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  1. 2. <ul><li>The term arthritis is derived from the Greek: “arthron” meaning “joint” and “itis” meaning inflammation. </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis is a joint disorder featuring inflammation and joint pain. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>There are more than 100 types of </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis. And most common type of </li></ul><ul><li>them are: </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Gout </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylosing Spondylitis </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>It is the most common type of arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as degenerative joint disease. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs in the joints especially in the hands and the weight bearing parts of the body including knee, hip and the spine </li></ul><ul><li>This type of arthritis occurs because of the break down in cartilage. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint effusion and stretching of the joint capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torn menisci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of periarticular bursae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periarticular muscle spasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic (hemachromatosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory (RA, infection) </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common serious inflammatory form of arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary site of inflammation is the synovial membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it may do most of its damage in the first year, early diagnosis and aggressive therapy is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Left untreated RA may shorten life expectancy by as much as 18 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation at the joints </li></ul><ul><li>Pain and loss of strength </li></ul><ul><li>Movement limitation around joints of the hands, feet, elbows, knees and neck </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling generally unwell and fatigued </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffness in the morning and after sitting still for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic (inherited) factors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Possible infection by a bacterium or virus. </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>This is a rare type of arthritis which mainly affects the children </li></ul><ul><li>It causes the pain, stiffness, swelling, loss of function of the joints. </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of the disease are fever, rashes, fatigue, early morning stiffness, subcutaneous nodules, growth disturbance in bones, joint swelling, uveitis and swollen nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Gout is created because of the deposits of needle-like crystals of uric acid in the joints </li></ul><ul><li>These crystals cause inflammation, swelling, and pain in the affected joint, which is often the big toe. </li></ul><ul><li>It also affects foot, ankle, knee etc. </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden onset of a hot, red, swollen joint </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney stones are more frequent in people with gout. </li></ul><ul><li>Uric acid crystals can form outside joints most commonly on the big toe. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney fail to excrete uric acid properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Over production of uric acid in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics, Gender, and </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition(alcoholism, obesity) play key roles in the development of gout. </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>This type of arthritis is caused by infectious agents such as bacteria or viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms vary according to infection type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint swelling </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition causing pain, stiffness, and tenderness of the muscles, tendons, and joints. </li></ul><ul><li>While fibromyalgia is one of the most common diseases affecting the muscles. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia is characterized by restless sleep, awakening feeling tired, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and disturbances in bowel function. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>The cause is unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Several theories exists like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supersensitive central nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological distress, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes pain and stiffness in and around the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylosing spondylitis is also a systemic disease, meaning it can affect other tissues throughout the body. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the spine causes pain and stiffness in the low back, upper buttock area, neck, and the remainder of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation and scarring of the lungs, causing coughing and shortness of breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>The tendency to develop ankylosing spondylitis is believed to be genetically inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial inflammation may be a result of an activation of the body's immune system, perhaps by a preceding bacterial infection or a combination of infectious microbes </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Doctor will look for very specific signs, symptoms, and disease characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Information about past medical conditions and your current medical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood test is done to find: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid factor,anti-CCP,CBC,ESR,CRP,ANA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><ul><li>HLA Tissue Typing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uric Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical Imaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X Rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRI scan </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>The goals of arthritis treatment are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieve pain/inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize risks of therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retard disease progression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide patient education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent work disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance quality of life and functional independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are achieved using different approaches depending on the diagnosis. </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Physical Therapy: this helps in maintaining joint mobility and range of motion. It may include Swimming and Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Medication: Many drugs are now used to treat the inflammation and pain associated with arthritis. Like: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NSAIDs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ibuprofen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naproxen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dicolfenac </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Second-line drugs used for treatment of arthritis include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroxychloroquine, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillamine, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azathioprine, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfasalazine and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methotrexate </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>Arthrodesis : A bone fusion done to relieve pain, usually in the ankles, wrists, fingers and thumbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteotomy : The correction of bone deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone, ideally in people with malalignment of certain joints and mild osteoarthritis. </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>Arthroscopy : Allows the physician to see how much damage there is, and to treat what may be causing pain, such as torn meniscus cartilage, articular cartilage debris, synovial or joint lining tissue and ligaments. This procedure is done most often on knees and shoulders. </li></ul><ul><li>Resection : The removal of part or all of a bone. This is often done when diseased joints in the foot make walking very painful and difficult, or to remove painful bunions </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>Synovectomy: The removal of the synovium or tissues lining the joints. This reduces pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and prevents or slows down the destruction of joints. </li></ul><ul><li>Total joint replacement: The removal of damaged bone or joint tissue, which is then replaced with metal, ceramic and plastic parts. This surgery has been widely used for many years with excellent results, especially for knees and hips. </li></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>Knee Replacement- The knee is the largest joint in the body. By resurfacing, the damaged and worn surfaces of the knee can relieve pain, correct leg deformity and help resume normal activities.  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MINIMALLY INVASIVE KNEE REPLACEMENT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Hip Replacement - Hip replacement surgery is performed when the hip joint has reached a point when painful symptoms can no longer be controlled with non-operative treatments . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CEMENTED HIP :A patient with a cemented total hip replacement can put full weight on the limb and walk without support almost immediately after surgery, resulting in a faster rehabilitation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNCEMENTED HIP : Cementless total hip replacement is most often recommended for younger, more active patients and patients with good bone quality where bone ingrowth into the components can be predictably achieved. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>HYBRID HIP: A hybrid total hip replacement has one component, usually the acetabular socket, inserted without cement, and the other component, usually the femoral stem, inserted with cement. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SURFACE HIP REPLACEMENT: It's an advanced alternative of the traditional Hip Replacement Surgery, wherein the damaged and worn out surface at the end of the thigh bone (femur) is resurfaced with a metal cap. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>Many Indian Hospitals have medical facilities to treat Arthritis. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these hospitals have experts who run comprehensive programs. </li></ul><ul><li>These hospitals have teams consisting of Joints Surgeon / Spine Surgeon / Arthroscopic Surgeons / Pain Managers and experts physiotherapists to help patients walk towards healthy life. </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>To contact any of these hospitals and seek a no obligation opinion, feel free to contact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. High Beam Global 209, Udyog Vihar, Phase – 1, Gurgaon. Phone: +91-124-4824560 Fax: +91-124-4824550 E-mail: Web address:
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