Nursing Research Lec. Copy


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nursing Research Lec. Copy

  2. 2. DEFINITIONS,NATURE AND SCOPE <ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>Is a scientific study or investigation that is pursued to discover facts, revise theories or laws based on new facts and practical application of these </li></ul><ul><li>( webster,1992) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Research is derived from the old French word: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cerchier” meaning “to seek or search”. </li></ul><ul><li>The prefix “re” means “again” and signifies replication of the search. </li></ul><ul><li>“ One seeks extensively for new knowledge in a specific to life situations” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Is a formal, systematic and intensive process of analyzing problems through scientific means for purposes of “ discovery and development of an organized body of knowledge”(Abdellah,1986) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Is likewise a systematic collection and analysis of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships”( Treece and Treece,1986) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ A way of dealing with ideas” for purposes of clarifying , verifying and confirming data (Polit and Hungler,1985) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Nursing Research <ul><li>Is viewed from two angles, as follow: </li></ul><ul><li>1. With nurses as principal investigator, it is research intended to determine the causes and prevention of diseases, the promotion of health in the growth and development processes, and the rehabilitation of patients for a more productive life. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. Research on nursing care aims at knowing the health care of individuals and groups and the biological, physiological,social, behavioral and environmental factors that influences health and disease in relation to nursing care </li></ul>
  9. 9. General and Specific Purposes of Research <ul><li>General Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>To answer questions or solve problems, to observe in order to know, to know in order to predict, to predict in order to practice and prescribe accurately and in a professioonal manner ( Polit and Hungler,1995) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Specific purposes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Description- describe a phenomenon that relates to the nursing profession, observe, define, describe and document situations under inquiry </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>2. Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and record the phenomenon under inquiry; answers “what” questions on the phenomenon, use sufficient examples to become familiar with the phenomenon for more precise and accurate understanding of this </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.1. How do nurses react to aggresive patients? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do a patient’s age and sex play any role in his recovery? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3. Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Seek clarification of a prevailing situation. It answer questions that ask “ why” a phenomenon occured. “why this happen?” </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Why do younger children need more parenting than older children? </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Prediction and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Research anticipates possible psychological and physiological reactions to nursing intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction-projects a situation or events that could rise from research investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Control-puts a barrier to hinder or minimize the effects of anticipated outcomes or reactions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ex. Incidence of Down’s syndrome in infants is expected to increase with the age of the mother </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICT-(projection of the greater risk of a 40yo woman compared to a 25yo one in bearing child with Down’s syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL-(partial control of the outcome by educating average women on the risks of child bearing, and offering amniocentesis to women over 35yo) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ethics in Research <ul><li>There must be voluntary participation on the respondents, who have the following rights which the reseacher is expected to respect </li></ul><ul><li>The respondents must be free from any physical and psychological exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymity and confidentiality </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Reseach <ul><li>Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>The research consciously manipulates or controls situations related to the study, thus interfering with nature. Observations are done under controlled conditions or in a controlled environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The use of mask to prevent nursery infections </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. Non-experimental </li></ul><ul><li>The research does not interfere with nature, and the conditions for research are realistic or uncontrolled. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Basic or library research-this is intended to increase knowledge in science </li></ul><ul><li>Apllied or Action research-undertaken for practical purposes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Applied Research <ul><li>PROBLEM-SOLVING </li></ul><ul><li>Make assessment s of needs and problems and generates alternative solutions to problems. Its objective is to improve specific situations through research </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. How often is it necessary to take TPR? </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>2. Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Selects the most feasible course of action from given alternatives to solve the problem. Useful in policy making and in improving the image of nursing as a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Should salaries paid to nurse be increased? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>3. Developmental Research </li></ul><ul><li>A research approach used to develop more effective programs, methods and procedures in nursing for more efficient and effective delivery of health care </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Human Resource and Training Development for nurses Managers </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>4. Evaluative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to test the viability, quality or effectiveness of a product, program, method or procedure and answer specific questions on these: </li></ul><ul><li>ex. To what extent has nursing service been improved? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>5. Demonstration Research </li></ul><ul><li>Shows how an already developed procedure or product can be applied to varied situations </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Obtaining baseline data in the prevention of communicable diseases </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>6. Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of an extremely broad range of phenomena, the results of which is comprehensive presentation and interpretation of statistical tabulations of data yielded by a survey. </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Absenteeism among staff nurses in X and Y hospitals </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>7. Explanatory or Correlational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Discovers how the phenomena under study are related </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Correlation between the academic performance of nursing students and their performance as a satff nurse </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>8. Historical Research </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific inquiry into past events </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Past trends in nutrition among children </li></ul>
  26. 26. Basic components of research <ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul><ul><li>background of the study </li></ul><ul><li>1. Statement of the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Assumption </li></ul><ul><li>5. Significance of the study </li></ul><ul><li>6. Scope and Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>7. Defintion of terms </li></ul>
  27. 27. How to write Chapter 1 <ul><li>Introduction- the introduction of a thesis should contain a discussion of any of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of the problem( what the problem is all about?) </li></ul><ul><li>The reason or reason why it is necessary to conduct the existence of an unsatisfactory condition </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale study must be discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Historical background of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>A desire to have deeper and clearer understanding of a situation, circumstances or phenomenon </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A desire to find a better way of doing something or of improving a product </li></ul><ul><li>a desire to discover something </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical condition of the study locale </li></ul><ul><li>A link to introduction and the statement of the problem </li></ul>
  29. 29. Guidelines in Selection of a Research Problem or Topic <ul><li>The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Interest of the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization of the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The competence of the researcher to tackle </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of the researcher to finance </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Researchable and Manageable </li></ul><ul><li>a. Data are available and accessible </li></ul><ul><li>b. Data must meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity and verifiability </li></ul><ul><li>c. Answers to the specific questions (subproblems) can be found </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The hypothesis formulated are testable </li></ul><ul><li>Equiptment and instruments for research are available </li></ul><ul><li>Can be completed within a reasonable period of time </li></ul><ul><li>It is significant, important and relevant to the present time </li></ul><ul><li>Results are practical and implementable </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Requires original, critical and reflective thinking to solve it </li></ul><ul><li>Must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of the quality of human life </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to the fund of human knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Show of pave the way for the solution of the problem </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sources of a Nursing Research Problems <ul><li>Clinical Experiences---the nurse’s everyday experiences is a rich source of ideas for research topics </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing Literature---ideas for studies often come from reading the nursing literature </li></ul><ul><li>Social Issues---topics are sometimes suggested by global social or political issues of relevance to the health care community </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Theories---nursing theories and other related discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas from external sources---external sources and direct suggestions can be impetus for a research idea </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Research Problem <ul><li>Ways of stating a research problem </li></ul><ul><li>Problems may be stated in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>A question and/or several questions </li></ul><ul><li>A declarative sentence and/or a series of complete statements </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of both-a statement followed by a series of questions vice versa </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Problem stated in a question form </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Single question </li></ul><ul><li>Who are more proficient at the bedside, the graduates of a diploma program or those of the basic degree program? </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Single question followed by a series of questions </li></ul><ul><li>What are the common methods of contraception practiced by fifty selected mothers in brgy.Escopa? </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Is the selected mothers of a particular method influenced by religion, socio-economic status or education of the parents? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do these mothers meet, if any, in the particular method of their choice? </li></ul><ul><li>What implications does this study have for public health nurses in the area? </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>2. Problems stated in the form of a declarative sentence </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Single declarative sentence </li></ul><ul><li>a. To determine whether people who watch television read fewer books </li></ul><ul><li>b. To identify common problems of Chief Nurses in some government emergency hospitals </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>2.2 A series of declarative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>The study attempts to determine: </li></ul><ul><li>The general food patterns and food intake as well as food choices of families whose mothers had nutrition education background </li></ul><ul><li>The food groups in which their meals were deficient </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>3. A declarative sentenced followed by a series of questions- </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the proper </li></ul><ul><li>sequence of learning experiences in operating room nursing geared to the needs of students and patients in surgery: </li></ul><ul><li>What were the needs of the students and patients in surgery? </li></ul><ul><li>What sequence of learning was provided for students in operating room in particular? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Guideliness in Writing the Title <ul><li>Thesis writer should be guided by the following in the formulation of his Title: </li></ul><ul><li>The title is formulated before the start of the research work </li></ul><ul><li>Must contain the subject matter of the study, the locale of the study,the population involved, and the period when the data were gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Be broad enough to include all aspects of the subbject matter </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Be brief and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Title contains more than one line, it must be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in capital letters </li></ul>
  43. 43. RESEARCH VARIABLES <ul><li>Are qualities, properties or characteristics of people, things, events or situations under study, which are assessed quatitatively or qualitatively </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Height,weight,sex,age,blood type,Bp reading, pre-operative anxiety, among others </li></ul>
  44. 44. Kinds of Variables <ul><li>Explanatory ---refers to the phenomenon under study and the focus of the research </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables- these are factors that are being manipulated by the researchers, also called experimental, treatment, causal or stimulus variables </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variables- variable that is affected or influenced by the independent variables </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Correlated or Intervening Variables—variables that exists between the independent and the dependent variables </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-operative teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Primary nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of pain relief need by the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Status/extent of patisfactient satisfaction </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Interverning variables </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Skill of the nurse </li></ul><ul><li>Age, sex, education and training </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>2. Extraneous or Exogenous Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Organismic Variables---these are physiological, psychological and demographic factors that could affect the outcome of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Age, sex, civil status, education etc. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>2. Environmental Variables—these are economics, anthropological, sociological and physical factors that influence the phenomenon under study </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Climate, home setting and family composition </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>INDICATORS </li></ul><ul><li>These are statements of traits, characteristics, trends and practices that define or describe the variables </li></ul><ul><li>Variables Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nursing care levels and categories </li></ul><ul><li>2.Nursing educ. Bacallaureate,old,new </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distress extent of deg.(mild) </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>3. ABSTRACT VARIABLES </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that have different values, which are quatitatively measured and statistically tested through the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Age- values from 0-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Bp- 120/80 or 180/110 </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>4. Dichotomous Variables—Factors with only 2 values used in comparative studies and specifically identified in the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Smoker-non-smoker </li></ul><ul><li>5. Active Variables—factors which the researcher creates/manipulates commonly used in experimental research </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Drug type A and B effects on BP </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>6. Attribute Variables—pre-existing characteristics of the subjects which the reseacher simply observes and measures </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. The religious background of the nurse affects their attitude toward death and dying </li></ul>
  54. 54. ASSUMPTIONS <ul><li>An assumption is a self evident truth which is based upon a known fact or phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>3 types </li></ul><ul><li>Universally Assumption—comes from the knowledge of the researcher and from observed facts related to the problem which are presumed as true on the basis of observations, experiences, and findings of previous researchers—needs no testing or verification </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. All human beings need love </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>2. Study Assumption—confirms the validity of the explanatory variables as serve as basis for formulating the hypothesis of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Nursing care influences the recovery of the patients </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>3. Theory or Research Based Assumption </li></ul><ul><li>these are assumptions premised on the theories applicable to the field of study. It may come from the findings of previous researchers and need further confirmation or validation </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Attitudes and behaviors of nurses are affected by the type of disease and severity of manifestations felt by the patient </li></ul>
  57. 57. Characteristics of Assumption <ul><li>They are universally accepted </li></ul><ul><li>They are theories applicable to a particular field of study </li></ul><ul><li>They refer to the findings of previous related researchers </li></ul>
  58. 58. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis is a tentative conclusion or answer to a specific question raised at the beginning of the investigation. It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific question. </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>The OPERATIONAL—stated in affirmative form </li></ul><ul><li>The NULL—is stated in the negative form </li></ul>
  59. 59. Purpose,Function and importance of hypotheses or Specific question <ul><li>They the researcher in designing his study: </li></ul><ul><li>What method </li></ul><ul><li>Research instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling design </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>What data to be gather </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>2. They serve as bases for determining assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>They serve as bases for determining the relevance of the data </li></ul><ul><li>They serve as bases for the explanation or discussion about the data gathered </li></ul><ul><li>They help or guide the researcher in consolidating his findings and in formulating his conclusions are answers to the hypotheses or specific questions </li></ul>
  61. 61. Definition of Terms <ul><li>TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Definition—A universal definition of a term understood by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES: dictionary and related literature </li></ul><ul><li>Operational—the researchers own definition of terms as used in as data in her </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES: empirical data, previous studies </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>3. Difinition from authorative sources—taken from authorities on the subjects or terms </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Morale—acc. To Keith, is a state................... </li></ul>
  63. 63. Scope and Delimitations of the Study <ul><li>1.A brief statement of the general purpose </li></ul><ul><li>2. The subject matter and topics studied </li></ul><ul><li>3. Locale of the study </li></ul><ul><li>4. Population from which the respondents were selected </li></ul><ul><li>5. The period of the study </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>How to write chapter 2 Review of related literature </li></ul><ul><li>A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Most often associated with science-oriented literature, such as a thesis , the literature review usually precedes a research proposal, methodology and results section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as future research that may be needed in the area. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>A good literature review is characterized by: a logical flow of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology ; and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>According to Cooper (1988) &quot;a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. </li></ul><ul><li>The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Second a literature review seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports&quot;. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>ALL cited literature was written and published in the past, so use past tense to refer to the findings of these studies. An article published in 1995 was written in 1994 or even earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use first names when referring to the authors of studies you cite. </li></ul><ul><li>People who use them rarely are consistent in their use of such names. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only last names in the body of the manuscript. In the references list, use last names and initials. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach reduces attention to the gender of the author, thereby attenuating discrimination on irrelevant dimensions. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary: a recap of the important information of the source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis: a re-organization, or a reshuffling of that information. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Preparing Scholarly Reviews of the Literature <ul><li>1.Searching-Finding what you need and avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>An avalanche of irrelevant references. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Assessing-Determining whether their findings </li></ul><ul><li>& conclusions should be relied upon </li></ul><ul><li>or are likely to be misleading </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>3.Integrating- </li></ul><ul><li>To make the best assessment of what is known about the topic, to identify promising future research, to improve conceptual frameworks for research, and determine advantages and disadvantages of previously used methodologies. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Ask yourself these questions: <ul><li>What is the specific thesis , problem , or research question that my literature review helps to define? </li></ul><ul><li>Reminder: Read generally for an overview of your overall research area before defining your topic precisely. </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>What type of literature review am I conducting? Am I looking at issues of theory? Methodology? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using? (e.g. journals, government documents, popular media)? What discipline am I working in (e.g., nursing, psychology, sociology, medicine)? </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Reminder: Define the limits of the review. Too broad a topic will overwhelm you with material; too narrow a topic might mean that you will overlook related work or not fins enough material when you conduct your search. </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Too broad: Health and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Too narrow: The reading skills of Filipino women literacy learners living with HIV/AIDS victims in Luzon </li></ul><ul><li>Just right: How does learners’ health effect learning outcomes in the Filipino Literacy Program (FLP)? </li></ul><ul><li>How good was my information seeking ? Has my search been wide enough to ensure I’ve found all relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the number of sources I’ve used appropriate for the length of my paper? </li></ul>
  75. 75. Ways to cite related literature <ul><li>Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke 2001). When citing information from another's publication, be sure to report the relevant aspects of the work clearly and succinctly, IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Standard Text Citation Formats <ul><li>There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples (in red): </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970). Click and Clack (1974) demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status (Anon. 1996; Bruhahauser et al 1973).&quot; </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Typically, only the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are given,e.g., Bugjuice 1970 . Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that the reference to the book has a page number (Gumwad 1952: 209 ). This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book (not done for journal articles). The paper by Bugjuice (1970) is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>For two author papers , give both authors' last names (e.g., Click and Clack 1974). Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed &quot;and others&quot; or &quot;et al.&quot;, and then the year. </li></ul><ul><li>When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon. Year, e.g., (Anon. 1996) (Anon. is the abbreviation for anonymous) </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: (Driblick 1923, in Oobleck 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.g., (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970; Bruhahauser et al 1973). </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.g., &quot;...courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970). &quot; </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.g., &quot;...courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970) .&quot; </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Thesis: Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Mortimer, R. 1975. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse ( Mus musculus ) in Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. 83 p. </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>World Wide Web/Internet source citations [REVISED] : WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;.....(Gumwad, B.; </li></ul><ul><li>Internet sources should be included in your Literature Cited section. </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Personal Communications: </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr. Cynthia Mousse. When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It has been found that male mice .... phase three of courtship behavior (C. Mousse, pers. comm.).&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>No date is entered for a personal communication, nor will it be entered in your Literature Cited section. However, the source is usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution. </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Plagiarism (use of others words, ideas, images, etc. without citation) is not to be tolerated and can be easily avoided by adequately referencing any and all information you use from other sources. </li></ul><ul><li>In the strictest sense, plagiarism is representation of the work of others as being your work. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing other's words too closely may be construed as plagiarism in some circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>In journal style papers there is virtually no circumstance in which the findings of someone else cannot be expressed in your own words with a proper citation of the source. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name(s) : <ul><li>All citation entries are listed in alphabetical order based the first author's last name ; </li></ul><ul><li>If the same author(s) are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names , the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article. </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Bugjuice, B., Timm, T. and R. Cratchet. 1990. The role of estrogen in mouse xxxxcourtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62(6):1130-1142. </li></ul><ul><li>Cratchet, R., Bugjuice, B.and T. Timm. 1994. Estrogen, schmestrogen!: Mouse xxxx( Mus musculus ) as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33(6):113 -114. </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>If the same author(s) are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bugjuice, B. 1970a. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. ....x.J Physiol 40(2):140-145. </li></ul><ul><li>Bugjuice, B. 1970b. Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxxbehavior in female mice. J Physiol 40(8):1240-1247. </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>If no author is listed, use the word Anonymous in place of the author name(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous. 1992 . .....give rest of citation using appropriate format. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Journal Article: Single author Bugjuice, B. 1970. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship ........behavior. J Physiol 40(2):140-145. Bugjuice (1970) OR (Bugjuice 1970) In the citation of Bugjuice's paper, note the following: abbreviation of her first name; no comma (if full name is given, then use a comma); if multiple authors, use commas between; capitalization of the words in the title is just as though it were a sentence; abbreviation of the journal name ; usually the header on the article will list the appropriate abbreviation for the journal; no periods in abbreviated form of journal name; &quot;40&quot; is the volume number &quot;(2)&quot; is the number of the issue ; if no issue is given, the colon follows the volume number; &quot;140-145&quot; is the inclusive page numbers of the article; placement of periods is standard; indentation of the second line (and all subsequent lines) in the citation. This applies to all citations.
  90. 90. Journal: Two authors Timm, T. and B. Bugjuice. 1989. The role of whisker length in mouse ........nose-twitch courtship behavior. J Physiol 61(3):113-118. Timm and Bugjuice (1989) OR (Timm and Bugjuice 1989)
  91. 91. Journal: Multiple authors Bugjuice, B., Timm, T. and R. Cratchet. 1990. The role of estrogen in .......mouse courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 2(6): .......1130-1142. Bugjuice et al . (1990) OR Bugjuice and others (1990) OR (Bugjuice and others 1990)  
  92. 92. Author(s) Unknown or Not Named If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word &quot;Anonymous&quot; in the place of the authors name(s). Anonymous. 1979. STD's and You: A Survival Guide for College Students the 20th Century. Publ.#12-1979, Waazah County Health .......Department, Popville, Maine. 6 p. Anonymous (1979) OR (Anonymous 1979)
  93. 93. Book: single author Gumwad, G. 1952. Behavior patterns of mice. 2nd ed. New York: Harper ........& Row. 347 p. Gumwad (1952:224) OR (Gumwad 1952:224)
  94. 94. Book: multiple authors Huth, J., Brogan, M., Dancik, B., Kommedahl, T., Nadziejka, D., ........Robinson, P., and W. Swanson.1994. Scientific format and style: ........The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6th ed. ........Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 825 p. Huth et al. (1994:625) OR Huth and others (1994:625) OR (Huth and others 1994:625)
  95. 95. Book: authors contributing a specific chapter Kuret, J. and F. Murad. 1990. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related ........substances. In: Gilman A, Rall T, Nies A, Taylor P, editors. The ........pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. ........p. 1334-60. abbreviation of authors first name (one or both initials ok); capitalize title as if it was a sentence; the title is not underlined (contrary to literary format) &quot;2nd ed.&quot; means second edition; if the book is a first edition; no entry is made, here, but if 2nd, 3rd, etc., then the notation is made; give city of publication, and the name of the publisher; year of publication follows authors' names; placement of periods is standard; indentation of all lines after the first. Kuret and Murad (1990:1334-60) OR (Kuret and Murad 1990:1334-60)