Development of GM Crops (Methods) against insect diversity

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Insertion of Foreign gene into host plant from any other plant or organism to make plant resistance against insect pests attack or to increase plant productivity/shelf life is known as "Genetically Modified Plants"

My presentation included
1. Methods to make GM crops
A. Direct Gene Methods
B. Vector Mediated Methods
C. Intact plant Methods

A. Direct Methods:
i. Physical Methods
ii. Chemical Methods
Physical Methods:
i. Micro-injection
ii. Particle bombardment
iii. Gene Gun Method
iv. Laser Micro-Beam
v. Electroporation
Chemical Methods:
i. Physico-chemical Uptake of DNA
ii. Liposome Encapsulation
iii. Silicon Carbide Fiber
B. Vector Mediated Methods:
i. Bacteria
ii. Viruses
C. Intact Plant
i. Macro-Injection
ii. Pollen Tube Pathway
2. Why Need to make GM Crops
Increase Shelf Life, Productivity, make Resistance against insect pests etc
3. Risks/Side Effects of GM Crops
4. Released Varieties of GM Crops
Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Papaya, Oil seeds
5. Resistance against Insect Diversity
Mosaic Viruses, Bollworms, Ringspot Vrius etc
6. Questions 

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Development of GM Crops (Methods) against insect diversity

  1. 1. PRESENTER SUPERVISOR MUHAMMAD SAJID ASLAM 2009-AG-2138 DR. M. ALTAF SABRI ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR2nd Semester M.Sc (Hons) Entomology
  2. 2. Development of Genetically Modified Crops For Resistance against Insect SEMINAR-720
  3. 3. CONTENTS  Introduction to GM Crops  Biological Requirements to Make GM Crops  Methods to Make GM Crops  Need of GM Crops  GM Crops Released  Traits of Different GM Crops  Bt Cotton Varieties, Production  Risks/ Side Effects  References
  4. 4. GENETIC MODIFICATION OF PLANTS Transfer and stable integration of the genes (Desired) into the genome of a plant, from other plants or organisms. BIOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS TO MAKE GM CROPS  Host Plant/Cells  Genes (Desired)  Vector Suitable  Method to introduce Foreign Gene  Procedure to select and Regenerate Transgenic Plant
  5. 5. METHODS TO INSERT GENE(S) IN PLANT Physical Chemical Direct Gene Transfer (DGT) Biological Vector Medicated Intact Plant
  6. 6. Direct Gene Transfer Physical  Electro-poration  Micro-injection  Gene Gun Method  Particle Bombardment  Laser Micro-beam Chemical  Physico-chemical Uptake of DNA  Liposome Encapsulation  Silicon Carbide Fiber
  7. 7. Vector Mediated Agrobacterium tumefaciens / rhizogenes Viral DNA/RNA viral Intact Plant Pollen tube Pathway Electro-poration in Tissue/Embryo Macro-Injection
  8. 8. • CREATION OF PORES IN PROTOPLAST MEMBRANE BY ELECTRICAL IMPULSES, TO INCREASE PLASMA MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY AND UPTAKE OF DNA, CONTAINED IN THE SURROUNDING SOLUTION. • SUCCESSFULLY USED FOR OBTAINING TRANSGENIC TOBACCO, MAIZE AND
  9. 9. PARTICLE BOMBARDMENT
  10. 10. LASER MICRO-BEAM
  11. 11. liposomes are small lipids bags, in which large number of plasmids are encapsulated. these liposome enters the cell (protoplast) by the process of endo-cytosis and lipase activity release in cytoplasm, for the integration of host genome. not commonly use. Delivery of DNA in plant cell cytoplasm and nucleus by vortexing of suspension culture cells in a medium containing Silicon Carbide Fibers and Plasmid DNA. Simple and inexpensive method. Silicon Carbide Fiber Liposome Encapsulation Plant cell protoplasts treated with PEG (Poly Ethylene Glycol), allowing uptake of DNA from the surrounding solution. Successfully used for obtaining transgenic Maize, Rice, Strawberry, Brassica, etc. Physico-chemical Uptake of DNA
  12. 12. Transferring Gene from Agrobaterium to Plant Cell
  13. 13. Macro- Injection Pollen Tube PathwayIntact Plant Methods
  14. 14. WHY GM CROPS Need of Genetically Modified Crops to  Improve Shelf Life  Improve Nutrition  Resistance Against  Herbicides  Pathogens  Stress
  15. 15. Calgene Quality & Shelf Life 1995 Freedom II Squesh Viral Resistanc e Asgrow Calgene Oil Characteristi cs Canola Laurical 1994 Tomato Flavr Savr 1994 Monsanto Insect Resistance Cotton Potato Maiz Bollguard Newleaf Yeildguard 1996-97 COMPAN Y TRAIT CROP GM CROP RELEASE DATE Agro- evo Monsant o Herbicid e Resistanc e Canola Innovato r Ready 1995-96 Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 1997. 48:297–326 Copyright © 1997 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved, Plant Transformation 298-320 Referenc e
  16. 16. Bt PAPAYA Bt POTATO Cotton (BollGuard) RICE (TT51) MAIZE (Yeild Guard) SWEET POTATOS Resistance to Bollworms Papaya Ring-sopt Virus More Starch Production More Beta-Carotene (Source of Vit. A) Corn Borers (ECB, MSB) Cucumber Mosaic Virus Bt Crop Name GM Traits http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Geneti cally_modified_cro ps#Regulation Referenc e
  17. 17. 4th Largest Producer over World 13th Ranked in World by Production/Acre  40,000 kg seed (Bt Varieties)  IR-FH-901  IR-NIBGE  IR-CIM-448  IR-CIM-443  8,000 Acres  Punjab Areas: Bahawalpur, Multan, Muzaffer Garh  Increase yield 23-28 Maunds/acre 2012: FAOSTAT Lint Production 22,15,000 Tonnes Seed Production 1,29,555 Tonnes Reference: Pakkissan
  18. 18. 2011 3.4 - 2012 7,00,00 0 2.8 6,50,00 0 8 81 YEAR 82 3.22.6 FARME RS %age Planted Area Total Area Area Inc. (%) 2012 wasThird year of bt cotton commercialization *Area in Million Hectare Reference (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri.BiotecApplication
  19. 19. PUNJAB SEED COUNCIL Punjab Seed Council (PSC) approved 39 Varieties of different crops 15- Bt Cotton 1- of each 6- Rice Sugarcane 2- Wheat Tomato 2- Gram Potato 3- Citrus Turnip 4- Peach 3- Flowers 1. FH-118 2. FH-142 3. VH-259 4. BH-178 5. CIM-599 6. CIM-602 7. IR-NIAB-824 8. IUB-222 9. CEMB-33 10.SAIBAN-201 11.SITARA 11M 12.TARZAN-2 13.A-555 14.KZ-188 15. CA- 12 Bt Cotton Crops Referen ce Report by: The Nation Newspaper 12-Dec- 2013
  20. 20. Rank Country 2009 2010 2011 1 China 6,377,000 5,970,000 6,588,950 2 India 4,083,400 5,683,000 5,984,000 3 United States 2,653,520 3,941,700 3,412,550 4 Pakistan 2,111,400 1,869,000 2,312,000 5 Brazil 956,189 973,449 1,673,337 6 Uzbekistan 1,128,200 1,136,120 983,400 7 Turkey 638,250 816,705 954,600 8 Australia 329,000 386,800 843,572 9 Turkmenistan 220,100 330,000 330,000 10 Argentina 135,000 230,000 295,000 — World 19,848,921 22,714,154 24,941,738 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization Top 10 Cotton Producing Countries (in metric tonnes)
  21. 21.  Soil Sterility and Pollution  Food Allergy  Increase Body Toxicity  Negative Reproductive Effects RISKS OF GM CROPS  Negative Effects To Digestive System  Loss of Natural Variety (Genes)  Loss of Natural Enemies (Due to Absence of their host)
  22. 22. Introduction to GM Crops Biological Requirements Methods to Make GM Crops Direct Method Vector Mediated Need of GM Crops Improve Quality Increase Resistance GM Crops Released Traits of Different GM Crops Risks/ Side Effects References
  23. 23.  Bidney D, Scelonge C, Martich J, Burrus M, Sims L, et al. 1992. Microprojectile bombardment of plant tissues increases transformation frequency by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Mol. Biol. 18:301–13  Birch RG, Bower R. 1994. Principles of gene transfer using particle bombardment. In Particle Bombardment Technology for Gene Transfer, ed. N-S Yang, P Christou, pp. 3–37. New York: Oxford Univ. Press  Birch RG, Bower R, Elliott AR, Potier BAM, Franks T, et al. 1996. Expression of foreign genes in sugarcane. In Proc. Int.  Soc. Sugarcane Technol. Congr.,Cartegena, Sept. 1995, 22nd, ed. JH Cock,T Brekelbaum, 2:368– 73. Cali, Colombia: Tecnicana  Birch RG, Franks T. 1991. Development and optimization of microprojectile systems for plant genetic transformation. Aust.J. Plant Physiol. 18:453–69  Bourque JE. 1995. Antisense strategies for genetic manipulations in plants. Plant Sci.105:125–49  Bowen B. 1993. Markers for plant genetransfer. See Ref. 90, 1:89–123  Bower R, Birch RG. 1992. Transgenic sugarcane plants via microprojectile bombardment.Plant J. 2:409–16  Bower R, Elliott AR, Potier BAM, Birch RG. 1996. High-efficiency, microprojectile-mediated cotrans formation of sugarcane, using visible or selectable markers.Mol. Breed. 2:239–49  Buising CM, Benbow RM. 1994. Molecular analysis of transgenic plants generated by microprojectile bombardment: Effect of petunia transformation booster sequence. Mol. Gen. Genet. 243:71–81 References

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