CORTICAL ASSESSMENT OF ANTICIPATORY REACTIONS IN TENNIS
SAIFUL EBNE HASIB
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, BANGLADESH
AS A REQUIREMENT FOR POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN SPORTS
SCIENCE (SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF SPORTS (BKSP)
ZIRANI, SAVAR, DHAKA
BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF SPORTS
DEPARTMENT OF SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY
I do hereby certify that Saiful Ebne Hasib, conducted the project research
study entitled CORTICAL ASSESSMENT OF ANTICIPATORY REACTIONS IN
TENNIS PLAYERS adopting the standard procedures and norms set for the Post-
Graduate Diploma Course in Sports Sciences, in the Department of Sports
Psychology, of the National University of Bangladesh. The present study was a
unique one and Mr. Hasib under my supervision, made his level best
independent endeavor in this regard.
Dr. Srilekha Saha
Bangladesh Institute of Sports
I avail my self of the opportunity to express my heartiest gratitude
to Dr. Srelekha Saha, sports Psychologist, B. K. S. P for his valuable suggestion.
Counseling & guidance, friendly advice, keen interest & constant inspiration &
encouragement during the course of this investigation & preparation at this
report & formulating all the statistical treatment of my project.
I express my deep sense of gratitude to Grig. Gen. Mohammad Ali
Mondal, ndc, and Director General of BKSP for his kind permission to submit the
project to the national University, Bangladesh, Dhaka.
I express my holly gratitude to Faruqul Islam Director of training BKSP for
his ornamental counseling from time to time during the entire period of the
I also express my deep sense of gratitude to Md. Rokon Uddin, Tennis
coach, for their whole hearted cooperation for collecting data.
I express my thanks to Dr. A. K. Uppal and all others sports scientists,
department of sports science, BKSP for their constant support from time to time
during the entire period of my study.
I also express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their kind co-
operation & help.
With all my sincere most feelings and regards.
Saiful Ebne Hasib
Student, Post-Graduate Diploma Course
Faculty ofSports Science,
Bangladesh Institute of Sports
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES v
Introduction and Review 2
LIST OF TABLES
1 N, df and critical values of the present study 19
2 Mean of the obtained basal CFF scores 19
3 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values
(p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players
in 10 MPH condition. 20
4 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values
(p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players
in 60 MPH condition. 20
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW
Behavioral approaches assume that all behavior is determined by past
reinforcements and present contingencies. In cognitive approaches, in contrast,
the individual is an active perceiver and interpreter of information, and cognitive
processes are key to understanding motivation and behavior. In search of the
inherent network that exists within the individual performer, which helps him to
bring forth the earnestly needed peak performance several line of thought was
evolved to conceptualize the processes underlying in it. There arose a larger
numbers of approaches to identify and predict possible relationship between
peak performance and psychological make up of the athletes. The vital
importance is the fact that successful sports performance is associated with
many traits, some of which are fundamental to the production of peak
performance (Vealey and Greenleef, 1998 and Saha et al, 2000). Arousal has
been explained of sudden information hitting our central nervous system and the
greater the cortical bombardment the higher is arousal and anxiety. According to
Eysenck (1955) and Rabbitt (1969), cortical arousal is the indication of increased
cortical inhibition to heightened arousal. Whereas perceptual motor skills means
repetition of stimulus, repetition of response (motor programming and response
execution) and repetition of a rule relating members of a common signal set to
the same response.
The more immediately processed information requires getting assimilated
and accommodated with the cognitive schema and unless it is matched with the
previous one it can cause dissonance in cognitive process. Hence it is clear that
optimum cortical arousal initiated by ascending reticular activating system
(ARAS) is mostly essential for cognitive possessing, while the extent of excitatory
activity in reticular activity system (RAS) would depend on personality make-up
of the individual. The RAS also has descending tract, which influences motor
functions. There is good reason to believe in that the descending tract of the
RAS may be in part responsible for the improvement in the speed and
coordination of reactions under higher level of arousal (Saha, 2001b). Optimum
excitatory ARAS would facilitate in faster reactions, since it keeps up a sports
performer ready to react to any incoming stimulus. It may remain important for
him, since he may have already reached up to a state of over stimulation
wherein his ARAS can not accept the future excitement.
A player’s personality is as critical in determining success in the sports
arena as physical ability. True, a seven-stone weakling is unlikely to become an
effective central defender regardless of personality but equally the well
proportionate and skillful athlete will not succeed without such attributes of
personality as determination and will to win. Effective utilization of time and a
feeling of the passing of time are quite important. Alternative performance in
alert situations often demand high arousal an accurate signal detection ability
(Saha et al, 2001), skill the too elite performers often desirable there
expectances during peak performance as involving a slowing down of time. This
contrasts with extremely rapid passage of time that common people often feel
and similarly the average level of athletes also reported to have the similar
expectances of rapid passage of time. This usually happens when an individual
performers poorly, and hence feels rushed are panicked and by means gets more
disturbed and feels like checking.
The ability to anticipate an opponent’s actions based upon partial or
advance sources of information are essential in sport because of the severe time
constraints placed on the performer (Abexnethy, 1987). A considerable research
base confirms the experts superior ability to use such information to reliable
anticipate an opponent’s actions (Williams et al, 1999). Skilled performers use
their superior knowledge to control the eye movement patterns necessary for
seeking and picking up important sources of information. They are appears more
attuned to relative motion cues and are also able to successfully perceive
information presented as point light displays (PLD) word, Williams and Davids
(1999) demonstrated that skilled tennis players are able to successfully anticipate
the direction of an opponents short when presented as PLD. Also unlike their
novice counterparts, experts exhibit more consistent visual search strategies
when viewing PLD compared with a normal display. Research suggests that
skilled performers are able to make use of expectations or situational
probabilities to facilitate anticipation. Experts use their superior knowledge base
to dismiss many events as being highly improbable and can attach are hierarchy
of probabilities to the remaining events, thus facilitating anticipation (Williams et
al, 1999).Hence, we have already gathered a lot of information with regard to
the anticipatory skills of expert players, but of remains unclear whether these are
stable characters, or are
subjects to be changed. That means, whether it is always possible for an
expert players to anticipate playing situations enough accurately and promptly.
Further to add questions remain with what happens to those who are not up to
that level of good players.
REVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS LITERATURES
A player’s ability to use advance postural cues is particularly important in
fast ball sports where the speed of play and ball velocity dictate that decisions
must often be made in advance of the action. High speed film analysis indicates
that players who react to the ball as opposed to anticipating its intended
destination, are unlikely to be successful (Glencross and Cibich, 1977). The
temporal occlusion paradigm has been used to examine anticipatory cue usage in
sport. In this approach, participants are presented with filmed sequences that
are representative of their customary view of the action.
Passing into open space and placing the ball accurately and timely for a
moving teammate are important skills in soccer (Williams, 1973; McMorris and
Copeman, 1991). This ability of anticipation-coincidence can be defined as the
timing of an own response to coincide with a response triggered by an outside
source. Since testing this skill under filled conditions is difficult to achieve a strict
laboratory situation was chosen at the beginning (Henry and Grose, 1968).
Morris and Burwitz (1989) found that soccer goalkeepers anticipate ball
flight while Salmela and Fiorito (1979) made similar findings for ice hockey
goaltenders. Recent studies have shown that pre-contact cues are used in
number of sports (Abernethy, 1987). Most of these studies have examined
expert novice differences in anticipation. Studies of cognitive function in the
sports of basketball (Allard et al, 1980), hockey (Starkes and Deakin, 1984) and
rugby (Nakagawa, 1982) have shown that expert perform at a higher cognitive
standard that do less experienced participants in their particular discipline. This is
due mainly to superior methods of information processing. It is not clear what
effect the exercise intensity and duration have on cognitive function during
performance in game.
The cortical pattern is the end of sensation, and it presages the beginning of
perception. The form of the spatial pattern depends on the intracortical synaptic
connections, which have been shaped through learning from past experience.
The olfactory area can only generate spatial patterns that result from
connections that were modified during experience with a limited number of
adroitness. Each mean field pattern is a construction of the cortex that is
simultaneously transmitted to both the motor area of the cortex and to the
hippocampus formation, along with the sensory driven activity pattern. However,
owing to the way in which the cortical pathways are organized, it is the mean
field construct that is effectively received by target areas, while the sensory
driven activity pattern that triggered the cortical state transition is deleted
A neural mechanism exists that keeps perceived time sufficiently close to
the flow of events in real time that actions are effective even in the course of
exceedingly rapid external flows. Existence of that mechanism was revealed by
experiments conducted by neurophysiologist. Libet (1994), when studied it in
collaboration with neurosurgeons to measure the time lapse between stimulus
and awareness. The perception of time and perception of causality have the
origin in their same intentional cycle that produces goal directed actions that
accompanied by preference, attention and learning from the perceived
consequences of acting. Therefore the perception of time and causality are
On such a background in this present study, it was decided to incorporate
evaluation of the level of cortical activation as a supportive document of
perceptual efficiency and cognitive competence, which would facilitate in
accuracy of anticipation required in the game of tennis.
1. To judge the level of anticipation in tennis players.
2. To study the level of CFF in tennis players.
3. To estimate the impact of CFF if any on the level of anticipation in tennis
20 tennis players of Bangladesh Krira Sikhha Prathistan (BKSP) in the age
range of 13-16 yr.s, with a mean age of 14.82 yr.s and SD of 1.91 yr.s were
volunteered. They were the students of class VII to XI. All the players were
categorized into two experimental groups and each group consisted of 10
subjects (Gr. A and Gr. B). The subjects of Gr. A comprised of high performer
tennis players and Gr. B comprised of low performer tennis players. They were
recognized as high performer and low performer according to their coaches. All
the players having three to six years training experience according to their age.
1. Flicker Fusion Apparatus (CFF) (12021) (Lafayette Instrument, USA).
2. Bassin Anticipation Timer (BAT) (50575) (Lafayette Instrument, USA).
The Flicker Fusion Apparatus was used to measure the cortical arousal
level of the subjects through visual ability and the Bassin Anticipation Timer was
used to assess the level of anticipation in the subjects.
One of the finest aspects of human cognition that helps in sports behavior
is anticipation. It is the predicted value of subtle change in stimuli based on
certain assumptions with respect to changes in the spatial characteristics of the
physical existence of the stimuli. As for example, in case of visual anticipation
(what we do most of the time in our game situations) an individual athlete needs
to carry out extremely narrow attentional focus to concentrate accurately onto
the source of the stimulus in concern and to predictably relate to the gradual
changes in spatial existence of the stimulus toward the ultimate goal of reaction.
In these the players requires to accurately identify with the intensity and
directional changed in the stimulus and again he or she required to predict
accurately the corresponding spatial changes in the stimulus in that the players
on almost predictably locate and/or follow even the finest changes in the location
Hence, it becomes more important for the behavioral researchers to
identify with the patterns of cues related to the shuttle changes in physical
existence of the stimulus, so that those cues in turn would help in predicting the
probable changes in the stimulus in the newer future, that might have been
caused by the opponent players on or by any natural opposing factors such as,
flow of air humidity ground condition, external temperature.
Thus one of the most important basic components of anticipation, which
could be objectively identified, is the possibility of predictable behavioral
changes. It is the earnest task offer player to predict future direction and
intensity of the movement, of an opponent based on assumptions already
prepared in the cognitive schema of that player. That is the cognitive task of
accommodation the newer visual cues with respect to the older ones, so that it
does not create much of disequilibrium/ dissonance to delay the appraisal of the
spartial character of the stimulus and to optimize the predictability of the future
movement direction and intensity of the stimulus on the basis of that cognitive
Now the question comes whether these anticipatory cue utilization in the
field correspond to that in the laboratory condition? From a Lagnaris point of
view it is quite absurd to relate the both in same platform. Not only that for
majority of sports trainer’s players, sports organize and event for a large number
of sports science students it seems an issue of critical concern. But for the
experimental sports psychologists or sports science researchers, this question
however inspires the quest for similarity competitive or field
Stuations with the appropriate changes brought in to the laboratory
conditions. Some time it is quite possibility setting of a unique experimental
paradigm in which the extraneous or erroneous variables would be aptly
controlled by applying systematic rigorous methodology (Chattopadhyay et al,
1994). This is of much importance for no assessment of real time mental set up
during competitive performance is possible and at this on test it is the customary
practice to carry out simulated laboratory experiments to optimize conceptually
what happens in the minds of players during competitions.
PARADIGM OF EXPERIMENT
Basal assessment of cortical activation was done using two-flash threshold
(Critical flicker threshold 100 Hz. /sec.) to obtain the status of phasic level of
CNS arousal before any stimulus induction, and thereby ascertaining the changes
in cortical level (inhibition or activation) in consequence of alteration in
perceptual level of the subjects (two trials were given to obtain the basal
PHASE –I (Assessment of Cortical activation was measured followed by
assessment of Anticipation with lower level of stimulus speed)
VARIABLES ANTICIPATION (BAT) CFF
MPH - 10 100 Hz./sec.
NO.OF TRIALS 8 4
PHASE –II (Assessment of Cortical activation was measured followed by
assessment of Anticipation with higher level of stimulus speed)
VARIABLES ANTICIPATION (BAT) CFF
MPH - 60 100 Hz./sec.
NO.OF TRIALS 8 4
This paradigm was followed to the all of the tennis players.
STANDARD METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
Flicker Fusion Apparatus:
The processor unit of CFF apparatus was connected with 220 volts AC
connector. The external initiator cord was attached with the processor and the
response switch was attached with the subjects unit, i.e., viewing panel of the
instrument. There after the power switch was put on; and the luminance range;
descending order; stimulus power, and sweep (flicker rate) were set by the
experimenter. Proper instructions were given to the subjects.
Bassin Anticipation Apparatus:
Keep the instrument ready for use as per the instructions of the manual.
Warning signal time (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 sec.s) and Runway light –speed (1
MPH to 999 MPH) should be adjusted according to the need. Digital clock ranges
from 0.001 to 9.999 seconds. To the stationary visual field (0-20 degree) the
subject sits at the end of the instrument. The responses of the subjects are
contingent upon the runway speed and the accuracy in anticipation is judged as
the index of high performance.
All the subjects were brought to the department of sport psychology of
BKSP for the data purpose of collection of data for the experiment. In the
beginning they were given proper instructions with regard to the standard
method of administration and the purpose of the experiment. They were also
kept aware of their role in the experiment. At first they were assessed with the
phasic assessment of basal CNS arousal using two-flash threshold (Critical flicker
threshold). Thereafter data was taken employing BAT for assessment of the level
of anticipation using slower stimulation (i.e., lower level of stimulus speed- MPH-
10) following standard method of administration. They were given eight trials
and data were collected and kept documented for the final analysis of data.
Thereafter once again CFF (flicker rate- 100 Hz. /sec.- , four trials were given)
was assessed to ascertain, whether anticipation task had induced any alteration
in cortical level. Thereafter in phase- II of experiment they were assessed with
BAT for assessment of the level of anticipation using slower stimulation (i.e.,
higher level of stimulus speed- MPH- 60) following standard method of
administration. They were given eight trials and data were collected and kept
documented for the final analysis of data. Similar to that of the Phase of I once
again CFF (flicker rate- 100 Hz. /sec.) was assessed to ascertain, whether
anticipation task had induced any alteration in cortical level, (i.e., inhibition or
activation). Here, four trials were given to all of the subjects.
Instruction for critical flicker fusion test:
“Please sit here comfortably and put your eyes within the hole of the
viewing panel of this instrument. Touch the thumb of your right hand on to the
switch of the instrument. We are going to assess your ability to visualize
something. At first at the ‘start’ signal you will see two white flashing lights.
Gradually they will start to flicker and your task will be to let us know right at the
point, where you saw it to flicker first by pressing the key at once. This will
happen for few times. If you face any problem during the course of experiment,
please let me know immediately”.
Instruction for anticipation test:
“Please come here and stay calm. Here you can see an instrument. It is
called as Bassin Anticipation Timer. It measures some very important
psychological factors related to high performance in sports. Your task is simple.
You have to listen to my instructions very carefully. Here you hold on this key.
Look there you can see a yellow light? I’ll give you a ready signal, and thereafter
you’ll see the yellow light glowing for a few seconds, and then some red lights
will be glowing intermittently following this path very rapidly. It will seem like the
red lights are running towards you. Now, your task is to press the key just on
dot, when you’ll see the last of the red lights glows at the end and passes by.
Your task actually is to do that as simultaneously as possible so that, you can’t
be late to respond or you don’t press earlier than the arrival of the red light at
that end-point. I hope you could understand to what I said. Let’s try for some
times to see whether you could understand your task correctly. This will happen
for few times. If you face any problem during the course of experiment, please
let me know immediately”.
Descriptive statistics i.e. measure of central tendency – mean (M),
measures of variability – standard deviation (SD) and Spearman’s rank difference
coefficient correlation (p) were computed for analysis of the data.
Descriptive statistical treatment (M and SD) was done to all the obtained
data. Then correlation coefficient (p) by the spearman’s rank-difference
correlation method was done to ascertain whether there exists any relationship
between two variables (CFF and BAT). From the obtained results it is clear that
there is a significant negative correlation between CFF and BAT in .05 levels
(Table-II) and .01 levels (Table-II). It indicates that increment in CFF scores
inhibited the accuracy in anticipation obtained by the BAT scores.
N, df and critical values of the present study
N df CRITICAL VALUE
10 8 .632 .765
Mean of the obtained basal CFF scores
Subjects Statistics Variables (CFF)
HP Mean 38.43
LP Mean 37.89
No mean difference was observed. Hence, prior to the introduction of the
perceptual task (anticipation) the subjects of two experimental groups were on
similar status cortical activation.
Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation
values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of
tennis players in 10 MPH condition.
Subjects Statistics Variables
HP M 39.36 L-.04
SD 3.33 .02
p -.691 *
LP M 36.05 .04
SD 4.01 L-.01
p -.702 *
Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation
values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of
tennis players in 60 MPH condition.
Subjects Statistics Variables
HP M 44.07 L-.13
SD 4.29 .06
LP M 33.95 L-.21
SD 7.01 .11
The obtained result has depicted an encouraging nature of changes
especially with regard to the changes in the level of cortical activation. Subjects
of the present experiment were selected following purposive sampling method,
and hence it was almost understood that, majority of them wouldn’t have
significant level of pre-existing problems in cortical regulation either in the form
of inhibition or activation, that could influence their perceptual task of time
anticipation of visual stimulation.
Observed data with regard to the pre- stimulus introduction assessment of
the level of CNS arousal indicated that, there existed no difference between the
two groups of tennis players, with respect to the basal level of CNS arousal.
Thus, the result implied that, the players of the two differential groups had no
prior differences with regard to the CNS arousal. This implied that, whatever be
the future introduction of the stimuli, which could alter the perceptual level and
hence, could bring forth some alteration in the level of CNS activation in the
players. The alterations, if any, observed in the level of cortical activation, then
would be considered due to the introduction of the stimulation itself, which
caused the perceptual discrimination and resulted in the changes in the level of
cortical activation. rom the results showed in the Table-III, it is evident that the
subjects of both the groups performed almost similar to each other in scores
obtained in BAT and the data also appeared highly consistent, suggesting a
possibility that the perceptual discriminatory task in the form of anticipation had
similar impacts on the subjects, who are accustomed to do similar type of activity
(training and playing Tennis). More so, perhaps the task was not carrying
differential levels of difficulty level to the players of the two different groups,
who are basically selected and categorized on the basis of their inherent
differences in performance in the game of Tennis.
Tennis being the game in which players are required to react to the
continuously changing direction and intensity of stimulation coming from the
visual field. As per the requirement of the game, players need to face with
continually changing perceptual tasks. This happens, since the velocity and the
direction of the balls coming from the opponent player’s return are essentially
unpredictable in nature, and hence, the player requires focusing onto some
specific cues, that he/she can identify from the opponent player’s movements,
playing style etc. Players vary in this specific capacity in focusing onto the
relevant cues with respect to the opponent the player. Thereafter the question of
identification of the specific cues, leading toward the prediction of the movement
and subsequent placing of returns or placing of services from the opponent,
arises. Once this identification is done, here comes the question of assessment
of the velocity and exact direction of the returns from the opponents, and the
task itself refers to assessment of the probable time the ball would lapse to
reach. This perceptual discriminatory task is termed anticipation of time with
regard to the specific visual stimulation. Hence, it is obvious that the players who
are better able to judge this time lapse in match condition would have more time
to shift his or her position to react upon the ball as accurately as possible by
placing an appropriate return to the opponent. This ability to anticipate in the
field situation is simulated in the laboratory situation depending on the accuracy
of the experimental setting. The assessment of anticipation time incorporating
Bassin Anticipation timer provides the experimenter with the information
concerning the index subjects, with regard to their ability to anticipate the
probable time lapse in occurrence of the stimulation in concern.
Hence, it is clear that the whole process of anticipation of time requires a
lot of sensory processing, requiring high level of integrated activation of the
ascending reticular tract. An over-burden in ascending reticular system would
lead to delay in processing and hence, would be the delayed anticipation, and a
delayed anticipation would end up in a wholesome misinterpretation of the
perceptual situation involved in the game. Contrary to that, a faster sensory
information processing might lead to a better anticipation and availability of
adequate time to react upon the situation in the form of better and accurate
returns in the game of Tennis. Thus, it is obvious that the individuals having
better ability to anticipate time would have better cortical integration leading
toward faster and better information processing, and the success in sports
performance in consequence.
Results from the Table- III also suggest the justification of the notion
concerning relation between the two above-mentioned processes. Like it
happened with assessment of BAT, the two groups had more or less similarity in
the level of CNS basal arousal too, with the score of the LPs, lower than that of
their high performer counterparts. The most interesting feature of the Table-III
is the observed correlation between the level of cortical activation and the level
of anticipation. The significant relationship between the two variables, suggest
that there exist relationship between the level of CNS activation and perceptual
discrimination. Moreover, the negative relationship indicated that the shorter was
the anticipatory time the more was level of CNS activation. This actually implied
that the accuracy in anticipation was influenced by the heightened cortical
activation. Actually heightened cortical activation perhaps facilitated in the faster
sensory information processing in the ascending reticular activation system,
leading to accurate anticipation and that might have helped the high performers
in judgement of the reactions of the opponent players. Not only that, the faster
anticipation and faster sensory information processing would lead to a better
assumption concerning the movement and the directions and intensity of the
returns of the opponent as accurately as possible. Most essentially those are the
special abilities of the superior quality of players.
Since, the anticipatory task in set-I was only involving perceptual
discrimination of visual stimulation coming with a slower, speed and the players
of both the groups were accustomed to respond to reactions from opponents
having much faster pace, none of the subjects had faced any problem with
regard to anticipating the stimuli accurately. This being the reason, it is observed
that assessment of CFF followed by the assessment of anticipation task, didn’t
cause much significant alteration in the level of CNS arousal, as compared to that
of the basal pre-existing level, assessed by employing CFF measures (Table-II).
Further to add, the relationship between scores obtained on CFF and BAT being
negative, it is proved that the subjects having higher level of cortical integration
could anticipate more accurately and thereby took shortest delay in anticipating
The relatively difficult or challenging perceptual situations would lead to
some problems concerning adequate and faster sensory processing, and hence
would lead to difficulty in anticipation of the occurrence of stimulation. Though
this alteration in intensity of the stimulation is a regular feature in actual playing
situation, a lot of the players can’t adopt to those changes readily, and that’s
why they fall back and are considered as low level performers. But, this inability
or lack of ability in processing stimulation could result in extreme level of cortical
crisis in the players in concern. The results of Set- C of the experiment (Table-
IV), prove that the players of the low performer group had faced problems in
anticipating, and that’s why they had much delayed and inconsistent anticipation,
as compared to their high performer counterparts. Not only that, majority of the
HPs were found to be able to anticipate the challenging task of anticipating the
faster visual stimulation (60 MPH), as accurately as possible and as fast as well,
and that’s why the score obtained from them appeared so consistent. Now, the
question comes what different happened to these players, as compared to the
others (LPs), which might have helped them to perform better during
assessment of BAT, and/or this might be a regular feature of these players. The
scores obtained by those HPs in CFF, prove that they had a high level of cortical
integration compared not only to the LPs, but also to their own basal Level of
cortical activation. Hence, it could be assumed that, there happened an
increment in the level of cortical activation, either leading toward disintegration
or integration in the CNS adaptation process. Since there is a marked
improvement in CFF scores as compared to the basal score of CFF observed in
the HPs, it could be postulated that, the cortical activation reflected better CNS
regulation in them. This finding got further support, hence a high correlation
between the scores obtained on CFF and BAT (60-MPH), indicated that
performance of BAT with higher intensity of visual stimulation didn’t cause any
problem in the level of cortical activation. More so, the evidences of relationships
between these two processes also depicted that, at least in HPs performance of
BAT was influenced by the heightened level of CNS regulation, which might be
well defined as higher-order cortical integration. Again, it might be postulated
from the observed relationship that, a better performance in anticipation of
visual stimulation didn’t put much pressure on the cortical arousal regulation
system, leading to any inhibition. Thus, it appeared clear that the better accuracy
in anticipation was aptly facilitated by improved cortical competence, and vice
The cortical competence in LPs also found to facilitate in performance in
BAT. A minute scrutiny of the data indicated that the high performance in BAT
(i.e., faster BAT) was related to higher CFF scores. Thus, it might be postulated
from the observed finding that the higher-order cortical activation in the form of
better cortical integration probably helped in faster sensory processing of
stimulation and thereby might have resulted in faster anticipation of visual
stimulation in the players of both the groups, and, since the cortical regulation
and the level of sensory processing is better in the high performer players, they
could benefit most from that, as compared to their low-performer counterparts.
1. High performer tennis players are better able to anticipate accurately,
particularly during more difficult anticipatory activities as compared to the
2. The level of critical flicker fusion ability of the high performer tennis
players are better than the low performer tennis players.
3. Critical flicker fusion ability has positive impact on anticipatory
performance in both high and low performer tennis players.
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