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Black Holes [Krunal Saija]

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Detail about Black holes. It's definition, components and then history of black hole and General theory of relativity.
Life cycle of a star and formation of black hole in space.
Different types of choice after star's life end.

Different types of Black hole on basis on mass of Parent star. and classification of black holes on basis of charge and rotational motion of black holes. Quantum theory of physics.

Study of Black holes using Quantum mechanics by Steaphen Hawking.

Current research on black holes.

Published in: Science
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Black Holes [Krunal Saija]

  1. 1. Black Holes Presented by: Krunal Saija
  2. 2. Out-Lines 1. Introduction 2. Components of BH 3. History 4. Life Cycle of Stars 5. Formation of BH 6. Growth and Size 7. Classification 8. How do we find BH in Space ?? 9. Open Questions (Current Researches)
  3. 3. What is a black hole ? “A black hole is a region of space that is so incredibly dense that not even light can escape from it.” “Black hole is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area.” 1 2 Do not let the name fool you Black hole is nothing but Empty Space.
  4. 4. Continue… • Black holes don't have any greater gravitational force than any other star of the same mass but it has higher density. • Mass is so great in such a small volume that the velocity needed to escape is greater than the speed light travels. • Though they are black they are invisible to us. • Not tangible also.
  5. 5. EVENT HORIZON and SCHWARZSCHILD RADIUS • Sensational Fact: If our sun suddenly became a black hole of the same mass the rest of the objects, including Earth, would be unaffected gravitationally. The Earth would remain in its current orbit, as would the rest of the planets.
  6. 6. Sun is in its original form Sun convert into Black Hole • No any effect to Earth and any other planets. • Of course other things would be affected, such as the amount of light and heat that Earth received.
  7. 7. Continue… • The boundary of the region of black hole from which no escape is possible is called the EVENT HORIZON. • The center of the black hole is a point of infinite density and zero volume, called a SINGULARITY. • Event Horizon radius is known as Schwarzschild Radius. • Objects start to travel at the speed of light after they reach the INNER EVENT HORISON. • For the simplest case (a non-rotating, charge neutral black hole). The event horizon radius would be defined as Rs = 2GM/c2 G=Gravitational Force ; M=Mass ; c=Velocity of light.
  8. 8. HISTORY OF BLACK HOLE • In the 1783, John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace first mentioned about the objects with a huge gravitation, from which even light cannot escape. • In 1915, Albert Einstein developed the theory of GENERAL RELATIVITY. Which says that Gravity influence light motion. • Karl Schwarzschild did find black holes as a solution to Einstein’s equations by using Newton’s theory. (1916) • Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder predict that massive stars can collapse into black holes (1939)
  9. 9. LIFE CYCLE OF STARS • In the normal life of a star there is a constant tug of war between gravity pulling in and pressure pushing out. • Thermo Nuclear reactions in the core of the star produce enough energy and pressure to push outward. • Gravity and pressure balance each other exactly, and so the star is stable. • However, when a star runs out of nuclear fuel, gravity gets the upper hand and the material in the core is compressed even further. The core matter is forced into an extremely dense state and concentrate in very small volume.
  10. 10. DO ALL STARS BECOME BLACK HOLES? It all depends on the amount of mass stars contain Mass < 1 sun Mass ≈ 3 suns Mass > 8 suns Becomes a Nebula Becomes a Neutron star Becomes a Black Hole
  11. 11. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE One Star's End is a Black Hole's Beginning • The most common way for a black hole to form is probably in a supernova, an exploding star. • Astronomers suspect that most black holes are produced when massive stars (at least 8-10 times the Sun's mass) reach the end of their lifecycle. • Start that has 8 to 20 times the mass of our Sun converted in to Stellar Mass Black Hole. • Start that has million times the mass of our Sun converted in to Supermassive Black Hole.
  12. 12. Mid Mass Supermassive Stellar mass
  13. 13. Growth of Black Hole • Once a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing additional matter. Any black hole will continually absorb gas and interstellar dust from its direct surroundings and omit present cosmic background radiation. • Another possibility is for a black hole to merge with other objects such as stars or even other black holes
  14. 14. Size of black holes • Black holes are available in variety of size. • Smallest Black hole’s size is equal to atom size of Helium. But it contains thousand times more mass than sun. • A typical 10-solar-mass black hole would have a radius of 30 kilometers.
  15. 15. 17 on the basis of CHARGE and motion : FOUR types of black holes • Schwarzchild black holes : Don’t rotate and have NO charge. • Reissner – Nordstrom black holes : Don’t rotate but have charge. • Kerr black holes : Rotate but have NO charge. • Kerr - Newman black holes : Rotate and have charge.
  16. 16. How do we find BH in Space ? • Nobody has literally seen a black hole yet, but there are some methods and instruments with which astronomers detect and study BH. • Actually we cannot find exact location of BH. Methods: • Predict using various equations like space-time gravity (given by Einstein in GTR) and Schrodinger’s equation. • Binary X-ray sources are placed to find strong black hole . • Continuous fluctuation and Sudden change in gravity.
  17. 17. Some important terms • Physical Information : In Physics, Physical Information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system in wave form. That is, all of its properties, all that makes it distinct from other things. It is a complete description of the thing, but in a sense that is divorced from any particular language. Example: Mass, KE, PE, Momentum etc… • General Theory of Relativity [ GR ] • Quantum Theory of Physics [ QT ]
  18. 18. Open questions on bh (GR v/s qt) • In 1974, using Quantum Theory of Physics, Stephen Hawking told that BH produces Radiation named as Hawking Radiation. He is the first who had started analyzing BH using QT and gave some controversy. • Theory of GR strictly says that, any matter (even light) cannot escape from BH BUT in 2004, Hawking told that Physical Information can run off from BH, with this some energy also release from it which make Firewall above Event Horizon which is known as INFORMATION PARDOX.
  19. 19. Continue… • This fact is totally opposite to General Theory of Relativity. According to Theory of relativity there is no any other things or information above Event Horizon. • Researchers follow QT believe that we are able to get some information which is available on Information Pardox and get knowledge about BH. • In Modern approach of Physics, both of theories are used to solved this type of labyrinthine problems.
  20. 20. Reference • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole • http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-black-hole-k4. html • http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/black-holes-article/ • http://www.space.com/15421-black-holes-facts-formation-discovery-sdcmp. html • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLTDjsvjnCA • http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/how-the-universe-works- birth-of-a-black-hole.htm

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