Health and medicine 1


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Health and medicine 1

  2. 2. Index  Health  Factors Affecting Health  Maintaining Health  Laugh Often  Play Sports/Games  Have enough sleep o Problems caused by lack of sleep.  Disease  World Health Organization
  3. 3.  Medicine  Alternative medical systems.  Mind-Body Interventions  Biologically-based therapies  Energy therapies.
  4. 4. Health What is health? Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well being. Healthy and disease free Although most of the people use both these terms in the same context, there is a clear difference in being healthy and disease free. While healthy means being mentally, physically and socially fit, disease-free is a state of absence of any body discomfort. A healthy person can be disease free but a disease free person cannot be a healthy person.
  5. 5. Factors Influencing Health A number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, like- • Health care interventions • A person's surroundings • Their background and lifestyle • Economic and social conditions • Education and literacy • Personal health practices and coping skills.
  6. 6. Maintaining health Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices, as well as personal strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy. There are a number of little things one can do to maintain their health. 1. Control your habits. All of the major causes of death (such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease and injury) can be prevented in part by making healthy lifestyle choices.
  7. 7. 4. Eat healthy. A healthy diet has many health benefits. Heart disease, certain cancers, stroke, diabetes and damage to your arteries can be linked to what one eats. By making healthier food choices, one can also lower his/her cholesterol and lose weight. 5. Laugh often. 6. Play sports/ Games. 7. Have enough sleep.
  8. 8. 5. Laugh Often • Laughter is all about playfulness. • It is considered a visual expression of a number of positive emotional states, such as joy, mirth, happiness, relief, etc. • Laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining of blood vessels, and increases blood flow. • Laughter has also been shown to lead to reductions in stress hormones.
  9. 9. 6. Play Sports/Games. • Play is an integral part of human nature. • It is also one of the best sources of amusement and entertainment. • Any sporting activity involves physical exertion and skill, with and individual or a team engaged in competition with one another. • It helps us to develop physically, mentally and socially too.
  10. 10. 7. Have enough Sleep • Sleep is important to a healthy lifestyle as eating properly and exercising. • Getting a good night’s sleep is one of the simplest things we can do to stay healthy. • A good night’s sleep means waking up rested and rejuvenated. • Not getting enough sleep can lead to problems in concentrating. • Lack of sleep is the reason for many ailments.
  11. 11. • Sleep is crucial for maintaining one’s health • Without it, we increase our susceptibility to an astonishing array of health problems like- Heart disease Stroke Diabetes Obesity Depression
  12. 12. Problems caused by lack of sleep 1. Not sleeping enough can compromise our immune system. • We eat well and exercise in order to keep our immune system up. • But if we are not sleeping, we undo all the good work. • The immune system works best when we are sleeping. 2. It can cause malfunctioning of natural killer cells. • These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are found in the blood and lymph. • They are part of the body’s defence system. • They do not work properly in the persons who are sleep- deprived. • This leaves our bodies undefended and susceptible to infection.
  13. 13. 3. Heart failures. • There is a higher rate of heart failure among people with sleep disorders and disturbances. • There is an increased evidence of C- reactive protein, an indicator of heart disease risk, in people suffering from sleep loss. 4. It causes problem of regulation of hormones. • Chronic sleep loss can reduce the body’s ability to regulate hormones and process carbohydrates. • Sleep disturbances increase the likelihood of pre-diabetic state of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.
  14. 14. • Sleep is also important for ensuring a balanced brain activity. • During sleep, brain neurotransmitters are replenished. • When we do not sleep well, our brain chemicals become depleted which leads to emotional disturbances like- Depression Anxiety General feelings of sadness Anger and Irritation
  15. 15. Disease • A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism • It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. • It is any condition that causes pain, distress, social problems, or death. • It sometimes includes injuries, disorders, syndromes, infections or disabilities. • There are four main types of disease:  pathogenic disease  deficiency disease  hereditary disease and  physiological disease. ° Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non- communicable disease.
  16. 16. World Health Organization • The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. • It was established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. • The WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health." • Since its creation, WHO has been responsible for playing a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. • Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.
  17. 17. Medicine • Medicine is the field of applied science and the art of healing • It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by prevention and treatment of illness in human beings. • The word medicine is derived from the Latin word medicina, meaning the art of healing.
  18. 18. • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has helped people understand the many complementary and alternative treatments by classifying them into five broad categories: – Alternative Medical Systems – Mind-Body Interventions – Biologically-Based Therapies – Manipulative and Body-Based Methods – Energy Therapies
  19. 19. Alternative Medical Systems • Alternative medical systems are built upon complete systems of theory and practice. • Often, these systems have evolved apart from and earlier than the conventional medical approach used in the United States. • Examples of alternative medical systems include: – Acupuncture – Ayurveda – Homeopathy – Native American healing practices – Naturopathic medicine – Tibetan medicine – Traditional Chinese medicine Ayurveda: A boon to life.
  20. 20. Mind-Body Interventions • Mind-body medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. • Some techniques that were considered alternative in the past have become mainstream (for example, patient support groups and cognitive- behavioral therapy). • Other mind-body techniques are still considered alternative, including: – Art therapy – Biofeedback – Dance therapy – Guided imagery – Humor therapy – Hypnotherapy – Meditation – Music therapy – Prayer therapy – Yoga
  21. 21. Biologically-Based Therapies • Biologically based therapies in complementary and alternative medicine use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins. • Some examples include: – Diet – Dietary supplements – Herbal products – Megavitamins Aloe breeze: Dietary supplement drink
  22. 22. Manipulative and Body-Based Methods • Manipulative and body-based methods in complementary and alternative medicine are based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body. • Some examples include: – Acupressure – Alexander Technique – Massage therapy – Therapeutic Touch – Osteopathy – Reflexology – Rolfing Acupressure therapy
  23. 23. Energy Therapies • Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields. They are of two types: – Bio-field therapies – Bio-electromagnetic-based therapies 1. Bio-field therapies • These are intended to affect energy fields that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body. • The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically proven. • Examples include: Qi gong Reiki Therapeutic Touch
  24. 24. 2. Bio-electromagnetic-based therapies • These therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields. • Examples include: Pulsed fields Magnetic fields Alternating-current or direct-current fields Energy therapy
  25. 25. Thank you