Improving reading skills

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Reading skills

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Improving reading skills

  1. 1. Improving reading skills<br />SAIMA AFZAL<br />Lecturer <br />Air University<br />
  2. 2. In the name of Allah the most merciful the most beneficent <br />Read: In the Name of your Lord Who created man from a blood clot <br />
  3. 3. What is reading?<br />Ability to recognize the letters of the alphabet.<br />
  4. 4. What is reading?<br />Or is it the ability to say or pronounce written words <br />'Twasbrillig, and the slithytovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe:All mimsy were the borogoves,And the momerathsoutgrabe.<br /> (opening lines of Lewis Carroll's poem, "Jabberwocky,”)<br />
  5. 5. What is reading?<br />Or is reading the process by which we make sense of text—comprehension.<br />Food for thought <br />What kind of reading is taught in our schools?<br />Which definition of reading does it follow?<br />
  6. 6. Reading speed and comprehension<br />Reading speed –--how many words your eyes can see at a single glance.<br />Being able to read by phrases instead of by single words results from practice.<br />Writer is the encoder of the message and the reader is the decoder<br />
  7. 7. Reconstruction of the message<br />Jansher takes over Jahangir's crown.<br />Background knowledge<br />Own view of the world <br />Visual and non visual informati<br />Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader to read the written form as meaningful language to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and to mentally interact with the message.<br />
  8. 8. Slow reader -<br />Beingableto read by phrasesinsteadofby single words resultsfrompractice.<br />Eyes stop 14 times focusing on each word <br />
  9. 9. Vocalizing <br />Another cause of slow reading-<br />The normal rate of speaking English is 180 to 200 words a minute.<br />Forming the sound of each word, even though they may be spoken aloud <br />Reading 200 words is a dangerously slow speed <br />
  10. 10. Average Reader<br />Being ableto read by phrases insteadof by single words results from practice.<br />The eyes of the average reader stop six or seven times they are able to see about two words at a glance <br />
  11. 11. Fast Reader <br />Being able toread by phrases insteadof by single words resultsfrom practice.<br />Eyes stop only three times they focus at the centre of a phrase and see three or four words then move rapidly to the next phrase.<br />
  12. 12. Peripheral vision/ FIXATIONS<br />The ability to see words on either side of the point at which your eyes focus. <br />The ability to see objects and movement outside of the direct line of vision.<br /> The eye moves in a series of jerks like the bar on one of the older typewriters.<br />The number of fixations per line varies according to such factors as:<br />Nature of the text<br />The reading purpose<br />Speed of the reader<br />
  13. 13. Fixations----- Regressions<br />Regressions<br />Slow reading also results from regression, the number of times your eyes have to go back to a word or phrase that they did not see accurately the first time.<br /> A good reader makes fewer eye movements than a poor one; his eye takes in several words at a time ……… efficient reader has the ability to chunk a text into sense units, each consisting of several words, and each taken in by one fixation of his eye.<br />
  14. 14. Activity 1 <br />Pg.97<br />
  15. 15. words that go together grammatically. <br />Modification pattern <br />Prepositional/participial phrases<br /> Dependent clauses<br />the economic policy<br />an unnecessary expense<br />To tell the truth<br />Under these conditions<br />On the other hand<br />Because it was raining<br />When the war ended <br />
  16. 16. Reading as a process of prediction<br />Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosn'tmttaer in wahtoredr the ltteers of a wrod are, the olnyiprmoetnttihng is taht the fristand lsatltteer be at the rghitpclae. The rset can be a toatlmses and you can sitllraed it wouthitporbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnmniddeos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.<br />
  17. 17. Redundancy in reading <br />b, f, l, m ,p, q, r, w<br />conjunction<br />preposition <br />The captain ordered the ship to an-<br />anchor <br />answer, antibody <br /> anchovy<br />
  18. 18. Use orthographic information <br />N*V*RT*L*SS<br />TH*R*F*R* <br />PH*T*GR*PH<br />Q*IT*<br />*X*ST <br />TH***GH<br />C**CK<br />J*N*AR*<br />PL*C*<br />SP**SH<br />
  19. 19. USE GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION<br />Sometimes oil _____ to the surface to form tar pits. <br /> seeps well expensive easily <br />These _______ tar pits become death trap for animals.<br />cause slowly sticky over<br />Reptile history ______26 million years!<br /> of snakes goes back more than very old<br />Within the last few years a new and ______ science has been explored, ____body language.<br /> within exciting recently not before called<br />
  20. 20. Activity 2 <br />Pg. 106<br />
  21. 21. Semantic information <br />Husband and ________<br />Fame and ___________<br />Thunder and _________<br />Aches and ___________<br />Do’s and _____________<br />Eat drink and _________<br />Blood, sweat, and _________<br />Healthy, wealthy and _______<br />Friends, Romans, and __________<br />
  22. 22. What is a paragraph?<br />Topic sentence <br />Supporting details<br />Transitions <br />Concluding sentence<br />Modern people in spite of their scientific knowledge, often seem as superstitious as their ancestors. <br />
  23. 23. What are these paragraphs talking about?<br />The Yukon, the largest river in Alaska, is unique.<br />Describe where Alaska is <br />Explainwhy the river is unique <br />Compare the Yukon with other large rivers<br />
  24. 24. Recognizing paragraph patterns <br />Modern people in spite of their scientific knowledge, often seem as superstitious as their ancestors. Astrology is a half-billion- dollar business. Intelligent persons still believe that lines on their palm or the arrangement of tea leaves in a cup predict the future. Air planes do not have a row of seats numbered 13 and buildings omit a thirteenth floor, Black cats, broken mirrors, and spilled tea create fear and anxiety in many people. And ouija boards continue to be a popular pastime.<br />
  25. 25. INDUCTIVE PARAGRAPH<br />From Italian we get such words as balcony, cavalry, miniature, opera and umbrella. Spanish has given us mosquito, ranch, cigar and vanilla.Dutch has provided brandy, golf measles and wagon.From Arabic we have borrowed alcohol, chemistry, magazine, zenith and zero. And Persian has loaned us chess, checkers, lemon, paradise, and spinach. <br />
  26. 26. INDUCTIVE PARAGRAPH<br />From Italian we get such words as balcony, cavalry, miniature, opera and umbrella. Spanish has given us mosquito, ranch, cigar and vanilla.Dutch has provided brandy, golf measles and wagon.From Arabic we have borrowed alcohol, chemistry, magazine, zenith and zero. And Persian has loaned us chess, checkers, lemon, paradise, and spinach. It is clear that English is a language that borrows freely from many sources.<br />
  27. 27. Refrences and connectives <br />Some students read slowly but don’t know that they do;; others read slowly and know <br /> Some students do <br />it. Their reading problems are the same, but<br /> the latter can be helped more easily because they are already aware of their problem. Because the former can be helped, however, they must be aware of the problem.<br />it<br />they do <br />
  28. 28. Connectives signalling result <br />He hadn’t eaten <br /> breakfast <br />therefore <br /> thus <br /> consequently <br /> hence <br />he was hungry by noon <br /> accordingly <br />
  29. 29. Connectives of contrast <br />Defeat was <br /> obvious <br />Even so <br />all the same <br /> nevertheless<br /> however <br /> but <br />still<br />
  30. 30. Connectives of contrast <br />Defeat was <br /> obvious <br />Even so <br />The players continued to try their best to win the game <br />all the same <br /> nevertheless<br /> however <br /> but <br />still<br />
  31. 31. Connectives that signal addition <br />The peace <br /> treaty<br />was timely<br />and fair <br />and also fair <br />and fair too<br /> as well as fair <br />Moreover, it was fair<br />Furthermore, it was fair<br />
  32. 32. scanning<br />Scanning is a technique you use when:<br />When you look for a telephone number<br />Your name on a grade list<br />The atomic weight of cobalt<br />Looking up a word in the dictionary.<br />.<br />
  33. 33. Try this!<br />Skim to locate the year in which Elvis Presley was born.<br />
  34. 34. Activity <br />Pg 137<br />
  35. 35. Skimming <br />Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research<br />
  36. 36. Activity -4<br />Pg 140<br />

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