RULES OF AIR:These are the rules which aredesigned to have safe journeythrough air.
History:• The first rules of air were published as Recommendations for Standards, Practices and Procedures — Rules of the Air in the first part of Doc 2010, published in February 1946.• The second recommendation was designated as Annex 2 to the Convention with the title International Standards and Recommended Practices — Rules of the Air. They became effective on 15 September 1948.• On 27 November 1951, the Council adopted a complete new text of the Annex, became effective on 1 April 1952 and applicable on 1 September 1952.• Till today many amendments has been passed.• The most recent amendment to Annex 1, was Amendment 168 (Annex 1, Tenth Edition), adopted by the Council on 23 February 2007.
Action by Contracting States:The Contracting States is required to draw the attention of allthe state bodies(connected with aviation) to the newadamants which has been passed internationally.
Status of Annex components:Not all of These, however, are necessarily found in every Annex:• Standards and Recommended• Appendices comprising material grouped separately for convenience but forming part of the Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.• Definitions of terms used in the Standards and Recommended Practices.• Tables and Figures• Forewords comprising historical and explanatory material.• Notes included in the text.• Attachments
Selection of language:This Annex has been adopted in six languages:• English• Arabic• Chinese• French• Russian• Spanish
Contents of Annex:• Definitions• Applicability of the rules of the air• General rules• Visual flight rules• Instrument flight rule
RULES OF THE AIR:The rules of the air are:• Territorial application of the rules of the air• Compliance with the rules of the air• Responsibility for compliance with the rules of the air• Responsibility of pilot-in-command• Pre-flight action• Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft• Problematic use of psychoactive substances• Protection of persons and property
• Avoidance of collisions• Flight plans• Signals• Time (universal time co-ordinated)• Air traffic control service• Unlawful interference• Interception• VMC
VFRWhen the aircraft is flown in a condition of visibility and distance>VFR flights shall not take off on aerodrome with in a control zone.When the ground visibilty is 5 km.>VFR Flights between sunrise and sunset>VFR flights shall not be taken above FL 200 and in supersonic speed
IFR• Rules applicable to all IFR flightsi. Aircraft equipmentii. Minimum levels• Change from IFR flight to VFR flight• Rules applicable to IFR flights within controlled airspace• Rules applicable to IFR flights outside controlled airspace
SIGNALS:There are two types:• DISTRESS• URGENCY SIGNALS
Distress signals:a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling methodconsisting of the group SOS (. . .———. . . in the Morse Code).b) a radiotelephony distress signal consisting of the spoken wordMAYDAY.c) a distress message sent via data link which transmits the intent ofthe word MAYDAY.d) rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time at shortintervals.e) a parachute flare showing a red light
Urgency signals:There are two types of signalsThe following signals, used either together or separately, mean thatan aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel it to landwithout requiring immediate assistance:a) The repeated switching on and off of the landing lights.b) The repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in suchmanner as to be distinct from flashing navigation lights.
The following signals, used either together or separately, mean thatan aircraft has a very urgent message to transmit concerning thesafety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on boardor within sight:a) a signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signallingmethod consisting of the group XXX.b) a radiotelephony urgency signal consisting of the spoken wordsPAN, PAN.c) an urgency message sent via data link which transmits the intentof the words PAN, PAN.