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PRESENTED BY:
M.SAI MANIKANTA
B TECH,NIT CALICUT
It is new mode of transport other than road, rail, air , water.
Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules...
find ways to improve it’. It will be an open source design anyone
can access it.
 A Hyperloop would be "an elevated, redu...
 Due to high traffic US government proposed a high speed
train project between San Francisco to Los Angeles called
“Calif...
 When we use less pressure instead of vacuum we have
to consider the minimum tube to pod area ratio then we
need to incre...
 Safer
 Faster
 Lower costs and this kind of speed
 More convenient
 Immune to weather
 Sustainably self powering
 ...
 It cannot decrease the number current trips and cost
relatively to existing transport systems but it
decreases the trave...
 CAPSULE
 TUBE
 PROPULSION
CAPSULE:
 The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum
height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). Wit...
 For travel at high speeds, the greatest power
requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.
 Aerodynamic drag inc...
COMPRESSOR:
 One important feature of the capsule is the
onboard compressor, which serves two purposes .
This system allo...
 by compressing air that is bypassed through the
capsule. It also supplies air to air bearings that
support the weight of...
 The compressor is powered by a 436 hp (325 kW) onboard
electric motor:
a. The motor has an estimated mass of 372 lb (169...
Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design sketch
 The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded
together in a side by side configuration to allow the
capsules to tr...
 The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2)
giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a diameter
ratio of 60%.
 The high-speed transport more generally ,have
historically been impeded by the difficulties in
managing friction and air...
 Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of the tube
at various locations to accelerate the capsules.
 Stat...
 The Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and
decelerate the capsule. This provides several important
be...
 For aerodynamic efficiency, the velocity of a capsule in the
Hyperloop is typically:
• 300 mph (480 kmph) where local ge...
 Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial
technical challenge due to transonic cruising velocities.
...
Schematic of air bearing skis that support the capsule.
 The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall,
allowi...
 It costs around 6 billion USD.
 A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop
introduced here.
 Its basically magnetic levitation train in vacu...
◦ Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha". SpaceX.
◦ “Hyperloop” ,Wikipedia
◦ Garber, Megan (July 13, 2012). "The ...
THANK YOU
Hyperloop  transportation system
Hyperloop  transportation system
Hyperloop  transportation system
Hyperloop  transportation system
Hyperloop  transportation system
Hyperloop  transportation system
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Hyperloop transportation system

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Elon Musk's proposal of hyperloop transportation.

Published in: Engineering
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Hyperloop transportation system

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: M.SAI MANIKANTA B TECH,NIT CALICUT
  2. 2. It is new mode of transport other than road, rail, air , water. Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube. It was proposed by Elon Musk CEO of TESLA MOTORS and SPACEX and Co-founder of PAY-PAL A high-level alpha design for the system was published on August 12, 2013, in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla and SpaceX blogs It is an high speed train transporting at a speed of 800mph which is twice the speed of a commercial plane. Elon Musk didn’t even patented the design quoting ‘see if people
  3. 3. find ways to improve it’. It will be an open source design anyone can access it.  A Hyperloop would be "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a number of linear electric motors.”  Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the tube.
  4. 4.  Due to high traffic US government proposed a high speed train project between San Francisco to Los Angeles called “California High Speed Rail” with $68.4 Billion USD.  The average speed is 164mph and takes approx 3 hours.  Estimated cost of Hyperloop is $7.8 billion USD and takes 35 mins to cover same distance.  In past Robert Goddard proposed using vacuum as medium of transport there by attain speed without high friction losses but there’s lot of possibility of leaks . And when there is a leak it will damage the whole system.  Elon Musk thought of overcoming it with maintaing low pressure rather than vacuum and using electromagnetic suspension.
  5. 5.  When we use less pressure instead of vacuum we have to consider the minimum tube to pod area ratio then we need to increase the diameter of tube or go slow or really , really fast.  But increasing speed that high will become very much expensive.  Here an electric compressor fan mounted on the nose of the pod that actively transfers high pressure air from the front to the rear of the vessel.  A battery can’t store enough energy to power fan over whole journey so a linear electric motor, a round induction motor rolled flat is provided.
  6. 6.  Safer  Faster  Lower costs and this kind of speed  More convenient  Immune to weather  Sustainably self powering  Resistant to earth quakes  Decrease the traffic  Decreases the frictional losses that occur at subsonic speed  Using solar power.
  7. 7.  It cannot decrease the number current trips and cost relatively to existing transport systems but it decreases the travelling time and costs between California and Los Angeles  We can mount solar panels on the tubes for energy to transport and use battery to store for night time.  The energy cost and energy consumed per passenger is also relatively lower compared to existing systems.  Energy consumed per passenger to travel same distance is very low compared to cars, aero planes , high speed trains.
  8. 8.  CAPSULE  TUBE  PROPULSION CAPSULE:  The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) frontal area, not including any propulsion or suspension components.  The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear accelerator affixed at various stations on the low pressure tube with rotors contained in each capsule
  9. 9.  For travel at high speeds, the greatest power requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.  Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed, and thus the power requirement increases with the cube of speed.  For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and input eight times the power  The capsules are supported via air bearings that operate using a compressed air reservoir and aerodynamic lift  This is an operating pressure of 100 Pascal’s, which reduces the drag force of the air by 1,000 times relative to sea level conditions and would be equivalent to flying above 150,000 feet altitude
  10. 10. COMPRESSOR:  One important feature of the capsule is the onboard compressor, which serves two purposes . This system allows the capsule to traverse the relatively narrow tube without choking flow that travels between the capsule and the tube walls
  11. 11.  by compressing air that is bypassed through the capsule. It also supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of the capsule throughout the journey.  Tube air is compressed with a compression ratio of 20:1 via an axial compressor  Up to 60% of this air is bypassed: a. The air travels via a narrow tube near bottom of the capsule to the tail.  b. A nozzle at the tail expands the flow generating thrust to mitigate some of the small amounts of aerodynamic and bearing drag
  12. 12.  The compressor is powered by a 436 hp (325 kW) onboard electric motor: a. The motor has an estimated mass of 372 lb (169 kg), which includes power electronics. b. An estimated 3,400 lb (1,500 kg) of batteries provides 45 minutes of onboard compressor power, which is more than sufficient for the travel time with added reserve backup power. Geometry  In order to optimize the capsule speed and performance, the frontal area has been minimized for size while maintaining passenger comfort.
  13. 13. Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design sketch
  14. 14.  The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded together in a side by side configuration to allow the capsules to travel both directions.  Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the tube  Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to provide power to the system.  The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft 4 in. (2.23 m) which is small enough to keep material cost low while large enough to provide some alleviation of choked air flow around the capsule.
  15. 15.  The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2) giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a diameter ratio of 60%.
  16. 16.  The high-speed transport more generally ,have historically been impeded by the difficulties in managing friction and air resistance, both of which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds.  vactrain concept : tubes kept at a complete vacuum, allowing for theoretical speeds of thousands of miles per hour.  The expected pressure inside the tube will be maintained around 100pa (less pressure).  This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the capsule while maintaining the relative ease of pumping out the air from the tube.
  17. 17.  Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of the tube at various locations to accelerate the capsules.  Stators are located on the capsules to transfer momentum to the capsules via the linear accelerators.  Capsules are accelerated by linear magnetic induction and decelerated by regenerative braking similar to magnetic levitation trains.  The Hyperloop as a whole is projected to consume an average of 28,000 hp (21 MW).  This includes the power needed to make up for propulsion motor efficiency (including elevation changes), aerodynamic drag, charging the batteries to power on-board compressors, and vacuum pumps to keep the tube evacuated.  Each accelerator has two 65 MVA inverters, one to accelerate the outgoing capsule, and one to capture the energy from the incoming capsule
  18. 18.  The Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and decelerate the capsule. This provides several important benefits over a permanent magnet motor
  19. 19.  For aerodynamic efficiency, the velocity of a capsule in the Hyperloop is typically: • 300 mph (480 kmph) where local geography necessitates a tube bend radii< 1.0 mile (1.6 km) • 760 mph (1,220 kmph) where local geography allows a tube bend > 3.0miles (4.8 km) or where local geography permits a straight tube.  These bend radii have been calculated so that the passenger does not experience inertial accelerations that exceed 0.5g. This is deemed the maximum inertial acceleration that can be comfortably sustained by humans for short periods. To further reduce the inertial acceleration experienced by passengers, the capsule and/or tube will incorporate a mechanism that will allow a degree of ‘banking’.
  20. 20.  Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial technical challenge due to transonic cruising velocities.  Conventional wheel and axle systems become impractical at high speed due frictional losses and dynamic instability.  A viable technical solution is magnetic levitation; however the cost associated with material and construction is prohibitive.  An alternative to these conventional options is an air bearing suspension. Air bearings offer stability and extremely low drag at a feasible cost by exploiting the ambient atmosphere in the tube.  When the gap height between a ski and the tube wallis reduced, the flow field in the gap exhibits a highly non-linear reaction resulting in large restoring pressures
  21. 21. Schematic of air bearing skis that support the capsule.  The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall, allowing it to return to its nominal ride height SAFETY:  Power Outage  Capsule Depressurization  Capsule Stranded in Tube  Earthquakes  Reliability
  22. 22.  It costs around 6 billion USD.
  23. 23.  A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop introduced here.  Its basically magnetic levitation train in vacuum tubes helping in achieving high speeds.  It has various advantages over traditional transport system.  FUTURE WORK:  More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop capsules, including attitude thruster or control moment gyros.  Using conventional magnetic levitation systems.  Testing of prototype and decreasing the cost further.
  24. 24. ◦ Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha". SpaceX. ◦ “Hyperloop” ,Wikipedia ◦ Garber, Megan (July 13, 2012). "The Real iPod: Elon Musk's Wild Idea for a 'Jetson Tunnel' from S.F. to L.A.". The Atlantic. ◦ "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon Musk's proposed transit system".Gizmag.com. August 22, 2013. ◦ Bilton, Nick. "Could the Hyperloop Really Cost $6 Billion? Critics Say No". The New York Times. 30
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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