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Robbins fom7 ch01


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Robbins fom7 ch01

  1. 1. 1Chapter Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education Managers and Management
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Tell who managers are and where they work • Define management • Describe what managers do • Explain why it’s important to study management • Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining management Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-2
  3. 3. Who Are Managers? Where Do They Work? • Organization – A deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some are deliberate arrangements of people to accomplish a specific purpose. • Common Characteristics of Organizations – Distinct purpose – People working together – A deliberate systematic structure 1-3Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  5. 5. How Are Managers Different from Nonmanagerial Employees? • Nonmanagerial Employees – People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. – Examples, associates, team members • Managers – Individuals in organizations who direct the activities of others. 1-5Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  7. 7. What Titles Do Managers Have? • Top Managers – Responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization. – Examples; President, Chief Executive Officer, Vice- President • Middle Managers – Manage the activities of other managers. – Examples; District Manager, Division Manager • First-line Managers – Responsible for directing nonmanagerial employees – Examples; Supervisor, Team Leader 1-7Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  8. 8. What Is Management? • Management – The process of getting things done effectively and efficiently, with and through people • Effectiveness – “Doing the right things”, doing those tasks that help an organization reach its goals • Efficiency – Concerned with the means, efficient use of resources like people, money, and equipment 1-8Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  10. 10. What Do Managers Do? In the functions approach proposed by French industrialist Henri Fayol, all managers perform certain activities or functions 1-10Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  11. 11. Four Management Functions • Planning – Defining the organizational purpose and ways to achieve it • Organizing – Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals • Leading – Directing the work activities of others • Controlling – Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance 1-11Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  13. 13. What Roles Do Managers Play? Henry Mintzberg observed that a manager’s job can be described by ten roles performed by managers in three general categories • Interpersonal Roles – Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison • Informational Roles – Monitor, Disseminator and Spokesperson • Decisional roles – Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator and Negotiator 1-13Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  15. 15. What Skills Do Managers Need? Robert Katz and others describe four critical skills in managing • Conceptual Skills – Used to analyze complex situations • Interpersonal Skills – Used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate • Technical Skills – Based on specialized knowledge required for work • Political Skills – Used to build a power base and establish connections 1-15Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  16. 16. Is The Manager’s Job Universal? The previous discussion describe management as a generic activity. In reality, a manager’s job varies with along several dimensions • Level in the Organization – Top level managers do more planning than supervisors • Profit vs. Nonprofit – Management performance is measured on different objectives 1-16Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  17. 17. Is the Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d) • Size of the Organization – Small businesses require an emphasis in the management role of spokesperson • National Borders – These concepts work best in English-speaking countries and may need to be modified in other global environments 1-17Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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  20. 20. Why Study Management? • All of us have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed • Organizations that are well managed find ways to prosper even in challenging economic times • After graduation most students become managers or are managed 1-20Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  21. 21. What Can Students of Management Learn From Other Courses? • Anthropology – The study of social societies which helps us learn about humans and their activities • Economics – Provides us with an understanding of the changing economy and competition in a global context 1-21Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  22. 22. What Can Students of Management Learn From Other Courses? (cont’d) • Philosophy – Inquires into the nature of things, particularly values and ethics • Political Science – The study of behavior and groups within a political environment • Psychology – The science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans • Sociology – The study of people in relationship to their fellow human beings 1-22Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  23. 23. What Factors Are Reshaping and Redefining Management? Welcome to the new world of management! Today managers must deal with – Changing workplaces – Ethical and trust issues – Global economic uncertainties – Changing technologies 1-23Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  24. 24. Why Are Customers Important to the Manager’s Job? • Without customers most organizations would cease to exist • Today we’re discovering that employee attitudes and behaviors play a big part in customer satisfaction • Managers must create a customer responsive where employees are friendly, knowledgeable, responsive g to customer needs 1-24Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  25. 25. Why Is Innovation Important to the Manager’s Job? • “Nothing is more risky than not innovating” • Innovation isn’t just important for high technology companies but essential in all types of organizations 1-25Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
  26. 26. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-26 A Brief History of Management’s Roots History Module
  27. 27. Early Management • Management has been practiced a long time. • Organized endeavors directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading and controlling have existed for thousands of years Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-27
  28. 28. Classical Approaches • Scientific Management – Frederick W. Taylor described scientific management as a method of scientifically finding the “one best way to do a job” Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-28
  29. 29. Other Classic Approaches • General Administrative Theory – focused on what constituted good management – Max Weber (pictured) described the bureaucracy as an ideal rational form of organization – Henri Fayol identified five management functions and 14 management principles Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-29
  30. 30. Behavioral Approaches • Early management writers included – Robert Owen, was concerned about deplorable working conditions – Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer the field of industrial psychology – Mary Parker Follett recognized hat organizations could be viewed from both individual and group behavior. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-30
  31. 31. The Hawthorne Studies • Conducted at the Western Electric Company Works these studies: – Provided new insights into individual and group behavior in the behavior of people at work. – Concluded that group pressures can significantly impact individual productivity Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-31
  32. 32. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1–32 Quantitative Approaches • Quantitative Approach – Used quantitative techniques to improve decision making – Evolved from mathematical and statistical solutions developed for military problems during World War II – W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran ‘s ideas became the basis for total quality management (TQM)
  33. 33. Contemporary Approaches • Focused on managers’ concerns inside the organization – Chester Barnard wrote in his 1938 book The Functions of the Executive that an organization functioned as a cooperative system – Fred Feildler first popularized the contingency approach (or situational approach) which says that organizations, employees, and situations are different and require different ways of managing Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education 1-33
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