The mechanisms that carry power from the engine to the drive wheels.
Clutch. - The device that connects and disconnects a shaft from its drive while the drive mechanism is running. - The device that engages and disengages power from the engine to transmission.
Transmission – a metal case containing an assembly of shafts and gears used to transmit power from the engine to the drive shaft of automotive vehicle. - Provides gear ratios. Transaxle – a power-transmission device attach to one end of the engine that combines the function of the transmission and the drive shaft.
Drive Shaft (Propeller shaft)- Transfers power from transmission to the differential. Differential -A gear assembly between axles that permits one axle to turn at different speed than the other.
Hybrid powertrains appear to be promising for Class 8 urban use trucks where stop-and-go driving is prevalent, or in hilly or mountainous areas
A torque tube system is an automobile driveshaft technology. The "torque tube" transmits this force by directly coupling the axle differential to the transmission. A ball and socket type of joint called a "torque ball" is used at one end of the torque tube to allow relative motion between the axle and transmission due to suspension travel.
Capsule of shoulder-joint (distended). Anterior aspect. 1: Ball and socket joint; 2:Condyloid joint (Ellipsoid); 3:Saddle joint; 4 Hinge joint; 5: Pivot joint;
Since the torque tube does not constrain the axle in the lateral (side-to-side) direction a panhard rod is often used for this purpose. The combination of the panhard rod and the torque tube allows the easy implementation of soft coil springs in the rear to give good ride quality
the torque tube is hollow and contains the rotating driveshaft. Inside the hollow torque ball is the universal joint of the driveshaft that allows relative motion between the two ends of the driveshaft. In most applications the drive shaft uses a single universal joint which has the disadvantage that it causes speed fluctuations in the driveshaft when the shaft is not straight.
Nashs post-war Airflyte model. 1948 American Motors (AMC). Rambler Classic and Ambassador. 1966 1961-1963 Pontiac Tempest. Peugeot 504 and the Volvo 300 Series. Sprintcars and Midget cars. The C5 and C6 Chevrolet Corvette, Lexus LF-A, Porsche 924, Porsche 928, Porsche 944, Aston Martin DBR9, Aston Martin DBS, Aston Martin DB7, and upcoming Mercedes AMG SLS
The Hotchkiss drive uses two universal joints which has the effect of canceling the speed fluctuations and gives a constant speed even when the shaft is no longer straight. Hotchkiss drive………….
The Hotchkiss drive is a system of power transmission. FR layoutont-engine, rear-drive cars in the 20th century. French automobile firm of Hotchkiss.
During the early part of the 20th century the two major competing systems of power transmission were the shaft-drive and chain-drive configurations. It uses universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft. allows the use of simple cross-type universals. universal should be a constant velocity joint.
allow a rotating shaft to transmit power through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed. Early front wheel drive systems such as those used on the Citroën Traction Avant and the front axles of Land Rover. provide a flexible coupling in some propshafts.
In the Hotchkiss drive, splines eliminate thrust transmitted back up the driveshaft from the wheels, allowing simple rear-axle positioning using parallel leaf springs. In the torque tube type this thrust is taken by the torque tube. Some Hotchkiss driveshafts are made in two pieces with another universal joint in the center for greater flexibility.
1984-1987 RWD Toyota Corolla (i.e., Corolla SR5 and GT-S). his design was the main form of power transmission for most cars from the 1920s through the 1970s. Presently (circa 2008), it remains common in pick- up trucks and sport utility vehicles.
Wikipedia.org Automobile Engineering: A General Reference Work. www.calstart.org. How stuff works.