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Tips to Remember - fmge


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Tips to Remember - fmge

  1. 1. Tips to remember: Adrenal cortex layers and products: ―Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex‖: Layers: Glomerulosa Fasiculate Reticulate Respective products: Mineral corticoids Gluco corticoids Sex hormones (androgens) Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney). Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta ABCD: Alpha = Constrict. Beta = Dilate. Amino acids: the 10 essential amino acids are ―PVT TIM HALL‖ Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine. Tryptophan Isoleucine, Methionine. Histidine, Arginine, Lysine, Leucine. Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy: MCAT: Metronidazole Chloramphenicol Aminoglycoside Tetracycline ABC‘S of the aortic arch: Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk, the left common Carotid and the left subclavian artery. Page 1
  2. 2. Asthma: Management of acute severe:‖O SHIT‖: Oxygen (high dose :> 60%) Salbutamol (5mg via oxygen driven nebulizer) Hydrocortisone (or prednisolone) Ipratropium bromide (if life threatening) Theophylline (or preferably aminophylline – if life threating) Vitamin B names: ―Tu Ru Na Pyare Cutte‖ In increasing order: Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Cobalamin (B12). Beta blockers: cardio selective beta blockers. ―Beta blockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium‖ Cardio selective beta blockers are: Betaxolol Acebutelol Esmolol Atenolol Metaprolol Branches of the Brachial Plexus (In order from most lateral to most medial): ―My Aunt Raped My Uncle‖ Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar. Page 2
  3. 3. Broncho pulmonary segments of right lung "A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm": • In order from superior to inferior: 1. Apical 2. Posterior 3. Anterior 4. Lateral 5. Medial 6. Superior 7. Medial basal 8. Anterior basal 9. Lateral basal 10. Posterior basal Functions of Prolactin and oxytocin:PROlactin stimulates the mammary glands to PROduce milk.Oxytocin stimulates the mammary glands to Ooze (release)milk. Radial n. innervates the: BEST !!!! Brachioradialis Extensors Supinator Triceps RNA viruses: Negative stranded "Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication": Arena Bunya Paramyxo Orthomyxo Filo Rhabdo • Note: Negative RNA viruses need their own polymerase. Page 3
  4. 4. WBC Count: "Never Let Mom Eat Beans" and "60, 30, 6, 3, 1" Neutrophils 60% Lymphocytes 30% Monocytes 6% Eosinophils 3% Basophils 1% Weights of children with age Newborn - 3 kg 6 months - 6 kg (2x birth weight at 6 months) 1 yr - 10 kg (3x birth weight at 1 yr) 3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs) 5 yrs 20 kg 7 yrs 25 kg 9 yrs 30 kg 11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter) 13 yrs 45 kg 15 yrs 55 kg 17 yrs 65 kg ABCS of the Aortic arch: Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk, left Common Carotid, left Subclavian artery Branches Of External Carotid Artery ―Sneha Latas Powdered Face Often Attracts Medical Students.‖S= Superior ThyroidL= LingualP= Posterior AuricularF= FacialO= OccipitalA= Ascending PharyngealM= MaxillaryS= Superficial Temporal Page 4
  5. 5. BRANCHES OF SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY ARE 5. ―VIT. C & D (Read as Vitamin C & D)‖V = Vertebral arteryI = Internal Thoracic arteryT = Thyrocervical TrunkC = Costocervical trunk (from first branch of leftsubclavian artery but arises from 2 branch of right side)D= Dorsal scapular artery (branch of third part)the branches of the Axillary Artery are: ―Sally Thompson Loves Sex And Pot Pie‖ Superior Thoracic, Thoracoacromial, Lateral Thoracic, Subscapular, Anterior Circumflex Humeral, Posterior Circumflex Humeral, Profunda Brachii. Brachial plexus; ―Rohit Tu Dekh Cold Beers‖ Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches. Branches of the Brachial Plexus (In order from most lateral to most medial): ―My Aunt Raped My Uncle‖ Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar Branches of the Facial Nerve ―Ten Zebras Bought My Car‖ Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical Orbital Bones- FLEZMS Frontal, Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Zygomatic, Maxilla, Sphenoid Page 5
  6. 6. 8 carpal bones Starting from the thumb, ―Sneh Lata Tinde Paka Tere Tinde kaCche Hain‖ Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate. TARSAL BONES ―Tarzon Call Can Navi LIM 3C‖ 1. Talus 2. Calcaneus 3. Cuboid 4. Navicular 5. Lateral Cuneiform 6. Intermediate Cuneiform 7. Medial Cuneiform ESSENCIAL AMINO ACID: - ―PVT. TIM HALL‖ P-phenylalanine V-valine T-threonine T-tryptophan I-Isoleucine M-methionine H-histidine A - arginine L-lysine L-leucine Page 6
  7. 7. AUDITORY PATHWAY :- ―ECOLI MT‖ E-8TH NERVE C-COCHLEAR NUCLEI O-SUPERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS L-LATERAL LAMINISCUS I-INFERIOR COLLICULUS M-MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY T-SUP TEMPORAL GYRUS H. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines): ―TOMB‖: · Tetracycline · Omeprazole · Metronidazole · Bismuth RNA enveloped viruses:: ―FORT PR ABC‖ · Flavivirus/ Filo, Orthomyxo, Retro, Toga · Paramyxo, Rhabdo · Arena, Bunya, Corona Acute inflammation features :- ―SLIPR‖ Swelling, Loss of function, Increased heat, Pain, Redness Tetrology of Fallot :-"dont DROP the baby" · Defect (VSD) · Right ventricular hypertrophy · Overriding aorta · Pulmonary stenosis Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes :- "Do Block AV". Digoxin B-blockers Adenosine Verapamil The cranial bones are ―the PEST OF 6‖. Parietal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Occipital, Frontal Page 7
  8. 8. Layers of the epidermis: ―Grand son grate living Child‖ or ―Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander‖. Germinativum or Basal, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum Medical history: disease check list :- ―MJ THREADS‖. Myocardial infarction Jaundice Tuberculosis Hypertension Rheumatic fever/ Rheumatoid arthritis Epilepsy Asthma Diabetes Strokes Pain history checklist "On Days Feeling Low Character, Run a Seven Pace Race": 1. Onset 2. Duration 3. Frequency 4. Location 5. Character 6. Radiation 7. Severity 8. Precipitating factors 9. Relieving factors Dementia: some common causes ―DEMENTIA‖. Diabetes Ethanol Medication Environmental (eg: CO poisoning) Nutritional Trauma Infection Alzheimers Page 8
  9. 9. followed by shoulder rotation and delivery of the fetal body! 1. Every - Engagement 2. Damn - Descent 3. Female - Flexion 4. I -Internal Rotation 5. Eat - Extension 6. Returns- Restitution 7. Eagerly- External Rotation Basic Amino Acids = "HAL" Histidine, Arginine, Lysine. Types of waves in EcG ―BATS Drink Blood‖ pt awake & eyes Open -------------------Beta Pt awake but eyes Closed -------Alpha Stage I ---------------------------------------------------------Theta Stage II---------------------------------------------------------Spindle & k complex Stage III & IV ------------------------------------------ Delta REM sleep ----------------------------------------------- Beta Food poisoning: bugs inducing "Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit": · E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers] · Clostridium botulinum [canned foods] · Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs] · Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat] · Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood] · Bacillus cereus [reheated rice] · Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard] · Vibrio vulnificus [seafood] Page 9
  10. 10. Lower Leg Bones Cant tell your tib from your fib? The TIBia is the Thick, Inner Bone. The FibuLa is Finer, Fluted, and Lateral Size in c.m.:- ―DUEDS StAR BAG‖ · DUEDS (25): Duodenum, Ureter , Esophagus, Descending colon, Sigmoid colon · StAR (13) : Stomach, Ascending Colon, Rectum · BAG (8) : Bile duct, Appendices, GallbladderOPENING OF CRANIAL NERVES:―Carebiun Optic 4 Super Stylo Internal 3 Jug Have‖1- Cribriform plate of ethmoid2- Optic canal3- Superior orbital fissure4- Superior orbital fissure5- (S R O ) Superior orbital fissure, foramen Rotundum,foramen Ovale.6- Superior orbital fissure7- f. Stylohoidus8- Internal acoustic meatus9- Jugular formen10- Jugular formen11- Jugular formen12- Hypoglossal canalAnal canalHilum of kidney — Transpyloric plane (LI).Kidney: Length: 11 cm, Breadth: 6 cm, Antero-posterior diameter: 3 cm Page 10
  11. 11. Length of Ureter: 25 cm Length of male urethra: 18--20 cm Spermatic cord: 9--10 cm Length of inguinal canal: 4 cm Testis: Length -- 4.5 cm, Breadth-- 2.5cm, Antero posterior diameter -- 3 cm Ovary: Length -3 cm, Width-1.5 cm, Thickness-1 cm Uterus: Length-7.5 cm, Breadth-5 cm, Antero-posterior diameter-2.5 cm Weight :30 to 40 gms Uterine tubes: Length-10 cm Saphenous opening — Height 1.5 to 8 cm; Width 1 to 3 cm Femoral sheath — Length 3 to 4 cm. Femoral canal — Length 1.25 cm. Tendo calcaneus — Length 15 cm. Page 11
  12. 12. Muscle Physiology •Muscle form 40 to 50% of body mass. •About 600 muscles are identified. Classification of Muscles: •Depending on striations: Striated(Skeletal & Cardiac) & Non striated(smooth) •Depending on Control: voluntary(Skeletal) & Involuntary(Cardiac & smooth) •Depending on situation: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth. •Muscle fiber or cell has a length b/w 1 – 4cm (Average 3cm) & diameter from 10 – 100microns. •1 myofibril contains 1500 myosin filaments & 3000 actin filaments •Sarcomere is the structural & functional unit of skeletal muscle. Length – 2.5 to 3.2 mm. Sarcomere lies b/w two ‗Z‘ lines •Each myofibril consists of alternate light (I or J band) & dark band (A or Q band). •Each sarcomere consist of thin (Actin) & thick (myosin) filaments. Myosin filament is present throughout the ‗A‘ band. No movement of myosin during muscular contraction. •Actin filaments are formed by 3 types of proteins called actin, tropomyosin & troponin. •The skeletal muscle is formed by 75% of water, 20% of proteins & 5%of organic substances. •Troponin: is formed by 3 subunits; Troponin I – attached to F actin; Troponin T – attached to tropomyosin; Troponin C – attached to calcium ions. •Following are the muscle proteins: Myosin; Actin; Tropomyosin; Troponin; Actinin; Titin; Desmin; Myogen & Myoglobulin. •There is no movement in the myosin filament during muscle contraction. •Actin filaments slide over the myosin filament during muscle contraction. •Tropomyosin covers the active sites of actin. •Rheobase: this is the least possible, i.e. (minimum) strength Page 12
  13. 13. (Voltage) of stimulus which can excite the tissue. •Chronaxie: it is the minimum time, at which a stimulus with double the rheobasic strength (voltage) can excite the tissue. Chronaxie of skeletal muscle is shorter than that of cardiac and smooth muscles. Cold lengthens chronaxie. whereas vagal stimulation shortens chronaxie. •Refractory period is the period at which the muscle does not show any response to a stimulus. •Skeletal muscles are purely aerobic & don‘t have any fuel reserve. •Dark, light bands & troponin are absent in smooth muscle. •The study of electrical activity of the muscle is done by electromyography. •The muscle ruptures when it is stretched to about 3 times its equilibrium length. Constrictions in oesophagus : · at commencement 15 cm from incisor teeth. · at crossing over by aortic arch 22.5 cm from incisor teeth. · at crossing over by left principal bronchus 27.5 cm from incisor teeth. · at its point of piercing diaphragm 40 cm from incisor teeth. Stomach: · Cardiac orifice — Behind left 7th costal cartilage 1" from its junction with sternum. · Pyloric orifice — 1.2 cm (0.5") to the right of midline on transpyloric plane. · Capacity — at birth 30 ml; adult‘s 1500 ml. . Length of small intestine: 6 to7 meters. . Length of duodenum: ―10‖ or ―25‖ cm 1st part: 5 cm 2nd part: 7.5 cm 3rd part: 10 cm 4th part: 2.5 cm .Length of large gut: 1.5 meters Page 13