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THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
WHAT IS NATIONALISM ?
EUROPEAN SOCIETY
UNIFICATION OF ITALY & GERMANY.
EUROPEAN SOCIETY
THE UPPER CLASS :
• THE LANDED ARISTOCRACY WERE THE DOMINANT GROUP.
• THEY HAD COMMON INTEREST AND LIFESTYLE.
• OWNED LARGE COUNTRY ESTATES AND TOWN HOUSES.
• MOST OF THEM SPOKE FRENCH.
 THE LOWER CLASS :
• MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE WERE PEASENTS.
• MOST WERE LANDLESS AND WORKED AS SERFS.
UPPER CLASSS PEOPLE. LOWER CLASS PEOPLE
LEADERS OF REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE
OTTO VON BISMARCK GARIBALDI
MAZZINI
NAPOLEAN BONEAPART N
THE NAPOLEONIC CODE
RETURN OF MONARCHY.
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM.
EQUALITY BEFORE LAW &
RIGHT TO PROPERTY.
REMOVAL OF GUILD RESTRICTIONS IN
TOWNS.
IMPROVEMENT IN TRANSPORT &
COMMUNICATION.
UNIFORM LAWS, WEIGHTS & MEASURES
AND NATIONAL.
French Revolution
 FRENCH REVOLUTION STARTED IN 1789.FRANCE WAS A
FULL-FLEDGED TERRITORIAL STATE IN 1789 UNDER RULE OF
A MONARCH.
 POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES THAT CAME
IN WAKE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION LED TO THE
TRANSFER TO A TRANSFER OF SOVEREIGNTY FROM
MONARCHY TO A BODY OF FRENCH CITIZEN.
 IT ALSO POWERED REVOLUTION IN ALL EUROPE.
THE IDEA OF THE NATIONNALISM
 LA PATRIE (THE FATHERLAND)
 LE CITOYEN (THE CITIZEN)
 THE FRENCH TRI COLOUR
 HYMS , OATHS
 UNIFORM SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES
 USE OF PARISIAN FRENCH
 IMAGINARY FEMALE CHARACTERS WERE USED
TO SHOW UNITED NATION.SUCH AS :GERMANIA
ITALIAN STATES BEFORE UNIFICATION, 1858
UNIFICATION OF ITALY
 ITALY WAS DIVIDED IN 7 STATES OF WHICH ONLY ONE ,
SARDINA PIEDMONT WAS RULED BY AN ITALIAN DYNASTY.
 IDEAS OF ITALIAN UNIFICATION FRIST GIVEN BY GUISEPPE
MAZZINI THROUGF HIS SCERET SOCIETY CALLED YOUNG
IYALY.
 AFTER HIS FAILED REVOLUTIONS IN 1831 AND 1848 , THE
LEAD WAS TAKEN BY THE KING OF SARDINA , VICTOR
EMMANUEL II.
 CHIEF MINISTER OF SARDINA, COUNT CAVOUR LED THE
UNIFICATION PROCESS BY DIPLOMATIC
ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE TO DEFEAT AUSTRIA AND UNIFY
ITS NORTHERN TERRITORIES.
 IN THE SOUTHERN PART, GUISEPPE GARIBALDI LED THE
MOVEMENT BY INVOLVING LOCAL PEASANT SUPPORT TO
DRIVE OUT THE SPANISH RULERS.
 THUS THE PROCESS OF UNIFICATION AS COMPLETED WITH
THE CROWNING OF VICTOR EMMANUEL II AS KING OF
ITALY IN 1861.
LIBERAL REVOLUTION IN GERMANY
 INSPIRING BY THE EVENT OF FEB 1848 IN FRANCE ,
LIBERAL REVOLUTION CONSISTING OF MIDDLE
EDUCATED PROFESSIONALSAND MERCHANTS SET UP A
GERMAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
 N MAY 1848, A GROUP OF 831 ELECTED REPS ,MET
TOGETHER AND DECIDED ON A SYSTEM OF
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY.
 KING FRIEDRICH WILHEM IV OF PRUSSIA REJECTED
TEIR OFFER.
 THE LOWER PEASANT CLASS TOO PROTESTED AT THE
LACK OF REPRESENTATION.
 THIS LED TO WEAKNING OF THE LIBERAL MOVEMENT
AND THE DISBANDING OF THE ASSEMBLY.
GERMANY BEFORE UNIFICATION(1866- 1871)
FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY
GERMANY : LEADERS OF THE UNIFICATION
 King Wilhem I (King of Prussia).
- Succeeded Frederick William to the throne
in1861.
- Supported by the :
=Wealthy landowning class
= Strongly conservative and
opposed liberal ideas.
Wilhem I
-Wanted to increase the size and strength
of the military (Parliament refused to give
him money)
-Decided to pick a new Prime Minister in order to
get what he wanted.
UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
 IN MAY 1848 THE LIBERAL ATTEMPT TO SET UP A
COSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY AT FRANKFURT WAS
SUPPRESSED BY THE MONARCHY MILITARY AND
JUNKERS.
 AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL
ASSEMBLY , PRUSSIAN CHIEF MINISTER OTTO VON
BISMARCK TAKES THE LEAD IN GERMAN UNIFINATION.
 HE PLANNED THE UNIFICATION WITH FRANCE , AUSTRIA
AND DENMARK OVER 7 YEARS ,THUS ENSURING GERMAN
UNIFICATION.
 THE PROCESS WAS COMPLETED WITH THE CROWNING OF
KAISER WILLIAM I AS OF GERMANY.
NATIONALISM IN THE BALKANS
 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS A DOMINANT MUSLIM
REGIME RULING OVER PREDOMINANTLY CHRISTIAN
PEOPLE.
 THE SPREAD OF NATIONALIST REVOLUTION IN WESTERN
EUROPE AND INSPIRED BY ROMANTIC MATIONALISTIC
FEELING, YHE ETHNIC CONSTITUENTS OF BALKNS DEMAND
LIBERTY.
 THEY BASED THEIR CLAIMS ON THEIR DISTINCT NATIONAL
IDENTITIES AND HISTORICAL REFRENCE TO EARLIER STATE
OF INDEPENDENCE.
 AS THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WEAKNED, THE VARIOUS
NATIONS BROKE FREE.
THANK YOU

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The rise of nationalism in europe

  • 1. THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE WHAT IS NATIONALISM ? EUROPEAN SOCIETY UNIFICATION OF ITALY & GERMANY.
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  • 3. EUROPEAN SOCIETY THE UPPER CLASS : • THE LANDED ARISTOCRACY WERE THE DOMINANT GROUP. • THEY HAD COMMON INTEREST AND LIFESTYLE. • OWNED LARGE COUNTRY ESTATES AND TOWN HOUSES. • MOST OF THEM SPOKE FRENCH.  THE LOWER CLASS : • MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE WERE PEASENTS. • MOST WERE LANDLESS AND WORKED AS SERFS.
  • 4. UPPER CLASSS PEOPLE. LOWER CLASS PEOPLE
  • 5. LEADERS OF REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE OTTO VON BISMARCK GARIBALDI MAZZINI
  • 7. THE NAPOLEONIC CODE RETURN OF MONARCHY. ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM. EQUALITY BEFORE LAW & RIGHT TO PROPERTY. REMOVAL OF GUILD RESTRICTIONS IN TOWNS. IMPROVEMENT IN TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION. UNIFORM LAWS, WEIGHTS & MEASURES AND NATIONAL.
  • 8. French Revolution  FRENCH REVOLUTION STARTED IN 1789.FRANCE WAS A FULL-FLEDGED TERRITORIAL STATE IN 1789 UNDER RULE OF A MONARCH.  POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES THAT CAME IN WAKE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION LED TO THE TRANSFER TO A TRANSFER OF SOVEREIGNTY FROM MONARCHY TO A BODY OF FRENCH CITIZEN.  IT ALSO POWERED REVOLUTION IN ALL EUROPE.
  • 9. THE IDEA OF THE NATIONNALISM  LA PATRIE (THE FATHERLAND)  LE CITOYEN (THE CITIZEN)  THE FRENCH TRI COLOUR  HYMS , OATHS  UNIFORM SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES  USE OF PARISIAN FRENCH  IMAGINARY FEMALE CHARACTERS WERE USED TO SHOW UNITED NATION.SUCH AS :GERMANIA
  • 10. ITALIAN STATES BEFORE UNIFICATION, 1858
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  • 15. UNIFICATION OF ITALY  ITALY WAS DIVIDED IN 7 STATES OF WHICH ONLY ONE , SARDINA PIEDMONT WAS RULED BY AN ITALIAN DYNASTY.  IDEAS OF ITALIAN UNIFICATION FRIST GIVEN BY GUISEPPE MAZZINI THROUGF HIS SCERET SOCIETY CALLED YOUNG IYALY.  AFTER HIS FAILED REVOLUTIONS IN 1831 AND 1848 , THE LEAD WAS TAKEN BY THE KING OF SARDINA , VICTOR EMMANUEL II.  CHIEF MINISTER OF SARDINA, COUNT CAVOUR LED THE UNIFICATION PROCESS BY DIPLOMATIC
  • 16. ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE TO DEFEAT AUSTRIA AND UNIFY ITS NORTHERN TERRITORIES.  IN THE SOUTHERN PART, GUISEPPE GARIBALDI LED THE MOVEMENT BY INVOLVING LOCAL PEASANT SUPPORT TO DRIVE OUT THE SPANISH RULERS.  THUS THE PROCESS OF UNIFICATION AS COMPLETED WITH THE CROWNING OF VICTOR EMMANUEL II AS KING OF ITALY IN 1861.
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  • 18. LIBERAL REVOLUTION IN GERMANY  INSPIRING BY THE EVENT OF FEB 1848 IN FRANCE , LIBERAL REVOLUTION CONSISTING OF MIDDLE EDUCATED PROFESSIONALSAND MERCHANTS SET UP A GERMAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.  N MAY 1848, A GROUP OF 831 ELECTED REPS ,MET TOGETHER AND DECIDED ON A SYSTEM OF CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY.  KING FRIEDRICH WILHEM IV OF PRUSSIA REJECTED TEIR OFFER.  THE LOWER PEASANT CLASS TOO PROTESTED AT THE LACK OF REPRESENTATION.  THIS LED TO WEAKNING OF THE LIBERAL MOVEMENT AND THE DISBANDING OF THE ASSEMBLY.
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  • 22. GERMANY : LEADERS OF THE UNIFICATION  King Wilhem I (King of Prussia). - Succeeded Frederick William to the throne in1861. - Supported by the : =Wealthy landowning class = Strongly conservative and opposed liberal ideas.
  • 23. Wilhem I -Wanted to increase the size and strength of the military (Parliament refused to give him money) -Decided to pick a new Prime Minister in order to get what he wanted.
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  • 26. UNIFICATION OF GERMANY  IN MAY 1848 THE LIBERAL ATTEMPT TO SET UP A COSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY AT FRANKFURT WAS SUPPRESSED BY THE MONARCHY MILITARY AND JUNKERS.  AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY , PRUSSIAN CHIEF MINISTER OTTO VON BISMARCK TAKES THE LEAD IN GERMAN UNIFINATION.  HE PLANNED THE UNIFICATION WITH FRANCE , AUSTRIA AND DENMARK OVER 7 YEARS ,THUS ENSURING GERMAN UNIFICATION.  THE PROCESS WAS COMPLETED WITH THE CROWNING OF KAISER WILLIAM I AS OF GERMANY.
  • 27. NATIONALISM IN THE BALKANS  THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS A DOMINANT MUSLIM REGIME RULING OVER PREDOMINANTLY CHRISTIAN PEOPLE.  THE SPREAD OF NATIONALIST REVOLUTION IN WESTERN EUROPE AND INSPIRED BY ROMANTIC MATIONALISTIC FEELING, YHE ETHNIC CONSTITUENTS OF BALKNS DEMAND LIBERTY.  THEY BASED THEIR CLAIMS ON THEIR DISTINCT NATIONAL IDENTITIES AND HISTORICAL REFRENCE TO EARLIER STATE OF INDEPENDENCE.  AS THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WEAKNED, THE VARIOUS NATIONS BROKE FREE.
  • 28.