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Introduction
• Biofertilizers are natural fertilizer that are microbial inoculants
of Bacteria, Algae Fungi (separately or in combination)
Bacterial Biofertilizer
• Through symbiotic and non-symbiotic or with roots, bacteria
promote soil fertility and increase plant yield.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria:
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
Organisms Activity Association Uses in
crops
Rhizobium N2 fixation Symbiotic Legumes
Azotobacter N2 Fixation Associative Geaminaceous
Crops
(Wheat, rice,
vegetables)
Cyanobacteria N2 Fixation Asymbiotic Rice
PHOSPHATE
SOLUBILIZING
BACTERIA
(Thiobacillus,
Bacillus etc)
Phosphate
solubilizing
Associative Many crops
including pulses
Rhizobium is one of the vital symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
It is gram-negative bacteria capable of forming root nodules in most
leguminous plants and some non-leguminous plants The root modulating
rhizobia is common in occurrence.
Some mutant strains of Rhizobium are more efficient in nitrogenFixation than
wild strains Field trials in India have shown that 10-15% yield increases if
Rhizobium is inoculated in pigeon pea and chickpea
Symbiotic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
• Rhizobium inoculants can add 60 kg N/ha to the legume
pulses and legume oilseed crops.
• Indian farmers can save a lot of money if they use quality-
tested Rhizobium inoculants.
• Rhizobium, in association with legumes, fixes more than
twice the nitrogen amount that can be added by chemical
fertilizers.
• Soybean responds very well to Rhizobium inoculation, and
yield increases more than 50%as compared to un-
inoculated crops. So, the application of Rhizobium is
commercially very important in soybean
• Rhizobium inoculation not only increases yield but also
increases protein contents in grains and pulses.
Importance of Rhizobium as a biofertilizer
• These are free-living soil bacteria that perform N2 fixation.
• These are saprotrophic anaerobes. Azotobacter uses organic
matter present in
• the soil to fix nitrogen symbiotically.
• It can fix up to 30kg nitrogen/ha/yr.
Free living nitrogen fixing Bacteria
Azotobacter
• IARI, New Delhi, showed that if the seeds of Sorghum,
cotton, and wheat are inoculated by Azotobacter
chroococcum, the yield increases 38%, 27%, and 10%,
respectively.
• The inoculation with Azotobacter has increased Vitamin C
contents in tomatoes.
• Field experiments with wheat, peas, cabbage, rice, and
jowar have shown a significant increase in crop yield by
Azotobacter inoculum.
• Azotobacter inoculum enhances seed germination;
therefore, small and marginal marginal farmers can
increase the yield using the Azotobacter seed bacterization
method.
Importance of Azotobacter as a biofertilizer
• The bacteria like Thiobacillus, Bacillus, etc., convert the non-
available inorganic phosphorus present in the soil into an
available form utilized by crop plants. The active strains of
bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and fungi viz
Penicillium, Aspergillus, Streptomyces secrete organic acids
like formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, fumaric acid,
succinic acid, etc. These acids lower the pH of the soil, and
insoluble phosphates in the soil are converted into soluble
forms and made available to crops.
Phosphate solubilizing bacterial Fertilizer
• The principal mechanism is the production of mineral
dissolving compounds such as organic acids, siderophores,
protons,hydroxyl ions and CO2.
• Organic acids produced together with their carboxyl and
hydroxyl ions chelate cations or reduce the pH to release P.
• The excretion of these organic acids is accompanied by a drop
in pH that results in the acidification of the microbial cells and
the surroundings, hence, P ions are released by substitution
of H+ for Ca2+
Importance of Phosphate solubilizing
bacteria
THANK YOU 😊

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Biofertilizers ppt.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Introduction • Biofertilizers are natural fertilizer that are microbial inoculants of Bacteria, Algae Fungi (separately or in combination)
  • 3. Bacterial Biofertilizer • Through symbiotic and non-symbiotic or with roots, bacteria promote soil fertility and increase plant yield. Nitrogen fixing bacteria: Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
  • 4. Organisms Activity Association Uses in crops Rhizobium N2 fixation Symbiotic Legumes Azotobacter N2 Fixation Associative Geaminaceous Crops (Wheat, rice, vegetables) Cyanobacteria N2 Fixation Asymbiotic Rice PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA (Thiobacillus, Bacillus etc) Phosphate solubilizing Associative Many crops including pulses
  • 5. Rhizobium is one of the vital symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It is gram-negative bacteria capable of forming root nodules in most leguminous plants and some non-leguminous plants The root modulating rhizobia is common in occurrence. Some mutant strains of Rhizobium are more efficient in nitrogenFixation than wild strains Field trials in India have shown that 10-15% yield increases if Rhizobium is inoculated in pigeon pea and chickpea Symbiotic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. • Rhizobium inoculants can add 60 kg N/ha to the legume pulses and legume oilseed crops. • Indian farmers can save a lot of money if they use quality- tested Rhizobium inoculants. • Rhizobium, in association with legumes, fixes more than twice the nitrogen amount that can be added by chemical fertilizers. • Soybean responds very well to Rhizobium inoculation, and yield increases more than 50%as compared to un- inoculated crops. So, the application of Rhizobium is commercially very important in soybean • Rhizobium inoculation not only increases yield but also increases protein contents in grains and pulses. Importance of Rhizobium as a biofertilizer
  • 9. • These are free-living soil bacteria that perform N2 fixation. • These are saprotrophic anaerobes. Azotobacter uses organic matter present in • the soil to fix nitrogen symbiotically. • It can fix up to 30kg nitrogen/ha/yr. Free living nitrogen fixing Bacteria Azotobacter
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. • IARI, New Delhi, showed that if the seeds of Sorghum, cotton, and wheat are inoculated by Azotobacter chroococcum, the yield increases 38%, 27%, and 10%, respectively. • The inoculation with Azotobacter has increased Vitamin C contents in tomatoes. • Field experiments with wheat, peas, cabbage, rice, and jowar have shown a significant increase in crop yield by Azotobacter inoculum. • Azotobacter inoculum enhances seed germination; therefore, small and marginal marginal farmers can increase the yield using the Azotobacter seed bacterization method. Importance of Azotobacter as a biofertilizer
  • 13. • The bacteria like Thiobacillus, Bacillus, etc., convert the non- available inorganic phosphorus present in the soil into an available form utilized by crop plants. The active strains of bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and fungi viz Penicillium, Aspergillus, Streptomyces secrete organic acids like formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, etc. These acids lower the pH of the soil, and insoluble phosphates in the soil are converted into soluble forms and made available to crops. Phosphate solubilizing bacterial Fertilizer
  • 14.
  • 15. • The principal mechanism is the production of mineral dissolving compounds such as organic acids, siderophores, protons,hydroxyl ions and CO2. • Organic acids produced together with their carboxyl and hydroxyl ions chelate cations or reduce the pH to release P. • The excretion of these organic acids is accompanied by a drop in pH that results in the acidification of the microbial cells and the surroundings, hence, P ions are released by substitution of H+ for Ca2+ Importance of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria