Radar altimeter presentation

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PRESENTATION, radar altimeter, aviation, aircraft equipment

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  • Radio detection and ranging.
  • LOW RANGE RADIO ALTIMITER
  • Between 3000-30,000 MHz
  • In radio electronics, especially radar terminology, slant range is the line-of-sight distance between two points which are not at the same level relative to a specific datum.
  • For example in binary system we have 0 and 1; the conversion from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 is called a shift
  • The radio-wave propagation delay is usually too short to switch a single antenna between the transmitter and the receiver. That is why single antenna is not reliable
  • The distance from the surface providing the reflection can be calculated as the speed of the radio wave and therefore the time it takes to travel a distance are known quantities S=VT
  • (determining height through other methods such as GPS is not permissible under current legislation)
  • Radar altimeter presentation

    1. 1.  ALTIMETER1. Barometric AltimeterQNHQFEQNE2. Radar altimeterRADIORADARInvented In 1924 byLloyd ESPENSCHIEDIn 1938, in cooperation with Bell Labs, United AirLines used it as a terrain avoidance device
    2. 2. RADARALTIMETERProvides distancebetween plane andground below itRADIOALTIMETER5.2.4.3.1.Measures altitudeabove the terrainLRRARA
    3. 3. DHAnnunciatorDecisionHeightBugFailureWarningFlagAltitudePointerTEST PushButtonDH SETKnobCOMPONENTS
    4. 4.  Accuracy: ± (3%+5’) in landingattitudeFrequency: 4200-4400MHzIt uses SHF band
    5. 5. Antenna has a lobe of about 80It can detect height correctly up tobank angles of about 40For landing as pitch and roll do notnormally exceed 20RadarAltimeterAntenna
    6. 6. METHODS USE IN RADAR ALTIMETRY• Radiation consists of a series of discrete pulses• By transmitting radio waves downward• Interpreting the time it takes for the waves to reflect back• Sends out a continuous transmission wave• Distance = size of shift in signals frequency• The greater the shift the further the distance travelled• Ground proximity warning1.PULSE MODULATED RADAR2.FMCW
    7. 7. OPERATION• It is a CW radar system• Separate transmit and receive antennas• Single antenna is not reliable
    8. 8. Principle Of Radar Altimeter• Frequency modulatedcontinuous wave• It uses the principle ofRADAR• Speed, distanceand time arerelated• S=VT• Radio waves are transmitted towards the ground and the timeit takes them to be reflected back and return to the aircraft istimed
    9. 9. Military Applications1 To fly quite low over theland and the seaTo avoid radar detectionTo avoid targeting byanti-aircraft gunsTo avoid surface-to-air missilesTerrain-following radar, whichallows fighter bombers to fly atextremely low altitudesIn modern fighter aircrafts, forwardterrain looking radars are also usedF/A-18 Super Hornet warplanesflown by the Americans and bythe Australians234567For approach and landingIn low-visibility conditionsIn automatic landingsAllowing the autopilot to know when tobegin the flare maneuverRadar Altimeters give data to theauto throttleGive readings up to 2,500 feet (AGL)Almost all airliners are equipped withradar altimetersConcorde and the British AircraftCorporation BAC 1-11ATR 42 and BAE Jetstream series)1Civil Application23456789

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