ABSTRACT:Android is a software stack for mobile 2.announced with the founding of thedevices that includes an operating system, Open Handset Alliance, a consortiummiddleware and key applications. Android of 34 hardware, software and telecomis a software platform and operating companies devoted to advancing opensystem for mobile devices based on the standards for mobile devices. WhenLinux operating system and developed by released in 2008, most of the AndroidGoogle and the Open Handset Alliance. It platform will be made available underallows developers to write managed code the Apache free-software and open-in a Java-like language that utilizes source license.Google-developed Java libraries, but does THE BIRTH OF ANDROID:not support programs developed in nativecode. The unveiling of the Android 1.Google Acquires Android Inc.platform on 5 November 2007 was 2. Open Handset Alliance Foundedannounced with the founding of the OpenHandset Alliance, a consortium of 34 3. Hardwarehardware, software and telecom companiesdevoted to advancing open standards for FEATURESmobile devices. When released in 2008, 1. Application Frameworkmost of the Android platform will be made It is used to write applicationsavailable under the Apache free-software for Android. Unlike other embeddedand open-source license. mobile environments, Android applications are all equal, for instance, an applications which come with the phone1.INTRODUCTION are no different than those that anyAndroid is a software stack for mobile developer writes.The framework isdevices that includes an operating system, supported by numerous open sourcemiddleware and key applications. Android libraries such as openssl, SQLite and libc.is a software platform and operating It is also supported by the Android coresystem for mobile devices based on the libraries. From the point of security, theLinux operating system and developed by framework is based on UNIX file systemGoogle and the Open Handset Alliance. It permissions that assure applications haveallows developers to write managed code only those abilities that mobile phonein a Java-like language that utilizes owner gave them at install time.Google-developed Java libraries, but does 2. Dalvik Virtual Machinenot support programs developed in native It is extremely low-memory based virtualcode. machine, which was designed especiallyThe unveiling of the Android platform on for Android to run on embedded systems5 November 2007 was and work well in low power situations. It is also tuned to the CPU attributes. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format
profiling, a plugin for the Eclipse IDE.There are a number of hardware dependentfeatures, for instance, a huge media andconnections support, GPS, improvedsupport for Camera and simply GSMtelephony. A great work was done for thedevelopers to start work with Androidusing device emulator, tools for debuggingand plugin for Eclipse IDE. Android provides the support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family. For instance, the current kernel tree2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE supports Qualcomm MSM 7200ATOPIC chipsets, but in the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stableOPERATION version Qualcomm MSM 7200, which1. Android Runtime includes major features:2. Linux Kernel -WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network supportARCHITECTURE -Bluetooth 1.2 and Wi-Fi supportThe following diagram shows the major -Digital audio support for mp3 and othercomponents of the Android operating formatssystem. Each section is described in more -Support for Linux and other third-partydetail below operating systems -Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications -Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels -gpsOne â€œ solution for GPS -and lots of other.
LibrariesIn the next level there are a set of nativelibraries written in C/C++, which areresponsible for stable performance of Application Frameworkvarious components. For example, Surface After that, there is ApplicationManager is responsible for composing Framework, written in Java language. It isdifferent drawing surfaces on the mobile a toolkit that all applications use, onesscreen. It manages the access for different which come with mobile device likeprocesses to compose 2D and 3D graphic Contacts or SMS box, or applicationslayers.OpenGL ES and SGL make a core written by Google and any Androidof graphic libraries and are used developer. It has several components.accordingly for 3D and 2D hardware The Activity Manager manages the lifeacceleration. Moreover, it is possible to circle of the applications and provides ause 2D and 3D graphics in the same common navigation back stack forapplication in Android. The media applications, which are running inframework was provided by PacketVideo, different processes. The Package Managerone of the members of OHA. It gives keeps track of the applications, which arelibraries for a playback and recording installed in the device. The Windowssupport for all the major media and static Manager is Java programming languageimage files. FreeType libraries are used to abstraction on the top of lower levelrender all the bitmap and vector fonts. For services that are provided by the Surfacedata storage, Android uses SQLite. As Manager.mentioned before, it is extra light rationalmanagement system, which locates a Application Layersingle file for all operations related to At the top of Android Architecture wedatabase. WebKit, the same browser used have all the applications, which are usedby Applesâ„¢ Safari, was modified by by the final user. By installing differentAndroid in order to fit better in a small applications, the user can turn his mobilesize screens. phone into the unique, optimized and Android Runtime smart mobile phone. All applications areAt the same level there is Android written using the Java programmingRuntime, where the main component language.Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. It wasdesigned specifically for Android running DEVELOPING APPLICATIONSin limited environment, where the limitedbattery, CPU, memory and data storage are 1. Application Building Blocksthe main issues. Android gives an The major building blocks areintegrated tool dx, which converts these:generated byte code from .jar to .dex file, 1 Activityafter this byte code becomes much more 2 Intent Receiverefficient to run on the small processors 3 Service
4 Content Provider . SECURITY ISSUES2. AndroidManifest.xml Android mobile phone platform is going to be more secure than Here is an example of Appleâ„¢s iPhone or any other deviceAndroidManifest.xml file: in the long run. There are several1. <xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"> solutions nowadays to protect Google2. <manifest phone from various attacks. One ofxmlns:android="http://schemas.android.co them is security vendor McAfee, am/apk/res/android" member of Linux Mobile (LiMo)3. package="dk.mdev.android.hello"> Foundation. This foundation joins4. <application particular companies to develop anandroid:icon="@drawable/icon"> open mobile-device software platform.5. <activity class=".HelloAndroid" Many of the companies listed in theandroid:label="@string/app_name"> LiMo Foundation have also become6. <intent-filter> members of the Open Handset Alliance7. <action (OHA).android:value="android.intent.action.MAI As a result, Linux secure codingN" /> practice should successfully be built8. <category into the Android development process.android:value="android.intent.category.L However, open platform has its ownAUNCHER"/> disadvantages, such as source code9. </intent-filter> vulnerability for black-hat hackers. In10. </activity> parallel with great opportunities for11. </application> mobile application developers, there is12. </manifest> an expectation for exploitation and 3.Application Lifecycle:- harm. Stealthy Trojans hidden in animated images, particular viruses passed from friend to friend, used for spying and identity theft, all these threats will be active for a long run. Another solution for such attacks is SMobile Systems mobile package. 4. Application Framework SecurityShield â€œan integrated application that includes anti-virus, SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: anti-spam, firewall and other mobile The feedback on developing protection is up and ready to run on the applications for the Android platform Android operating system. Currently, has been mixed. Issues cited include the main problem is availability for bugs, lack of documentation, viruses to pose as an application and inadequate QA .The first publicly do things like dial phone numbers, available application was the Snake send text messages or multi-media game. messages or make connections to the Internet during normal device use. It is possible for somebody to use the GPS
feature to track a personâ„¢s location without their knowledge. Hence SMobile Systems is ready to notify and block these secure alerts. But the truth is that REFERENCES: it is not possible to secure your mobile 1. http://www.android.com - Android device or personal computer Official Webpage completely, as it connects to the 2. http://code.google.com/android/ - internet. And neither the Android Official Android Google Code Webpage phone nor other devices will prove to 3. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ - Open Handset Alliance Webpage be the exception. 4. http://www.androidwiki.com â€œ Android Wiki 5. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/ -3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE Official Google BlogSCOPE: 6.Android has been criticized for not being http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(mo.all open-source software despite what was ..œWikipedia Informationannounced by Google. Parts of the SDK 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQLiteare proprietary and closed source, and 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebKitsome believe this is so that Google can 9.control the platform. Software installed by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eclipse_(softend-users must be written in Java, and will ware)not have access to lower level device 10. http://www.itworld.comAPIs. This provides end-users with lesscontrol over their phones functionality Reference:than other free and open source phone http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-platforms, such as OpenMoko. android-full-report#ixzz1oi4xatzTWith all upcoming applications and mobileservices Google Android is stepping intothe next level of Mobile Internet. Androidparticipates in many of the successful opensource projects. That is, architect thesolution for participation and thedevelopers will not only come but willplay well together. This is notable contrastwith Apple and other companies, wheresuch architecture of participation is clearlybelated.The first Android based official devicesmay well be launched sometime in theearly half of 2009. Obviously, thats an ageaway when it comes to handset design, andAndroid may well find itself competingagainst the forthcoming Nokia touchscreen phones and maybe even the iPhone