; i L L &- - . bfS J ~ j- - . c.33 +-'"2eb$l 3;LWj +Q -1 cbJ1 -- - & hij3LQ+, d3 &i.+i s J ~Y : W L +13j +q3'&jL L L K3GI- ,qp+ ;)?dl (j2Jid.ILF &I c U l di 93 '&JL .4;i ~ J Irfu Y L ~ J.L;. GA J! & j ~ 3 &;rl;;;?i J~ p: .yu~ui&is" .. - 89.wlGCCPLLI-r J! +13 LL &, ;;dl Lct-:14i :J+ wyi .+ J! &+i 4 . I s... G L l .@,& d3';Y,j klJb 6dJL pi3.. I..&- 6 -T & 3 ~ ~i((.++ GIJ3+9 '#I ++ ;;K~ '((LL di ;K ;! tj2j 3 k J! +$i+[X : i ~ J A 3 a,;bYI +3 UUs3] J L J 3 f-. - ++Id iU$9 ;illp Q hi 4 s + ';Lk pi^ 'LULJ.1 a l l 'LL- - d K ) ):@Jy ((.LML $91~ g l k i+ S~L. i;ii .& 3 t$ Ju &ipi a++l c;ibb ;!)) :dmU I dlJ&! Q ,MIA 4 . 9 3 G33 - -$a,._-3+ &i & K ~6+x~JIGki&mie ~ - i+.,&I 3r3 .+UI J~~ LA $91 ~ryj I& J lip19~ 45 &+i j~ ' 4 JJ . ~ ~ k613y.kl;lJ .tb,k. ;K 4;i -L+ @Jb . j d I ILa Jr. +i ((,I&
  68. 68. & u i .- ;i - dj ~ i iA ~ L&I S~IJL9i- 1 ~ 2s9 JI J 4 -1 ;P 4 4 LqrJ 6- ;L 'j &J.;11 J4, Q *9 & &- J. .;L ,i 'j jsw, 3,)) :kF J @- J! e3.~gubl;-' 1 . ,L-,,,, , ~1$LJL dl2((9JILL1 &... J!& 4 &j 13+ he L) - c&+i. .++MI eJ~3~J.. ijutll- +;Y I& J- if& ;L+ L+! "Occ.+dl i P U I Z ~ JLsl Jls J . G + I + ~ ~ ~ ~ J - ~ L + & ~J ! & & @ + . & & ~ & ~ S J L ~ J l + J l + ~ l k b j ; P & i L + Ir! q.l(. +1/&-.~19~ ;K $1 ~4.. - ;iI;; &,,I, d .LW ~iE;'&hejb JL + .JL 94; J! .MI GC;~ , + 3 g 1 *i s 13 q d l ~ iL+ jk;,' L LL L 3- + J Z ~)!k;I+! gzJ4ij.lLQ JLkhl&$ f i SJ!),:l&A ~4-IJ3 3 > +dL ~n;u~jfE;ed L j @ c&sP6 IiL .3~ky1JL ++ pr!i-i y3 d;l~.L* '"..-I &9J L._. .a!- LWL. c+ ;i ip.~+L 48 k s l ,ill- -41 J ~ J s ~ ~'4d9WI ;i 9+ :+iFLJL94;w 2- A ;i Ir! j&f/+ QAJu . u i 6d .. . -. - .GL 13i++JI 414% L 1% ,J& ;b L & ' . 1% A-wT~i,, Q &+ &i+ SI P J ~- - +4 .?I* L JL Jp%-i-..j;iPJ 'WBllgj "'((.J+I 9 34- W l +I& W ' & d l E ; L ''L & i&+ 'JlI&-l 14 &-&f'Jd*Cg) 3 $13 Gj9 j g t ? ~jg+j+L +iis9i ~ ~ p 9JI Gsi~ I L +ij?;+> &l;;;i ;L+i e3- ;P Robert Schulmann LUG +- j 9 3 - J 4.. .. & +I ;r GliS di$1 Michele Zackheim rIIIj JJAA~- - .2lr?l!, %J& +u!, +L3&w! 4 ~53+ &i LL ~1 d (LLQS&&I(s23'& I . . JJI ~ p ?4 j I J-G -&ill ;K JI q - ~ +g $Jb&l;t;i ;ru-. ~JL;II ~ ~ ~ 1 1 1 1 ed9$L>L L ~ J K I j L U I ~i.J& J,I;;? ?;JI JL L,
  69. 69. J& ;i 8k3wl3 +;I! LLII lie ;p &i 31+I $MI isl-! 3.. - "I-."! di A$> , 4 1 J&/+ 9 6 I + d 1 + Z & Jlj3Ji;Is U l s +Is 59 315 4 4 1 &'L+& & &I di 3 A j L J! +LL Sy ,@I d; 3- v;ll d-."59 SIS &i&i r~~e2,'(,LL;~YII 3 ..~r+,,J.L ub;!9 e3;C .i.jl js-j &wi +>pll&l;4s; .jjl+l 48 01:Jy-.t.ld jY+ ;I+ dl;B, FL; & L.;. GL,.. 3.. -LL! L+ +L;p si 'LFL;U ak is^ +3, J L Y I di +i2 ,J ,dGI++ +~ ( i )&i(icj L& GM)&j J& I+ ,J& ;& G 2ll-! ;f ,-& 65 L;u-' Y l L a & 'l;bL k, .CL% 59 &3L &- WLy ihLQ .... ;i 9 jU+ L;LLY $1 S~CQ;~YIb i g L FLCi i l S Zorka IsJg; d-i"161. +Jlsji ,+IdL :JcYJ- - + 43& J e ki&I &Is, 'kc,> $3 ~(G>pll&l ++ '+J) .s&+L'dI 3 Is,,; 4, G, 'Lqro &*LA c h i J! ;- ;p &, s4!4!2% u;t+, 'IsJ9j &.ill fY1 d l &A J L Y I lie & G 3 L;??-! G l d I & ~ 6 1 i&dlIn Albert's Shadow "K 3, 'Milan Popovic $+& J+ +AJb),:*-Jp J% L.&YuIp, &+L +I!G+, .((uI ;p w # ~ iY bi ~ L Ck3I.i +ijy 'J& +.. ..JG+3 +p - a 3+ JL, - +l;g aJi &i ,J PI + . J & Z Y , ~ ~ + + ~ G ' + .+~ih~~~y+d-bid~i-- - u;ts &-a +lS LSii $1 &MI (-,Ad JL @*+4!4t 'n;L;, 4 4;;Lo J& j!4;j& J+, 'Mira Alei-kovic &d&.li- - I*- 111.J++ -, ' 4 1dj 3 &+i ~&i/&3e 3 .. - 93.&LL +iiJ! J& > L+ kk.53 i+ ,I; ,:,; ,i;L, . - +, ,MI J! ~ ~ ; l iGG LO ;K ci, I!+ GE & rJs - lJeter Michelmore ,.&i+-;r if+ +Is +6 4 .;r+i ;$i 31, C-.~ ~ b ij~3~p JL L J! .i.jl-I l ; ~-J& j~
  70. 70. LILA...- kuYlL- . . ,U Q Jlji Lord Kelvin &S 941.1J , ~ U I;! J& J?>y! & +'jql GIJ&JI Q & M I&A - - .A- r?jb4)):! 9 ,If ,el -V1 4 1 +I+ .G3 'cc.,@Jl g GdI ;,J?>3
  71. 71. $5 cS+l13 'eC1;J! iS~&iyb313 '25419 :$ill3 U 1 3 -.L j W 1. &I* &i Jb s3.+3 5 be-3 t& & @ +li!l> &3 bel.,g! Jc Ljle cKJI;)!)) :&+ ;)$& &I3 3 L L J 1- - $lf Laplace e+J 4 ;il~-&I +I9 har-. j.&.Z+ W jU l j-. 1 :$$I cS&lI ,+I3KP a,!, LIJL g- .-n;y~, ;I JL I ~ J L;)+'I+d, W l j@I J+AU .dl.. LAL. Lli~4isi j3:+WI g LI,JI cb;ig .p~29~ '((.e;c9 I&L ;l;+ &U13 +IS+i, 4'44~~~ L,UI UI-.. O+ &+i -7 (c+ dILb ;)K ;)!) E+!I3)): J u c k ~ l&,L? 4 G9 3'((&$ ++!,ci L .LclLjsUI c5$il9 JXII J! GLJL Z&&st; QI iislr. J Ubu~+3+ LJ+ g s - L ; ~ IGZL. LO,) LC. ij_)= &u+i && 3ju4 6 3pd 2 1 3 b& ijK $1 %&'I &a u&I-LLL 4.3b+~l 3 ,=,JL~;$1 3k$l +I+-- $'L; L+ ,+;;& r ; ~- - + &A J ~ J I&I u 4 Michael Faraday ~sIJI,L;I&L & d l $MI U l & ,_;I +- &@I 3 j g I el& - dLYLhj dl& &I - ( A I V - V ) ;)iAJ ,e3ig'+IL d9?&&I ,g~;i psi4 ++~l;ilh -+IL &l;- 4, ~ 3 ; 4,&A I ~ Gd9?;i ++I jgl ,1t; +I 3i~610> & +c+ ~ k iJ ~ J !I S I ~ ~ W&b9&I &I JL , - I - s3- LI-+ILL~ hlgl i*-,-. L ires? G h 13& ;i.h3&w+i 2~ +&w+i+i cSd;K AJ +i3.L&I-. L~d&~4 irJ~3J .'-dg1.I;; ,+JF0 4 3 ~ J J J L3JkJ& &&LO dJY.S-... U I +I CS&Jl jk@l + L Y ~ IAS; 4- cs+ic ~ f;.- i6raj at, LJJL (,IVY-AT) ad& 5r;;LlL&l;-ill aJ13.I dS; &isg L U I ; . i o..- 3Y+ &r;;Ll%&I I+ blii,- - 4l-p d9?;i jjy~4 & &&I j g b :LA-.
  72. 72. & '~~34))++ &ill9 - ;i?+uuiJI +& J3L+ @I j w l" -LY G ~ I;i 5% 6 e ~ + ~& 3 ~J +3; a ~ 3 ~ ~si ;K k3ir'- - - .+ L41jl +au 21c d l - -3 ?+ 5 3 ~4 &3 akqn 5 3 ~4 ;,- g9 ~i - L.^;siL+.- +elpi J ~ S X- r&1j$&l),- .+I$ &All +,Ist si &I + ;+ &ill G&I .I .-. ;14;11J I+ &t+igi iij h3))93' A n n a l e n d e r Physik ;i4L 9 31j~/L>u3L0 V J ~ i i e& &A> jl; ?&3L3! &a La ' ~ . d h ! ~C ~ Ij b L. . &LL 3 k 3 ! b + ~J ~ ~ ~ . ; ~ ; ; ; ~ z + A > - u ~ Y I + J ~ L I ~ L &JI&,&~J+IJS- -. * GLc+.+++Jaek3-L+b+i+>l J!5;11LS=;kLs i41WIXe3 ;ILLJI i+. - -&~+i& - J+ i ~ h , l j , ~ -. GL , ;r .~lssi jbii y3 ~ l j gZZG~ g i i&i:JI~;YI~i J + 3 ~ 3 ~ .LUlW I . wi ; t l k , J c L + I- - - c k l c ; + & ~ d - *y 4 &Ld b LLK ;J+ & :wi+3 '?&I +$3~1+j -ds LLK bi@413 J&1 3 u.- L-L dLdv. i&9 piE i l i 3 & J Y 1 3 ilJilI JL + ;&I &i ;&&!I ;Lib LLK ;L3 E L j W I-. . Jk3i& L 3 & l '5;%I& LO- A- I i L 'c&yl -&I b d &!dl;ikiij&C & c k w l Lblc J&?W -3 A> ?-I;, JIA- u3.(,dF6rl +I r&!llq r ~i+iL &ki,- . !i31&l G33d 3 1 I& ~4 - - -& d l& 5 3 L p$ ;I jwl ii9 rk31 rL&?Ili. J+3 .-i I:+ @ L Y I ++ d l ;i & %lull -1 r L & Y ! !bL!3d3.s3:~! 9'-91 -. 9'dkdl 241 JL &31& G33 J+L t3++ $3 +Ll i kGirocG3 ;3+ie& A&& A L P I.,Ls- &p J.& JI id;C;bGF3 dj IYJ3 'e+Il L A + & &dl Ae 5 b I 3 @ul3 c k 3 gJIp G33 & ;>Idw jwl .kiij, 53I&l 4 3 J-C &+I ,aqLu_JI ;K3 'cG4I ;IJ+ , 5 2 3 5 3 U I
  73. 73. .I,jK3 jFL3jq;t;9Y3 F& L p. ZLr- LUT ZLL 3- A o A G3G6rl4 i J L &sL j K Gi d l & r& &ILL/ CjJ & pl S+S jL+ &;c I, 'P+II ++i+ ;K~ '4;;ui- . 41+A Gui 3u.- 41g jj* &L ~JZJ.IL&- Jli3.&LA9 I&j3 'Lk& h3r$iY$ &IF &ti+h d l i ~ l& &i&.J Jg+I jpll :+L.+ hias Born & , i l I + + w l w I > & ' + ~ L I ~ + Y ' & l c.. - &jL LL+J+i ij* eft33d+3 ULS +I+;LJI A+ ~i "((.;i13J-ll 6 6 ; &iF4 el3 e323 ,L;u~ +92 -1 j&+13 g ~ 2 2 ~J! &Ul &SL ;ic$ LjJiii3 +JI JL~I: A h 7 ?L= trjS ii3' ( & d l JYI zkd1&L9) ?lc JFI +ji ' ~ 3 1i ; ~Z ~ j i l l LLL +I t15il~P jp sb(g Q - &+i3&+J+ ,,.;~JcouUI +I dj, .+I1~ji4,wip39 - ~6 +JL ;)JJ~AIJ~~ ~ l i i ~ ~ @I +,,uI w13- - UI-.. ;rhg ~ g ; i+~ 3 ; t~ g uj b "'.&LGLK 4 l r & $ h i ~ & ~ bJ!I-~JL J!I.. P L c & ~ & $ dk3'5jlP Z s j ~& LCtLxA$.l &dl Jlh6rl +L -3 ~ j i l l~$41 kJ311 j K $1 jL94.1 ; i = ; L Y l5 dLfil- - +,fI +'i eL, iij& IliB ;IS3 <+L &+L!Li ii !%$ &L l+l &IS d~W.1$ '@ + +(GP; +a . J, r f - , x T . T ~ T - V )l+l 4 Y GLJ +s +WI 3 e 3 ,h &+-L:. - $hi L jlcp3 .L+- ~ J U I +. .UI ... g- kw~6rl- &'4 j31 I ~ - ~ ; ! - ~ ~ @ I & I ~ : + L ~ I I ~ ; + ~ J & P $ I &hii&&iY&is+;K+& J!dJju!&.+&.~LJl+Wl d l ~ l P+ ~ J L &S S J W ! $hJC & 'GI, * d l &&-. rt jlJlr JL - 1~4.b~sJlP & p.u gi+ji ++I G~ .L+ ;+ZK+J JL ,(z~lj;aL L ~ L ~ C S3ic t + + ~a&+,, JL Cj* - JFi
  74. 74. +j ji LG A ~ijj 7 - + A& ++;i LJI +L+U :Brush GLJJ Gs;ldS6 jL!ej+ +U+LJ3 ?&LiPI +I+ + abb : ~ I J Ia~ + L G+JI GLS +I &+i ji + SWI b~ ;i 62 ;ls9 'C+i E ; ~ I ~khom19-;tlS a 4 1 ( j ~ y ~ 5 4 1 &+b& L4 S J ? ~ 2 0 ( 5 L ~ 9 d ~ 4 Y 7 ?k 21)z u d ! & &I& +;YI LW &+41Y- ji -+ ;iP3)) :+x3Li~dj +I j! J% $i+i ;i +i'*~grtl~+I e u r ;.+si; ;.L -y c d l &&;i_Lbry J- 4 9 '&Ij G& ~~1 -1 ..- . ".E;JUI &+J~ ; r ; ~+> . G ~,II;+ ~th,p L. &mi.. ji -L 4 9 LY; ++G LWI jig. I s $4 ii 431 ;p +MI~ 1 ~ 1iiIrI2 . L I ~ Ijjug ++L 4 !+g~.eli.~~,LI ,i ;&I . ~ i i.yy9 .jIdI j (14;1116) UWI6))+., ;.+i Y Lill :&L e9 7 7 --((.s&YI9 , k Y l >L& -3 '$69 L d ! LM && J&U &+3j -1 ?&I h J k ? ~ 1- 4. && dJ+mi+++ ;I- 4 $ ,sljhYL & j K ;9>l &>+&> @ +dl +u$'&$&!I b k 'GLI~GI j- CL~- LL ji, j g ~ ik, ~iLL i+15 :ijl~i&+ji 2 3 , , . G ~ 1 5; +s;l 4 JUI ++ LS . 4 i i ~ 1pi +2 jli ~iji- IL- AYIJZ s9~169J+~ J J ~ Y IWI6 pd ~ Y > L S+U ;I+ 5-1)) :+9 4 jLj;o $ &ij9'13-. I&+ dj 49';LS-US- - +AJ ~ !j6>& , . a ~ ' u ~ +gi& Jj -. -LM i;r+i 4 _LU I+ C~ ijlF +LL i L K ji virJ19 &$I + ;rll PI iLIASI U .. ' . <<lZSA9 LHb;j)) JIJ%L! jj>GC JL ",,.sL~, b i ~ .ji L jg$629)) :&L ijldg
  75. 75. C++LU Robert Millikan j& 9 L W l +$I ,i ,ill .dl&l;-i pJ! e3 L,I,X;II l i J ~ l s4~2~lu &l;-f aV3I-u L-a &ij f rLU i ; ~+&I JL ;f + .&-i d J h GV 41-. +I ;p +I JL)): J G ~‘ ~ q ~ b ~ '+IS (i?& L+ <3jI& j&!L& 4-, 21& L S l- - +&I j f +; 2 i ( ( . k + - -i & - jb i ; ~ ii ;i:qLb3#I SbW1 &l;-i 3~I-ujl 449 3 L jls j+ e+~ +3 JL +5qLb3&I sbubll jqju ;i ~ I J U &+I LL++ 3 PI I+&j+y3 sj++ L-.- . &&i- .*LA1.. - ;p GI-! I;+ jS4.11 &+ -i &l;;li a"+ 'LMI g 9 1 J +!gall;k + ;E+ 9- - .+ +.3J;3~bu.kl13... - +x u l g LAI.- ~ W Iji ,iL ;i I,',, ,*I +- J! ~44 +is U~ 9j .- J! bi.. - . +&L;rbll-.. - > &I LJWI-. J& &I1 && a j L :J I ~ ILL!. . ;P $i 25 p ~ h l g@I J wi;rll ;AI a ~ + ~ '"(tFc+Jl slpl La
  76. 76. 9l&l a h -J li+ ;I &+S &AIL9 .LA-, &9_plj9 (2&$13 .+A1 & *dl 5-1 & ". & Amedeo Avogadro 3,~k4;1i g r ~ f- - J L Y l- -+ ,dWl ;K &+ ;> &i3 Jfi - .II@ &3 M - +&h$ i ( A o ~ - v v ~ ) 4iiLC ;&$I &A A&! JL 691;&&d51jlill & G S m I?&I Ib ;,La 9q:+I& c b ~,& J! +A b h <-I> rlgJl&l .;.&$I &a J d l I;& $$I &j3) jLII ;YO b ( g Jp d+ 9S J L j W l , + I s;;.&$I BiYJC?iSr! 1.4'+,KI ~>&.II g 12Y Y , ~489 .(?144 I$ - JIA y3 - G+ J ~ IIL +sii ;K> r g J J k $ f d e .>&.I b j e ;,L;1 t& ,AJ9 9 ) " + x 7,+YYf JIp JWI .P& +y I> ;ihk,. . i i d l +YJI &l,i +LGI p s ~J ~ l~ , j5 ~ y;yo JJI IL L9(.[l;"441 t,o] JkiL & s3' ~ l j L I lLI,J && & ;.lL& L U I a L w l ++pi ? k Q l + - 3 531 +suLj, ,d JI4YLJI J a-5 rllhj441- .. pl&l. ~ L J Ib~ J ;K> L+ &A J;YI +JI 4 &+i ,ki M +L$I &A ~ > i(;.LL+II> ;.&&I 3 +dj ir! &J ;i -) .&I41 +p @Li & J d I &Wl L9L,I& p, ';tts$JLU l ;.LUI-. J-I U9 $$JI a1.i ~141;.JU.1 &-. & ~ ~ 6 1 1J-dh JLhlh '4% ,+I $3 31; US JIJS JJdI ;it99;,L;1 CUI3 -1 +iij!>,rtlWI '-6r1 PUI sk;t J% L J n -I A&+ ;i ;? - j-p ?-~.I&(&&~JL LPB~il~G+ @ ~ ~ J ~ ! b g i ij i r k l g dl; +e k l g ' L + L J! islytr j K - cUI9 LAJAC~-I A&+ .v.x Y, ,,Jkgi L+ JL 3-y3'@JW.I hnalen ;i4-.J! +pi 6;,l+l &A L>... pJI IL & 9 ihyv A, 4;j +i . S S ~ tJ4?jL+ d ~ +;i ;,i/ai g der Physik
  77. 77. Ax-3 ;iAiJJ+ $7 - .A AIL-)+ + +bi -' L ; l J t l - l l l I J L - 9 . ~ I L ~ ~ ; K L & - ~ l 3 r ; i ; J J ~ r L A ~ $ " - .$Id1 Q & &+S p~dG+JI $ a- ;i;l+dl ag&d r U l + irlli +13+!l X d L L j l j a9Uh di j&(iliritr; L-. cUI JL JjL jUl a+l =-)'LliU :Gh i)ljW &I$ ak913a ~ J ~;i -L a-)* 4 ;i ++ J! &i ~ L L L I ~'7+i3 .P+ Ax-3 3 3 3 ~CS&jl C J ~ Ipk J! k;ls+!! X d I ;i=L;l&l &&I ;c L aLLslo AYA ,IL +,.ill Robert Brown ;I3,- LI-)JI iupi- . .ii$_ sir I-i ju rUl jU l +JI C U I a U - ) . I 4 I iJL + Z A I ~& 6ii+i IJLy! ~ 4 ~ 1+Gi ;i +L~~~ sf;3i SUIGI-)& ii* Z~IJAJJ ;K .&Id.(ya+ ,J
  78. 78. p - - L I L Y &- &J Gi3 +* +I ji @ L~JO,, & e d l p z ; ~ b+* s &- d3i~lfu$I G Y ~~1~ -141 .&YI UI $1 -I+ G+i&J 3 + p 1% 41Ad L$I@I 4 4 L l+k@i+$I+ 5 4 3lS- i+ill jGg &ip I;+ d e I;- &,,J+ ji & Z ~ I,,# +A ~i~ b+ &$ ';tf;G 6 b1;I Q 6 b I 3 5+ I;j++3 '5>L>I 5-1 'iJL2! d p C & &-3A 31 5 4 k ; s S l w b h -1 b~ ;i+ +I-,, 3i6 b 4 ; ~ ~4 3 I- ++ qkt, k,,3i 3 F& > ++I1 j U (-. &dl- '>+A1 J U I b l j ~ _ j f g- .+UI +-I+ dF ,,&I IL ji 93 4 $ ~ @ ~ z s 4 1b~ 3 i . ~ & ~ 3 b h i 21$19;11Ade~~J+~C4 I& [;l~WL~I E,+ 6 pg C5J3+!l p y3 +I p 4 4;i &+i dJdi L-. J+J~p s3<&J gi3 +I klYV~ 19 1$~3$~X&I A L U Ib & i '$I+ X p d- 21SU- . W I- L l j > l VCJl .Lid1 +@I GF ,-I I ~ J'~,,GI GL+ +LL L A I ~ I&%i p$ rjLblj;;ll J!JwJ.l - ) G Y l~ Y ~ r o g+3,Yl jr &&I sL;L+I~ +>I G L~~~ k ~ p&,,d3 +Gi3 ed~w s ~;JI GUI ~ J & C P U ~ ~ & $ I & I - - .b & & w d L $ J u & & ((.j3+I J! 5&b -3 LIJ>I LG)) ji +& v sJlp +jlS I;!)) :J& 4 ';it?;.@I;;d3 J d L bJ+I +P$ liB jlS +jI&l j b l h & % 'b U3ki.i 21X d ! U J L&@I p33 k12jli ;K ISi l l - &%i ,.LL r t ] ~L ~- - +y1 r;,ji JA :$lJ &+ 4fru - ",,GI .I*! 3 4i, ((.6,,1& +Jd+9l +G d d3'bL ~ ~ p l . 1d G U l &.. LS.-- Henry G++L g> dift!SU!@+I+L , L l +i j+i d3 &bill Ci~UIA ~ ~ IjlSJ 6;yL+'r ;iLAlsl +kl cy I+ Seidentopf
  79. 79. cgii~+i+dGJ +A t~ di &ik+i +619;,;K d+ig c;i++ll JlG6!L 361, 4;!,, :L& Abraham Pais ?Lb12! JGg JLL~ LISQLL 3JJk4;,iJs ;i - +WI ;,+I i3 G PJI ;K 4 LWII + z u ++ - G 3 ~ ((.e+dI kLo% JW&- d p ~ g . ,‘& L+L> a i &L+ ji ,++di &miJL ++ -I* ;,AK 4;rbi & j K c & L J L G l a l 3-1 &L ;IS LO- A cblg &g 4 di +3i?2 *g ' P ~ IL~~x+l krs J 6- && + ~ b A+ LAgr$IgJl X&l+ d+ JLj!> +u&j&Lb.., J!+ - 5-1 4~ G~~ dY3.++ z$i 4] &i& ((.jLO>Igj W I +& J! - &I di d 4 1
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  81. 81. 0 . dj3&i9 &b;4- hl> 1 4' L U I 4 & i Le z19~l s2 i~&I+ ?st ak9tij i b ~ t ;.(a!~ 4 )LUI g- La ,+Wl e b ; L W l J.. L- V V . L- JWl +!&I JSI;w36- +JL cjl& ' L W I 4 & i . L* 241 +qpj9 GUI +IJ. jrlJl j p .(A!.. L d L ). L W I 3- L- A . L* dj3&i9 d+ a d 1 ak9 4- Lg;.yiil ;Jl LiUI +y1jqLh. " CkWI +, j l S -C ~ I& LLWb ';?.+' l > L j K $111 Christiaan Huygens k p .;it90JL;Ltl Lb- && ;4+ - JUI &... J-C - Thomas Young @* p L Y S3 &IS J% Julc&! j+ 4 7+Y3 'G&wl pJ1dl jG9+i61%@WI LK J3 '+ JSI;ijUI cUI &IS L& + j ~ ia GIU ~ L Y I++4 GI> +AI s+ +UI .G$l Js hiGILA! ~sJames Clerk Maxwell &&L dJslS 3rL G3 Gi L U l ; i l 1 3.. .. k&13... c+I& G%c 3~~ +>I L& & d l... k+I
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  83. 83. @UI j~ - a!A- L- - d ~ ld b & ZI'L g A- .- li.x, ZIL g- 3-91- >i g 9 w G+~ &I ;g bjl;jh~ 1 4 ~++ k3,):&c+iJ% ;! d GaljLi j$L J% JScYlLIWI &i<(Id W l_ L k & jiijd j$L J+ - L W I- LIWI - -. $b&biG $611 J% :&';.';I JL3 ((&Ul J G l J% 3-41CklO XF + ' l G I;& j! '6((.>$U $ sjK &W1 &L8 ;ru-. Cr;;;hll d S Y I ij* j!n ~JX, ' s h ~?- j g ~LIPLJ &c+iJL 41tj2.1 ,L824L gL (j[S cc;!&l a!LL& g- HL& ~ L D + ;it?& LLJX, - $611- +JL31j!n :$LjL I+& J! +S c A 4 4 ?LC Qiqlin 4 ~ !_,;j C ~ jji &, ckog & & j- J! 15aii t.slur g W I & & &I di ;9 j K J.G di p3 li((.L&+ : A j U JL3 ‘$31 dM.dG& J! &$I + d l ~ L Y ~ L !g- - b f jd'g i-uA!L 4 1 Xp lp $5 $1 L I j d S+ S f i Gdd K ) ) ((.c&! j m l G7 & G G L++. I+ $+ & + +& &wi" 4.- i ~ 6 1 1+i .L 4 !+ '$Y! G U Y %+ 6+ ASLf;l &.id! @ @lii!I A>& $&ad ;&lo ++ ;c 13ii&c+ijK3 18.3+9 Jjp3j+L ?jl+di Attempt j l + + A 9 0 ?LC JU "IX g 'I0 ?LC &Z JJp9 LG3 'at a Theory of Electrical and Optical Phenomena in Moving Bodies r t s L a $31 d M 9 LlALhll ~ 9 ~ U . l;o + d l js;,J +* +WI " J . ~ L O S ~ Y I
  84. 84. &,WI +-"+! J! kiQ jJY3h * ~ $k & GLC 2 0 . G ~34i;j Jr el;? LC . L W L ~ & ~ ~ Q L ~ ? J ~ + +u m ~ ~ t i + i- ~ - u i +e u . . . - - - a " G;l~&&I j3i,,AK $91 AWI J ;&L hi J! ,ki L& ' ~ Y Y J 4 r .WI cl_t i ~ j; 9 ~u . k o ~ ~&uil~ilr. L J! +U +.jyJ! &$I +MI p I&M &e+i j K .j+L A> JC &dLL '$91 +G ~ IJ ~ IL+ J- +LA- JL &A GI,, : J U ~.k;K &i &+ & ++ 21J I ~ ~ ~ A ~9 , ~,&i i,+3zi3+ LK rn 21((.LWlU I". L-J& +&I,, + U l ;,hlr~rj- O& - ZL&&e+i G - ~ JJy3 j&L @LA3 'Max Wertheimer - - &L d W I j,i e3irn - ?;II & .&e+i w .-91 L(L- J.- 4 6 u? L.+ 4 +, +.L ACWI j K e+l I d - Arthur I. Miller & Gi ".~JWI L,J& &'I+, +d -6 &~lijli-- ?ILLI ;&41 &!dl ~ l p l l lJ r+dL &dl $41;, dlj G3 p+2 4 9 e+dI > 3441 U &IT L& G b > j&&L +$ & is+ &j L l d l- . J JU GI 'Robert Shankland &%ik ~ 4 . 0?L & 9 , ~?IS j +13 JU ,d ' 4 . 0 ?L u? Y! JJw 23,,.9Y1 +A ~;ii&ib: ; i 2 ) ~ 1J - +>I GI '1% ~ s ~ l c i ;I LWI zr-;Y~ -I " ~ L ~ I ; Q ~ ~ ~ ~ - U I ~ L ~ ~ I L A ~ ~ ~ ; ~ I S Q-. - - . - . .. '&dI J! WL$YI A W Y 5?gLlI ;;b!i$Yl Sp -IJ, A S @ b+ J- -&I-.- @~.IIOL -1 ijh 24.ki+21- iGdJ k3 2 5 . + d I3b9 & ^12;1&W L+tJl I- 489 + >& j K L p ~ s. 4 o ?LCt,4 ,,I+ *~gi d 3 s 3 1 ?~dimsll li. ;K kJ- g+ d K Q +- y14 %& JL & J+ ;,I+, c L ,l&L 3> ;i!+ ;.Y3 - egrbdL U I -3 @

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