Chapter9 noncurrentassetsheldforsale2008

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Chapter9 noncurrentassetsheldforsale2008

  1. 1. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations Chapter 9 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued OperationsReference: IFRS 5Contents: Page 1. Introduction 310 2. Definitions 310 3. Non-current assets held for sale: identification 311 3.1 Overview 311 3.2 Criteria to be met before a non-current asset is classified as ‘held for sale’ 311 3.2.1 General criteria 311 3.2.2 Criteria where a completed sale is not expected within one year 311 3.2.3 Criteria where the asset is acquired with the intention to sell 312 4. Non-current assets held for sale: measurement 312 4.1 General measurement principles 312 4.2 Measurement principles specific to the cost model 313 4.2.1 The basic principles when the cost model was used 313 Example 1: reclassification of an asset measured using the cost model 313 Example 2: reclassification of an asset measured using the cost model 315 4.2.2 The tax effect when the cost model was used 316 Example 3: tax effect of reclassification and the cost model 316 4.3 Measurement principles specific to the revaluation model 317 4.3.1 The principles when the revaluation model was used 317 Example 4: reclassification of an asset using the revaluation model 318 Example 5: re-measurement of an asset held for sale, using the 320 revaluation model 4.4 Reversal of classification as ‘held for sale’ 321 Example 6: re-measurement of assets no longer ‘held for sale’ 322 5. Non-current assets held for sale: disclosure 322 5.1 Overview 322 5.2 In the statement of financial position 322 5.3 In the statement of financial position or notes thereto 323 5.4 Other note disclosure 323 Example 7: disclosure of non-current assets held for sale 323 6. Discontinued operations: identification 325 7. Discontinued operations: measurement 325 8. Discontinued operations: disclosure 326 8.1 In the statement of comprehensive income 326 8.2 In the statement of cash flows 327 8.3 Other note disclosure 328 8.3.1 Components no longer held for sale 328 8.3.2 Criteria met after the end of the reporting period 328 9. Summary 329 309 Chapter 9
  2. 2. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations1. IntroductionAs its name suggests, this IFRS covers two areas, namely:• non-current assets held for sale; and• discontinued operations.With regard to ‘non-current assets’, this IFRS essentially suggests that there needs to be afurther classification in the statement of financial position: ‘non-current assets held for sale’.In addition, it specifies that ‘held for sale assets’ are not to be depreciated.This IFRS does not apply to the following assets since these assets are covered by their ownspecific standards:• Deferred tax assets (IAS 12)• Assets relating to employee benefits (IAS 19)• Financial assets (IAS 39)• Investment property measured under the fair value model (IAS 40)• Non-current assets measured at fair value less point-of-sale costs (IAS 41: Agriculture)• Contractual rights under insurance contracts (IFRS 4)2. DefinitionsDefinitions included in Appendix A of the IFRS include the following:• Current asset: an asset - that is expected to be realised within 12 months after the end of the reporting period; - that is expected to be sold, used or realised (converted into cash) as part of the normal operating cycle; - that is held mainly for the purpose of being traded; or - that is a cash or cash equivalents that is not restricted in use within the 12 month period after the end of the reporting period.• non-current asset: an asset that does not meet the definition of a current asset• discontinued operation: a component of an entity that either has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and: a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, b) is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or c) is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with view to resale.• component of an entity: operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the entity.• disposal group: a group of assets to be disposed of, by sale or otherwise, together as a group in a single transaction, and liabilities directly associated with those assets that will be transferred in the transaction. The group includes goodwill acquired in a business combination if the group is a cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 80-87 of IAS 36 Impairment of Assets (as revised in 2004) or if it is an operation within a cash-generating unit.• firm purchase commitment: an agreement with an unrelated party, binding on both parties and usually legally enforceable, that: a) specifies all significant terms, including the price and timing of the transactions; and b) includes a disincentive for non-performance that is sufficiently large to make performance highly probable.• highly probable: significantly more likely than probable.• probable: more likely than not. 310 Chapter 9
  3. 3. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations3. Non-current assets held for sale: identification (IFRS 5.6 - .12)3.1 OverviewThe main thrust of IFRS 5 is that non-current assets that are ‘held for sale’ must be classifiedseparately in the statement of financial position (i.e. a machine that is held for sale will nolonger be included as part of property, plant and equipment). Certain criteria must first bemet before a non-current asset is classified as a ‘non-current asset held for sale’.3.2 Criteria to be met before a non-current asset is classified as ‘held for sale’3.2.1 General criteriaA non-current asset (or disposal group) must be classified as held for sale if its carryingamount will be recovered mainly through a sale transaction than through continuing use.Non-current assets that meet all the following criteria may be separately classified as ‘non-current assets held for sale’:• Is the asset available for sale immediately and at normal terms? The asset (or disposal group) must be available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (or disposal groups);• Has management committed itself to a sales plan? Management, with the necessary authority to approve the action, must have committed itself to a plan to sell;• Has an active programme to sell begun? The active programme must be to both locate a buyer and to complete the plan to sell the asset (or disposal group);• Is the sale expected to happen within one year? The sale must be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification as held for sale, except as permitted by paragraph 9 and appendix B;• Is the expected selling price reasonable? The asset (or disposal group) must be actively marketed at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value; and• Is it unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made? The actions required to complete the plan must indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.This means that assets that are to be abandoned should not be classified and measured as‘held for sale’ since their carrying amount will be recovered principally through continuinguse (until date of abandonment) rather than through a sale. This means that depreciation onassets that are to be abandoned should not cease.3.2.2 Criteria where a completed sale is not expected within one year (Appendix B)There may be occasions where the asset would still be ‘held for sale’ even though the salemay not be completed and recognised as a sale within one year. This happens when:• At the date that the entity commits itself to a plan to sell a non-current asset (or disposal group), it reasonably expects that others (not a buyer) will impose conditions on the transfer of the asset (or disposal group) that will extend the period required to complete the sale, and: - actions necessary to respond to those conditions cannot be initiated until after a firm purchase commitment is obtained, and - a firm purchase commitment is highly probable within one year.• An entity obtains a firm purchase commitment and, as a result, a buyer or others unexpectedly impose conditions on the transfer of a non-current asset (or disposal group) previously classified as held for sale that will extend the period required to complete the sale, and: - timely actions necessary to respond to the conditions have been taken, and - a favourable resolution of the delaying factors is expected. 311 Chapter 9
  4. 4. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations• During the initial one-year period, circumstances arise that were previously considered unlikely and, as a result, a non-current asset (or disposal group) previously classified as held for sale is not sold by the end of the period, and: - during the initial one-year period the entity took action necessary to respond to the change in circumstances, - the non-current asset (or disposal group) is being actively marketed at a price that is reasonable, given the change in circumstances, and - the criteria in paragraph 7 (that sets out that the asset must be available for immediate sale) and paragraph 8 (that sets out that the sale must be highly probable) are met.3.2.3 Criteria where the asset is acquired with the intention to sell (IFRS 5.11)It may happen that an entity acquires a non-current asset (or disposal group) exclusively withthe view to its subsequent disposal. In this case, the non-current asset must be classified as‘held for sale’ immediately on acquisition date, on condition that:• the one-year requirement is met (unless a longer period is allowed by paragraph 9 and the related appendix B); and• it is highly probable that any other criteria given in para 7 and para 8 that are not met immediately on the date of acquisition, will be met within a short period (usually three months) after acquisition.4. Non-current assets held for sale: measurement (IFRS 5.15 - .25)4.1 General measurement principlesAn entity shall measure a non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale atthe lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.If a newly acquired asset (or disposal group) meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale,applying paragraph 15 will result in the asset being measured on initial recognition at thelower of its carrying amount had it not been so classified (e.g. cost) and fair value less costs tosell. Since the asset is newly acquired, its cost will equal its fair value. Therefore, an assetacquired as part of a business combination, shall initially be measured at fair value (its cost)less costs to sell.For all other assets (other than newly acquired assets) that are classified as non-current assetsheld for sale, there are two distinct phases of its life: • Before it was classified as held for sale; and • Once it is classified as held for sale.Before an asset is classified as held for sale, it is measured in terms of its own relevant IFRS.If, for example, the asset is an item of property, plant and equipment, the asset will have beenmeasured in terms of IAS 16, which will mean that:• on initial acquisition, the asset will have been recorded at cost; and• subsequently, the asset will have been depreciated, revalued (if the revaluation model was used to measure the asset) and reviewed for impairments annually (whether the cost or revaluation model were used).If this asset is then to be reclassified as ‘held for sale’, it will be measured as follows:• In terms of its previous relevant IFRS: Immediately before reclassifying the asset as ‘held for sale’, the asset must be re- measured using its previous measurement model; for example if the asset was previously an item of property, plant and equipment that was measured using the: • Cost model: depreciate to date of reclassification and then check for impairments; or • Revaluation model: depreciate to date of reclassification, revalue if appropriate and check for impairments; then 312 Chapter 9
  5. 5. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations• In terms of IFRS 5: On reclassifying the asset as ‘held for sale’, - re-measure to the lower of ‘carrying amount’ and ‘fair value less costs to sell’; and - stop depreciating it.If, in the unusual instance a sale is not expected to occur within one year, it may be necessary(depending on materiality) to measure the ‘costs to sell’ at their present value.4.2 Measurement principles specific to the cost model4.2.1 The basic principles when the cost model was usedIf an asset measured under the cost model is re-classified as ‘held for sale’:• immediately before reclassifying the asset as ‘held for sale’, the asset must be re- measured using its previous measurement model (i.e. the cost model per IAS 16, if the item was previously property, plant and equipment);• then, in terms of IFRS 5: - re-measure it to the lower of ‘carrying amount’ and ‘fair value less costs to sell’; - stop depreciating it; and - re-measure to ‘fair value less costs to sell’ whenever appropriate: any impairment loss will be expensed in the statement of comprehensive income whereas impairment losses reversed are recognised as income but are limited to the asset’s accumulated impairment losses.You may have noticed that, when using the cost model, there can be no initial increase in thecarrying amount on classification as ‘held for sale’ because the non-current asset mustinitially be measured at the lower of its ‘carrying amount’ and ‘fair value less costs to sell’.For example, an asset with a ‘carrying amount’ of 80 000 and ‘fair value less costs to sell’ of90 000 will not be adjusted because the lower of the two is the current carrying amount of80 000.Example 1: reclassification of an asset measured using the cost modelAn item of plant, measured using the cost model, has a carrying amount of C80 000 (cost:100 000 and accumulated depreciation: 20 000) on 1 January 20X3 on which date all criteriafor separate classification as a ‘non-current asset held for sale’ are met.Required:Show the journal entries relating to the reclassification of the plant assuming that:A. the fair value is C70 000 and the expected costs to sell are C5 000 on 1 January 20X3;B. on 30 June 20X3 (6-months later), the fair value is C70 000 and expected costs to sell are C2 000;C. on 30 June 20X3 (6-months later), the fair value is C90 000 and expected costs to sell are C5 000.Solution to example 1: reclassification of an asset using the cost modelComment: this example explains the limit to the reversal of the impairment loss.A. If carrying amount > ‘fair value less costs to sell’: recognise an ‘impairment loss’ (expense)Workings: CCarrying amount given 80 000Fair value less costs to sell: 70 000 – 5 000 (65 000)Decrease in value (impairment loss) 80 000 – 65 000 15 000 313 Chapter 9
  6. 6. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsJournal: 1 January 20X3 Debit CreditImpairment loss (expense) 15 000 - Plant: accumulated impairment loss 15 000Impairment loss before initial classification as ‘held for sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset.B. If ‘fair value less costs to sell’ subsequently increases: recognise a ‘reversal of impairment loss’ (income) – limited to accumulated impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell: 70 000 – 2 000 68 000Prior fair value less costs to sell: 100 000 cost – 20 000 accum depreciation – (65 000) 15 000 impairment lossImpairment loss reversed*: 68 000 – 65 000 3 000* Note: the ‘accumulated impairment loss’ is 15 000 before the reversal, thus the reversal of 3 000 isnot limited (the previous accumulated impairment loss is bigger: 15 000 is bigger than 3 000).Journal: 30 June 20X3 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated impairment loss 3 000- Impairment loss reversed (income) 3 000Reversal of impairment loss: on re-measurement of ‘NCA held for sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset. The impairment to date is C12 000 (15 000 – 3 000)C. If ‘fair value less costs to sell’ subsequently increases: recognise a ‘reversal of impairment loss’ (income) – limited to accumulated impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell: 90 000 – 5 000 85 000Prior fair value less costs to sell 100 000 – 20 000 accum depreciation – (65 000) 15 000 impairment lossIncrease in value 20 000Limited to prior cumulative impairment losses 15 000Impairment loss reversed*: 85 000 – 65 000 = 20 000 limited to 15 000 15 000* Note: the difference between the latest ‘fair value less costs to sell’ (85 000) and the prior ‘fair valueless costs to sell’ (65 000) of 20 000 is limited to the previous ‘accumulated impairment loss’ of 15000.Journal: 30 June 20X3 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated impairment loss 15 000 - Impairment loss reversed (income) 15 000Reversal of impairment loss on re-measurement of ‘non-current asset heldfor sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset. The impairment to date is C0 (15 000 – 15 000) 314 Chapter 9
  7. 7. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsExample 2: reclassification of an asset measured using the cost modelAn item of plant, measured using the cost model (i.e. at historical carrying amount), has acarrying amount of 80 000 (cost 100 000) on 1 January 20X3 on which date all criteria forseparate classification as a ‘non-current asset held for sale’ are met. This asset had previouslybeen impaired by 3 000 (i.e. this is the balance on the accumulated impairment loss account).Required:Show the journal entries relating to the reclassification of the plant assuming:A. the fair value is 70 000 and the expected costs to sell are 5 000 on 1 January 20X3;B. 6 months later, on 30 June 20X3, the fair value is 70 000 and the expected costs to sell are 2 000;C. 6 months later, on 30 June 20X3, the fair value is 90 000 and the expected costs to sell are 5 000.Solution to example 2: reclassification of an asset measured using the cost modelComment: this example explains the limit to the reversal of the impairment loss. It differs from theprevious example in that this asset had previously been impaired before it was reclassified as a non-current asset held for sale.A. If carrying amount > ‘fair value less costs to sell’: recognise an ‘impairment loss’ (expense)Workings: CCarrying amount given 80 000Fair value less costs to sell: 70 000 – 5 000 (65 000)Decrease in value (impairment loss) 80 000 – 65 000 15 000Journal: 1 January 20X3 Debit CreditImpairment loss (expense) 15 000 - Plant: accumulated impairment loss 15 000Impairment loss on initial classification of NCA as ‘held for sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset. The impairment to date is now C18 000 (3 000 + 15 000)B. If ‘fair value less costs to sell’ subsequently increases: recognise a ‘reversal of impairment loss’ (income) – limited to accumulated impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell 70 000 – 2 000 68 000Prior fair value less costs to sell 70 000 – 5 000 (65 000)Increase in value (impairment loss reversed*) 68 000 – 65 000 3 000* Note: the ‘accumulated impairment loss’ is 18 000 before this reversal (15 000 + 3 000), thereforethe impairment loss reversal of 3 000 is not limited (the previous accumulated impairment loss isbigger: 18 000 is bigger than 3 000).Journal: 30 June 20X3 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated impairment loss 3 000- Impairment loss reversed (income) 3 000Reversal of impairment loss on re-measurement of ‘asset held for sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset. The impairment to date is now C15 000 (18 000 - 3 000) 315 Chapter 9
  8. 8. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsC. If ‘fair value less costs to sell’ subsequently increases: recognise a ‘reversal of impairment loss’ (income) – limited to accumulated impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell: 90 000 – 5 000 85 000Prior fair value less costs to sell 70 000 – 5 000 (65 000)Increase in value 20 000Limited to prior cumulative impairment losses 15 000 + 3 000 18 000Impairment loss reversed*: 85 000 – 65 000 = 20 000 limited to 15 000 18 000* Note: The difference between the latest ‘fair value less costs to sell’ and the prior ‘fair value lesscosts to sell’ of 20 000 is limited to the ‘cumulative impairment loss’ recognised of 18 000, calculatedas follows: C Impairment loss: 18 000 - before reclassification given 3 000 - on reclassification 80 000 – 65 000 15 000Journal: 30 June 20X3 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated impairment loss 18 000- Impairment loss reversed (income) 18 000Reversal of impairment loss on re-measurement of ‘asset held for sale’Note: There is no depreciation on this asset. The impairment to date is now C0 (18 000 - 18 000)4.2.2 The tax effect when the cost model was usedAs soon as an asset is classified as held for sale, depreciation thereon ceases. The taxauthorities, however, do not stop deducting tax allowances (where tax allowances were due interms of the tax legislation) simply because you have decided to sell the asset. The differencebetween the nil depreciation and the tax allowance (if appropriate) causes deferred tax. Theprinciples affecting the current tax payable and deferred tax balances are therefore exactly thesame as for any other non-current asset.Example 3: tax effect of reclassification and the cost modelAn item of plant, measured using the cost model (i.e. at historical carrying amount), has acarrying amount of C70 000 (cost 100 000) and a tax base of C90 000 on 1 January 20X3 onwhich date all criteria for separate classification as a ‘non-current asset held for sale’ are met.The fair value less costs to sell on this date are C65 000. This asset had not previously beenimpaired. The tax authorities allow a deduction of 10% on the cost of this asset. The tax rateis 30%. The profit before tax is correctly calculated to be C200 000. There are no temporaryor permanent differences other than those evident from the information provided.Required:A. Calculate the current normal tax payable and the deferred tax balance at 31 December 20X3.B. Journalise the current normal tax and the deferred tax for the year ended 31 December 20X3. 316 Chapter 9
  9. 9. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsSolution to example 3: tax effect of reclassification and the cost modelA: CalculationsCurrent normal income tax Calculations CProfit before tax 200 000Add back depreciation Assets held for sale are not depreciated 0Add back impairment Impairment on re-classification as ‘held for sale’ 5 000Less tax allowance 100 000 x 10% (10 000)Taxable profits 195 000Current tax 195 000 x 30% 58 500Deferred tax: Carrying Tax Temporary DeferredNon-current asset held for sale amount base difference taxBalance – 1 January 20X3 70 000 90 000 20 000 6 000 AssetLess impairment to ‘fair value – (5 000) 0 Cr DT,costs to sell’ (70 000 – 65 000) (1 500) Dr TEDepreciation/ tax allowance 0 (10 000)Balance – 31 December 20X3 65 000 80 000 15 000 4 500 AssetB: Journals31 December 20X3 Debit CreditTax expense 58 500 Current tax payable (liability) 58 500Current normal tax payable (estimated)Tax expense 1 500 Deferred tax (liability) 1 500Deferred tax adjustment4.3 Measurement principles specific to the revaluation model4.3.1 The principles when the revaluation model was usedIf an asset measured under the revaluation model is reclassified as ‘held for sale’:• immediately before reclassifying the asset as ‘held for sale’, the asset must be re- measured using its previous measurement model (i.e. the revaluation model per IAS 16);• then, in terms of IFRS 5: - re-measure it to the lower of ‘carrying amount’ and ‘fair value less costs to sell’; - stop depreciating it; and - then re-measure it to ‘fair value less costs to sell’ whenever appropriate: any further impairment loss (e.g. the selling costs) is expensed (even if there is a revaluation surplus) whereas an impairment loss reversed is recognised as income but is limited to the asset’s accumulated impairment losses. 317 Chapter 9
  10. 10. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsExample 4: reclassification of an asset measured using the revaluation modelAn item of plant, revalued to fair value using the revaluation model, met all criteria forclassification as ‘held for sale’ on 1 January 20X4. The following information is relevant:Cost: 100 000 (purchased 1 January 20X1)Depreciation: 10% per annum straight-line to nil residual values.Fair value: 120 000 (revalued 1 January 20X3).Revaluations are performed using the net replacement value methodRequired:Show all journal entries relating to the reclassification as ‘held for sale’ assuming that:A. The fair value is C100 000 and the expected selling costs are C9 000 on 1 January 20X4;B. The fair value is C150 000 and the expected selling costs are C20 000 on 1 January 20X4.C. The fair value is C60 000 and the expected selling costs are C20 000 on 1 January 20X4.Solution to example 4: reclassification of an asset measured using the revaluation modelA. If the actual carrying amount > historical carrying amount (i.e. there is already a revaluation surplus) and the fair value decreases on date of reclassification (although not entirely removing the revaluation surplus balance) and there are costs to sell: reverse revaluation surplus due to drop in fair value and recognise selling costs as an ‘impairment loss’ (expense)Workings: CFair value (1 January 20X3) 120 000Accumulated depreciation (31 December 20X3: since 120 000/ 8 remaining years (15 000)the revaluation on 1 January 20X3)Actual carrying amount (1 January 20X4): 120 000 – 15 000 105 000Fair value Given (100 000)Decrease in value (all through revaluation surplus) See below for calculation of RS balance 5 000Actual carrying amount (1 January 20X4): 120 000 – 15 000 (above) 105 000Historical carrying amount (1 January 20X4) 100 000/ 10 years x 7 years (70 000)Balance on the revaluation surplus (1 January 20X4): Proof: (120 000 – 80 000) / 8 x 7 years 35 000Decrease in value (above) (5 000)Balance on the revaluation surplus (1 January 20X4): Further balance against which further 30 000 devaluation would be processed (IAS16)Journals: 1 January 20X4 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 15 000- Plant: cost 15 000NRVM: Accumulated depreciation set-off against costRevaluation surplus FV: C100 000 – Carrying amount: C105 000 5 000- Plant: cost 5 000Re-measurement to FV before reclassificationImpairment loss (selling costs) (expense) 9 000 - Plant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 9 000Re-measurement to lower of CA or FV less costs to sell on reclassification:CA: 100 000 – FV less Costs to Sell: (100 000 – 9 000)Note: There is no further depreciation on this asset. 318 Chapter 9
  11. 11. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsB. If the actual carrying amount > historical carrying amount (i.e. there is already a revaluation surplus) and fair value increases and there are expected costs to sell: increase revaluation surplus due to increase in fair value and recognise the expected selling costs as an ‘impairment loss’ (expense)Workings: CFair value 120 000Accumulated depreciation (31 December 20X3: 120 000/ 8 remaining years (15 000)since the revaluation on 1 January 20X3)Actual carrying amount (1 January 20X4): 120 000 – 15 000 105 000Fair value given 150 000Increase in value (all through revaluation surplus) Through revaluation surplus (45 000) because carrying amount is already above the HCA: 100 000 / 10 x 7Journals: 1 January 20X4 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 15 000 - Plant: cost 15 000NRVM: Accumulated depreciation set-off against cost: 120 000/ 8 yearsremaining on date of revaluationPlant: cost 45 000- Revaluation surplus 45 000Re-measurement to FV before reclassification:FV: 150 000 – Carrying amount: 105 000Impairment loss (selling costs) (expense) 20 000 - Plant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 20 000Re-measurement to lower of CA or FV less costs to sell onreclassification:Carrying amount: 150 000 – FV less costs to sell: (150 000 – 20 000)Note: There is no further depreciation on this asset.C. If the actual carrying amount > historical carrying amount (i.e. there is already a revaluation surplus) and fair value decreases removing the entire balance on the revaluation surplus and there are expected costs to sell: reverse revaluation surplus due to decrease in fair value and recognise the expected selling costs as an ‘impairment loss’ (expense)Workings: CFair value 120 000Accumulated depreciation (31 December 20X3: since 120 000/ 8 years (15 000)the revaluation on 1 January 20X3)Actual carrying amount (1 January 20X4): 120 000 – 15 000 105 000Fair value given (60 000)Decrease in value (all through revaluation surplus) See below for calculation of RS bal 45 000Actual carrying amount (1 January 20X4): 120 000 – 15 000 105 000Historical carrying amount (1 January 20X4) 100 000/ 10years x 7 years (70 000)Balance on the revaluation surplus (1 January 20X4): (120 000 – 80 000) / 8 x 7 years 35 000Decrease in value (above) 45 000Reversal: revaluation surplus balance Balance in this account (above) 35 000Impairment loss (balancing figure) 45 000 – 35 000 10 000 319 Chapter 9
  12. 12. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsJournals: 1 January 20X4 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 15 000 - Plant: cost 15 000NRVM: Accumulated depreciation set-off against cost: 120 000/ 8 yearsremaining on date of revaluationRevaluation surplus (ACA: 105 000 – HCA: 70 000) 35 000Impairment loss (HCA: 70 000 – FV: 60 000) 10 000 - Plant: cost 35 000 - Plant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 10 000Re-measurement to FV before reclassification: FV: 60 000 – CA: 105 000Impairment loss (selling costs) (expense) 20 000 - Plant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 20 000Re-measurement to lower of CA or FV less costs to sell on reclassification:CA: 60 000 – FV less costs to sell (60 000 – 20 000)Note: There is no further depreciation on this asset.Example 5: re-measurement of an asset held for sale using the revaluation modelAn item of plant, revalued to fair value using the revaluation model, met all criteria forclassification as ‘held for sale’ on 1 January 20X4. The following information is relevant:Cost: 100 000 (purchased 1 January 20X1)Depreciation: 10% per annum straight-line to nil residual values.Fair value: 120 000 (revalued 1 January 20X3).Revaluations are performed using the net replacement value methodThe ‘fair value less costs to sell’ on 1 January 20X4 was as follows:• Fair value (1 January 20X4): 100 000; and• Expected selling costs (1 January 20X4): 9 000.Required:Show all journal entries relating to the re-measurement of the ‘non-current asset held for sale’on 30 June 20X4 assuming that on the 30 June 20X4:A. The fair value is 110 000 and the expected selling costs are 15 000;B. The fair value is C110 000 and the expected selling costs are C3 000;C. The fair value is 90 000 and the expected selling costs are 3 000.Solution to example 5: re-measurement of an asset held for sale: the revaluation modelComment: this example explains the limit on the impairment loss that may be reversed.A. If the new fair value less costs to sell > previous fair value less costs to sell: reverse the impairment loss limited to prior cumulative impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell (30 June 20X4) 110 000 (FV) – 15 000 (cost to sell) 95 000Prior fair value less costs to sell (1 January 20X4) 100 000 (FV) – 9 000 (costs to sell) (91 000)Increase in value 4 000Limited to prior cumulative impairment losses 100 000 (FV before reclassification) – 9 000 91 000 (FV – costs to sell)Therefore: impairment loss reversed Maximum that may be reversed is 9 000; 4 000 thus there is no limitation to the reversal in this case 320 Chapter 9
  13. 13. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsJournals: 30 June 20X4 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 4 000 - Impairment loss reversed (income) 4 000Re-measurement of non-current asset held for sale: increase in fair valueless costs to sellB. If the new fair value less costs to sell > previous fair value less costs to sell: reverse the impairment loss limited to prior cumulative impairment lossesWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell (30 June 20X4) 110 000 (FV) – 3 000 (cost to sell) 107 000Prior fair value less costs to sell (1 January 20X4) 100 000 (FV) – 9 000 (costs to sell) (91 000)Increase in value 16 000Limited to prior cumulative impairment losses 100 000 (FV before reclassification) – 9 000 91 000 (FV – costs to sell)Therefore: reversal of impairment loss 9 000Journals: 30 June 20X4 Debit CreditPlant: accumulated impairment loss 9 000 - Reversal of impairment loss (income) 9 000Re-measurement of non-current asset held for sale: increase in fair valueless costs to sell (limited to 9 000)C. If the new fair value less costs to sell < previous fair value less costs to sell: recognise a further impairment lossWorkings: CNew fair value less costs to sell (30 June 20X4) 90 000 (FV) – 3 000 (cost to sell) 87 000Prior fair value less costs to sell (1 January 20X4) 100 000 (FV) – 9 000 (costs to sell) 91 000Decrease in value (impairment loss) 4 000Journals: 30 June 20X4 Debit CreditImpairment loss (expense) 4 000 - Plant: accumulated depreciation and impairment losses 4 000Re-measurement of non-current asset held for sale: decrease in fair valueless costs to sell4.4 Reversal of classification as ‘held for sale’ (IFRS 5.26 - .29)If a non-current asset that was previously classified as ‘held for sale’ no longer meets thecriteria necessary for such a classification, the asset must immediately cease to be classifiedas ‘held for sale’ and must be re-measured to the lower of:• its carrying amount had the non-current asset never been classified as ‘held for sale’(adjusted for any depreciation, amortisation and/ or revaluations that would have been recognised had the asset not been classified as held for sale); and• its recoverable amount. 321 Chapter 9
  14. 14. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsExample 6: re-measurement of assets no longer classified as ‘held for sale’Plant, with a cost of C100 000 (1 January 20X1) and accumulated depreciation of C20 000 on31 December 20X2 (10% straight-line for 2 years), was reclassified as ‘held for sale’ on31 December 20X2 and immediately impaired to its ‘fair value less costs to sell’ of C65 000.On 30 June 20X3 (six months later), it ceased to meet all criteria necessary for classificationas ‘held for sale’. On this date its recoverable amount is determined to be C85 000.Required:Show all journal entries relating to the re-measurement of plant previously held as a ‘non-current asset held for sale’.Solution to example 6: re-measurement of assets no longer classified as ‘held for sale’Workings: CNew carrying amount (30 June 20X3) to be lower of: 75 000• Carrying amount had the asset never 100 000 – 20 000 – 100 000 x 10% x 6/12 75 000 been classified as ‘held for sale’• Recoverable amount Given 85 000Current carrying amount (30 June 20X3) Fair value – costs to sell (65 000)Impairment loss to be reversed 10 000Journals: Debit Credit30 June 20X3Plant: accumulated impairment loss 10 000 - Impairment loss reversed (income) 10 000Reversal of impairment loss on reclassification of ‘non-current assetheld for sale’ as ‘property, plant and equipment’: criteria no longer metNote: Depreciation on this asset will now begin again.5. Non-current assets held for sale: disclosure (IFRS 5.30 and .38 - .42)5.1 OverviewExtra disclosure is required where the financial statements include either:• a ‘non-current asset held for sale’; or• a ‘sale of a non-current asset’.The classification affects the period during which it was classified as ‘held for sale’. Thismeans that no adjustment should be made to the measurement or presentation of the affectedassets in the comparative periods presented.5.2 In the statement of financial positionNon-current assets (or non-current assets within a disposal group) that are ‘held for sale’ mustbe shown separately in the statement of financial position.If a disposal group includes liabilities, these liabilities must also be shown separately fromother liabilities in the statement of financial position and may not be set-off against the assetswithin the disposal group. 322 Chapter 9
  15. 15. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations5.3 In the statement of financial position or notes theretoMajor classifications of assets within the total of the ‘non-current assets held for sale’ andmajor classifications of liabilities within the total ‘liabilities of a disposal group’ must beshown in the notes (unless shown in the statement of financial position).5.4 Other note disclosureAn entity shall disclose the following information in the notes in the period in which a non-current asset (or disposal group) has been classified as held for sale or sold:a) a description of the non-current asset (or disposal group);b) a description of the facts and circumstances of the sale, or leading to the expected disposal, and the expected manner and timing of that disposal;c) the gain or loss recognised in accordance with IFRS 5 (paragraph 20-22) and, if not separately presented in the statement of comprehensive income, the caption in the statement of comprehensive income that includes that gain or loss;d) if applicable, the segment in which the non-current asset (or disposal group) is presented in accordance with IAS 14 Segment Reporting.If, during the current period, there was a decision to reverse the plan to sell the non-currentasset (or disposal group), the following extra disclosure would be required:a) the description of the facts and circumstances leading to the decision not to sell; andb) the effect of the decision on the results of operations for all periods presented.Example 7: disclosure of non-current assets held for saleAssume that an entity owns only the following non-current assets:• Plant; and• Factory buildings.Details of the plant are as follows:• Plant was purchased on 1 January 20X1 at a cost of C100 000;• Depreciation is provided over 10 years to a nil residual value on the straight-line basis;• Plant was reclassified as ‘held for sale’ on 31 December 20X2 and immediately impaired to its ‘fair value less costs to sell’ of C65 000;• On 30 June 20X3 (six months later), plant ceased to meet all criteria necessary for classification as ‘held for sale’, on which date its recoverable amount is C85 000.Details of the factory buildings are as follows:• The factory buildings were purchased on 1 January 20X1 at a cost of C600 000,• Depreciation is provided over 10 years to nil residual values on the straight-line basis• Factory buildings were reclassified as ‘held for sale’ on 30 June 20X3’ at a ‘fair value less cost to sell’ of C445 000.Required:Disclose all information necessary in relation to the plant and factory buildings in thefinancial statements for the year ended 31 December 20X3. 323 Chapter 9
  16. 16. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsSolution to example 7: disclosure of non-current assets held for saleComment: this example explains how to disclose non-current assets held for sale, as well as how todisclose a non-current asset that is no longer held for sale.Company nameStatement of financial positionAt 31 December 20X3 20X3 20X2Non-current assets C CProperty, plant and equipment 26 70 000 480 000Non-current assets (and disposal groups) held for sale 27 445 000 65 000Non-current liabilitiesLiabilities of a disposal group (for disclosure purposes only) 27 xxx xxxCompany nameNotes to the financial statementsFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 20X3 20X2 C C5. Profit before tax Profit before tax is stated after taking into consideration the following (income)/ expenses: Depreciation – factory building 30 000 60 000 Depreciation – plant 5 000 10 000 Impairment loss – asset held for sale 5 000 15 000 Impairment loss reversed – asset no longer held for sale (10 000) 026. Property, plant and equipment Factory building 0 480 000 Plant 70 000 0 70 000 480 000 Factory building: Net carrying amount – 1 January 480 000 540 000 Gross carrying amount – 1 January 600 000 600 000 Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses – 1 January (120 000) (60 000) Depreciation (to 30 June 20X5) (30 000) (60 000) Impairment loss (to fair value less costs to sell: 450 000 – 445 000) (5 000) 0 Non-current asset now classified as ‘held for sale’ (445 000) 0 Net carrying amount – 31 December 0 480 000 Gross carrying amount – 31 December 0 600 000 Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses – 31 December 0 (120 000) Plant: Net carrying amount – 1 January 0 90 000 Gross carrying amount – 1 January 0 100 000 Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses – 1 January 0 (10 000) Non-current asset no longer classified as ‘held for sale’ 65 000 0 Reversal of impairment loss (to lower of HCA: 75 000 or RA:85 000) 10 000 0 Depreciation (20X3: 75 000 / 7,5 remaining years x 6/12) (5 000) (10 000) Impairment loss (to fair value less costs to sell: 80 000 – 65 000) 0 (15 000) Non-current asset now classified as ‘held for sale’ 0 (65 000) Net carrying amount – 31 December 70 000 0 Gross carrying amount – 31 December 100 000 0 Accumulated depreciation and impairment losses – 31 December (30 000) 0 324 Chapter 9
  17. 17. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations27. Non-current assets held for sale 20X3 20X2 C C Factory buildings 445 000 0 Plant 0 65 000 Less non-current interest bearing liabilities (disclosure purpose) 0 0 445 000 65 000 The company is transferring its business to a new location and thus the existing factory building is to be sold (circumstances leading to the decision). The sale is expected to take place within 7 months of the end of the reporting period (expected timing). The factory building is expected to be sold as a going concern (expected manner of sale). The plant is no longer classified as ‘held for sale’ since it is now intended to be redeployed to other existing factories rather than to be sold together with the factory buildings (reasons for the decision not to sell). The effect on current year profit from operations is as follows: C - Gross (Impairment loss reversed: 10 000 – deprec.:5 000) 5 000 - Tax (1 500) - Net 3 5006. Discontinued operations: identification (IAS 5.31 - .36)IFRS 5 requires that, where a component is identified as a discontinued operation, it must beseparately disclosed in the financial statements. The following definitions are provided inIFRS 5:A component of an entity comprise:• operations and cash flows• that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes,• from the rest of the entity.A component of an entity may be a cash-generating unit or any group thereof.A discontinued operation is• a component of an entity that has either been - disposed of, or - is classified as held for sale;• and meets one of the following criteria: - represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or - is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or - is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.7. Discontinued operations: measurementA discontinued operation is, in effect, constituted by non-current assets (or disposal groups)held for sale that, together, comprise a component that meets the definition of a ‘discontinuedoperation’. Therefore, the principles that are adopted when measuring the individual non-current assets (or disposal groups) held for sale are also used when measuring the elements ofa discontinued operation.If the non-current asset (or disposal group) does not meet the definition of a ‘component’, therelated transactions and adjustments will not be disclosed as ‘discontinued operations’ butrather as part of ‘continuing operations’. 325 Chapter 9
  18. 18. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations8. Discontinued operations: disclosure8.1 In the statement of comprehensive incomeA single amount must be presented on the face of the statement of comprehensive incomebeing the total of:• the post-tax profit or loss of the discontinued operations;• the post-tax gain or loss recognised on measurement to fair value less costs to sell; and• the post-tax gain or loss recognised on disposal of assets/ disposal groups making up the discontinued operations.An analysis of this single amount that is presented in the statement of comprehensive incomemust be presented ‘for all periods presented’. This analysis may be done in the statement ofcomprehensive income (see suggested presentation option A on the next page) or in the notes(see suggested presentation option B on the next page) and must show the following:• revenue of discontinued operations;• expenses of discontinued operations;• profit (or loss) before tax of discontinued operations; and• tax expense of discontinued operations.An entity must also disclose the following either in the statement of comprehensive income orin the notes thereto ‘for all periods presented’ (with the exception of the change in estimate):• gain or loss on re-measurement to ‘fair value less selling costs’;• gain or loss on disposal of the discontinued operation (made up by assets/ disposal groups);• tax effects of the above; and• changes to estimates made in respect of discontinued operations disposed of in a prior period (showing nature and amount); examples of such changes include outcomes of previous uncertainties relating to: - the disposal transaction (e.g. adjustments to the selling price); and - the operations of the component before its disposal (e.g. adjustments to warranty/ legal obligations retained by the entity).Option A: If the analysis of the profit or loss is presented on the face of the statement ofcomprehensive income, the statement of comprehensive income will look something like this(the figures are all assumed):Example LtdStatement of comprehensive incomeFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts) 20X3 20X3 20X3 20X2 20X2 20X2 C’000 C’000 C’000 C’000 C’000 C’000 Continuing Discontinued Total Continuing Discontinued TotalRevenue 800 150 800 790Expenses (300) (100) (400) (500)Profit before tax 500 50 400 290Taxation expense (150) (60) (180) (97)Gains/ (losses) after tax 40 7Gain/ (loss): re-measurement 30 10to fair value less costs to sellGain/ (loss): disposal of assets 20 0in the discontinued operationsTax on gains/ (losses) (10) (3)Profit for the period 350 30 380 220 200 420Other comprehensive income 0 0 0 0 0 0Total comprehensive income 350 30 380 220 200 420 326 Chapter 9
  19. 19. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operationsOption B: If the total profit or loss is presented in the statement of comprehensive income,with the analysis in the notes, the statement of comprehensive income and notes will looksomething like this (the figures are all assumed):Example LtdStatement of comprehensive incomeFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts) 20X3 20X2 Note C’000 C’000Revenue 800 800Expenses (300) (400)Profit before tax 500 400Taxation expense (150) (180)Profit from continuing operations 350 220Profit from discontinued operations 4&5 30 200Profit for the period 380 420Other comprehensive income 0 0Total comprehensive income 380 420Example LtdNotes to the financial statementsFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts) 20X3 20X24. Discontinued operation: analysis of profit C’000 C’000The profit from discontinued operations is analysed as follows: • Revenue 150 790 • Expenses (100) (500) • Profit before tax 50 290 • Tax (60) (97) • Gains/ (losses) after tax 40 7 • Gain/ (loss on re-measurement to fair value less costs to sell 30 10 • Gain/ (loss) on disposal of assets in the/ the discontinued 20 0 operations • Tax on gains/ (losses) (10) (3) • Profit for the period 30 2008.2 In the statement of cash flowsIn respect of discontinued operations, an entity shall disclose the following either on the faceof the statement of cash flows or in the notes thereto ‘for all periods presented’ [para 33(c)]:• net cash flows from operating activities;• net cash flows from investing activities; and• net cash flows from financing activities.Example LtdNotes to the statement of cash flowsFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts) 20X3 20X24. Discontinued operation C’000 C’000 Included in the statement of cash flows are the following net cash flows resulting from a discontinued operation: Net cash flows from operating activities (assumed figures) 5 6 Net cash flows from investing activities (assumed figures) 0 1 Net cash flows from financing activities (assumed figures) (8) (4) Net cash outflows (assumed figures) (3) 3 327 Chapter 9
  20. 20. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations8.3 Other note disclosure8.3.1 Components no longer held for sale (IFRS 5.37)Where the component is no longer ‘held for sale’, the amounts previously disclosed as‘discontinued operations’ in the prior periods must be reclassified and included in ‘continuingoperations’. This will facilitate better comparability.See the examples of disclosure provided in 8.1 and assume that the discontinued operationwas first classified as such in 20X2, but that during 20X3 the criteria for classification as‘discontinued’ were no longer met. Notice that the 20X2 figures shown below, whereaspreviously split into ‘continuing’, ‘discontinuing’ and ‘total’ (in 8.1) are now restated in onecolumn. Although IFRS 5 does not require it, it is suggested that a note be includedexplaining to the user that a previously classified ‘discontinued operation’ has beenreabsorbed into the figures representing the ‘continuing operations’ of the entity, thusexplaining the re-presentation of the 20X2 figures.Example LtdStatement of comprehensive incomeFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts) 20X3 20X2 C’000 C’000 RestatedRevenue 1 000 1 600Expenses (400) (900)Profit before tax 600 700Tax expense (220) (280)Profit for the period 380 420Other comprehensive income 0 0Total comprehensive income 380 420The above amounts are assumed amounts: notice how they tie up with the previous explanatoryexamples in Option A and Option B.8.3.2 Criteria met after the end of the reporting period (IAS 5.12)If the criteria for separate classification and measurement as ‘held for sale’ are met during thepost-reporting date period, no adjustments should be made to the amounts and noreclassification of the assets as ‘held for sale’ should take place. This is treated as a non-adjusting event with the following disclosure being necessary:• a description of the non-current asset (or disposal group);• a description of the facts and circumstances leading to the expected disposal;• the expected manner and timing of the disposal; and• the segment (if applicable) in which the non-current asset (or disposal group) is presented.The note disclosure of an event after the reporting period might look like this:Example LtdNotes to the financial statementsFor the year ended 31 December 20X3 (extracts)4. Events after the reporting period On 15 February 20X4, the board of directors decided to dispose of the shoe division following severe losses incurred by it during the past 2 years. The division is expected to continue operations until 30 April 20X4, after which its assets will be sold on a piecemeal basis. The entire disposal of the division is expected to be completed by 31 August 20X4. 328 Chapter 9
  21. 21. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations 9. Summary IFRS 5 Non-current assets Discontinued held for sale operations Non-current assets held for sale Identification General If asset not expected Assets acquired with to be sold within 1 yr intention to sellNormal 6 criteria 3 scenarios and 2 criteria related criteria Measurement Cost model Revaluation model Assets acquired with intention to sellInitially: Initially: Initially:at cost at cost Lower of CA (cost) and FV – costs to sellSubsequently: Subsequently:Before reclassification: Before reclassification:Depreciate and impair Depreciate; revalue and impairWhen reclassifying: When reclassifying:Remeasure on Remeasure on revaluationcost model modelAdjust to lower of CA or Adjust to lower of CA or FVFV – CtS – CtSStop depreciating Stop depreciatingTransfer to NCAHforS Transfer to NCAHforSRemeasure to latest FV – Remeasure to latest FV –CtS CtS(reversals of IL limited (reversals of IL limited toto accumulated IL’s) accumulated IL’s) 329 Chapter 9
  22. 22. Gripping IFRS Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations Non-current assets held for sale No longer held for sale Transfer back to PPE Remeasure to lower of: • CA (had asset never been classified as NCAHforS); and • RA Resume depreciation Discontinued operations Identification Measurement DisclosureA component that has Same as for non- Statement ofbeen disposed of or is current assets held comprehensive income:classified as held for for sale Face:sale and is: Total profit or loss from• Separate major line discontinued operations or area Notes or on the face:;• Part of a single Analysis of total profit disposal plan or Gain or loss on re-• Is a subsidiary measurement acquired to sell Gain or loss on disposal of assets Tax effects of above Changes in estimates Statement of cash flows: (face or notes) Operating activities Investing activities Financing activities Other notes: Components no longer held for sale Criteria met after the end of the reporting period 330 Chapter 9

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