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Project hasib

  2. 2. BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF SPORTS DEPARTMENT OF SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY Dated 25th June 2004 I do hereby certify that Saiful Ebne Hasib, conducted the project research study entitled CORTICAL ASSESSMENT OF ANTICIPATORY REACTIONS IN TENNIS PLAYERS adopting the standard procedures and norms set for the Post- Graduate Diploma Course in Sports Sciences, in the Department of Sports Psychology, of the National University of Bangladesh. The present study was a unique one and Mr. Hasib under my supervision, made his level best independent endeavor in this regard. Dr. Srilekha Saha Sport Psychologist Bangladesh Institute of Sports Dhaka-1349 Bangladesh ii
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I avail my self of the opportunity to express my heartiest gratitude to Dr. Srelekha Saha, sports Psychologist, B. K. S. P for his valuable suggestion. Counseling & guidance, friendly advice, keen interest & constant inspiration & encouragement during the course of this investigation & preparation at this report & formulating all the statistical treatment of my project. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Grig. Gen. Mohammad Ali Mondal, ndc, and Director General of BKSP for his kind permission to submit the project to the national University, Bangladesh, Dhaka. I express my holly gratitude to Faruqul Islam Director of training BKSP for his ornamental counseling from time to time during the entire period of the study. I also express my deep sense of gratitude to Md. Rokon Uddin, Tennis coach, for their whole hearted cooperation for collecting data. I express my thanks to Dr. A. K. Uppal and all others sports scientists, department of sports science, BKSP for their constant support from time to time during the entire period of my study. I also express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their kind co- operation & help. With all my sincere most feelings and regards. Saiful Ebne Hasib Student, Post-Graduate Diploma Course Faculty ofSports Science, Bangladesh Institute of Sports Dhaka-1349, Bangladesh. iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v Chapter: I INTRODUCTION Introduction and Review 2 Objectives 7 II METHODOLOGY Subjects 9 Materials 9 Measures 10 Rationality 10 III RESULTS Results 19 IV DISCUSSION Discussion 22 V CONCLUSIONS Conclusions 30 Recommendations 31 iv
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 N, df and critical values of the present study 19 2 Mean of the obtained basal CFF scores 19 3 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players in 10 MPH condition. 20 4 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players in 60 MPH condition. 20 v
  7. 7. 2 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW Behavioral approaches assume that all behavior is determined by past reinforcements and present contingencies. In cognitive approaches, in contrast, the individual is an active perceiver and interpreter of information, and cognitive processes are key to understanding motivation and behavior. In search of the inherent network that exists within the individual performer, which helps him to bring forth the earnestly needed peak performance several line of thought was evolved to conceptualize the processes underlying in it. There arose a larger numbers of approaches to identify and predict possible relationship between peak performance and psychological make up of the athletes. The vital importance is the fact that successful sports performance is associated with many traits, some of which are fundamental to the production of peak performance (Vealey and Greenleef, 1998 and Saha et al, 2000). Arousal has been explained of sudden information hitting our central nervous system and the greater the cortical bombardment the higher is arousal and anxiety. According to Eysenck (1955) and Rabbitt (1969), cortical arousal is the indication of increased cortical inhibition to heightened arousal. Whereas perceptual motor skills means repetition of stimulus, repetition of response (motor programming and response execution) and repetition of a rule relating members of a common signal set to the same response.
  8. 8. 3 The more immediately processed information requires getting assimilated and accommodated with the cognitive schema and unless it is matched with the previous one it can cause dissonance in cognitive process. Hence it is clear that optimum cortical arousal initiated by ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is mostly essential for cognitive possessing, while the extent of excitatory activity in reticular activity system (RAS) would depend on personality make-up of the individual. The RAS also has descending tract, which influences motor functions. There is good reason to believe in that the descending tract of the RAS may be in part responsible for the improvement in the speed and coordination of reactions under higher level of arousal (Saha, 2001b). Optimum excitatory ARAS would facilitate in faster reactions, since it keeps up a sports performer ready to react to any incoming stimulus. It may remain important for him, since he may have already reached up to a state of over stimulation wherein his ARAS can not accept the future excitement. A player’s personality is as critical in determining success in the sports arena as physical ability. True, a seven-stone weakling is unlikely to become an effective central defender regardless of personality but equally the well proportionate and skillful athlete will not succeed without such attributes of personality as determination and will to win. Effective utilization of time and a feeling of the passing of time are quite important. Alternative performance in alert situations often demand high arousal an accurate signal detection ability (Saha et al, 2001), skill the too elite performers often desirable there
  9. 9. 4 expectances during peak performance as involving a slowing down of time. This contrasts with extremely rapid passage of time that common people often feel and similarly the average level of athletes also reported to have the similar expectances of rapid passage of time. This usually happens when an individual performers poorly, and hence feels rushed are panicked and by means gets more disturbed and feels like checking. The ability to anticipate an opponent’s actions based upon partial or advance sources of information are essential in sport because of the severe time constraints placed on the performer (Abexnethy, 1987). A considerable research base confirms the experts superior ability to use such information to reliable anticipate an opponent’s actions (Williams et al, 1999). Skilled performers use their superior knowledge to control the eye movement patterns necessary for seeking and picking up important sources of information. They are appears more attuned to relative motion cues and are also able to successfully perceive information presented as point light displays (PLD) word, Williams and Davids (1999) demonstrated that skilled tennis players are able to successfully anticipate the direction of an opponents short when presented as PLD. Also unlike their novice counterparts, experts exhibit more consistent visual search strategies when viewing PLD compared with a normal display. Research suggests that skilled performers are able to make use of expectations or situational probabilities to facilitate anticipation. Experts use their superior knowledge base to dismiss many events as being highly improbable and can attach are hierarchy of probabilities to the remaining events, thus facilitating anticipation (Williams et
  10. 10. 5 al, 1999).Hence, we have already gathered a lot of information with regard to the anticipatory skills of expert players, but of remains unclear whether these are stable characters, or are subjects to be changed. That means, whether it is always possible for an expert players to anticipate playing situations enough accurately and promptly. Further to add questions remain with what happens to those who are not up to that level of good players. REVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS LITERATURES A player’s ability to use advance postural cues is particularly important in fast ball sports where the speed of play and ball velocity dictate that decisions must often be made in advance of the action. High speed film analysis indicates that players who react to the ball as opposed to anticipating its intended destination, are unlikely to be successful (Glencross and Cibich, 1977). The temporal occlusion paradigm has been used to examine anticipatory cue usage in sport. In this approach, participants are presented with filmed sequences that are representative of their customary view of the action. Passing into open space and placing the ball accurately and timely for a moving teammate are important skills in soccer (Williams, 1973; McMorris and Copeman, 1991). This ability of anticipation-coincidence can be defined as the timing of an own response to coincide with a response triggered by an outside source. Since testing this skill under filled conditions is difficult to achieve a strict laboratory situation was chosen at the beginning (Henry and Grose, 1968).
  11. 11. 6 Morris and Burwitz (1989) found that soccer goalkeepers anticipate ball flight while Salmela and Fiorito (1979) made similar findings for ice hockey goaltenders. Recent studies have shown that pre-contact cues are used in number of sports (Abernethy, 1987). Most of these studies have examined expert novice differences in anticipation. Studies of cognitive function in the sports of basketball (Allard et al, 1980), hockey (Starkes and Deakin, 1984) and rugby (Nakagawa, 1982) have shown that expert perform at a higher cognitive standard that do less experienced participants in their particular discipline. This is due mainly to superior methods of information processing. It is not clear what effect the exercise intensity and duration have on cognitive function during performance in game. The cortical pattern is the end of sensation, and it presages the beginning of perception. The form of the spatial pattern depends on the intracortical synaptic connections, which have been shaped through learning from past experience. The olfactory area can only generate spatial patterns that result from connections that were modified during experience with a limited number of adroitness. Each mean field pattern is a construction of the cortex that is simultaneously transmitted to both the motor area of the cortex and to the hippocampus formation, along with the sensory driven activity pattern. However, owing to the way in which the cortical pathways are organized, it is the mean field construct that is effectively received by target areas, while the sensory driven activity pattern that triggered the cortical state transition is deleted (Freeman, 1992).
  12. 12. 7 A neural mechanism exists that keeps perceived time sufficiently close to the flow of events in real time that actions are effective even in the course of exceedingly rapid external flows. Existence of that mechanism was revealed by experiments conducted by neurophysiologist. Libet (1994), when studied it in collaboration with neurosurgeons to measure the time lapse between stimulus and awareness. The perception of time and perception of causality have the origin in their same intentional cycle that produces goal directed actions that accompanied by preference, attention and learning from the perceived consequences of acting. Therefore the perception of time and causality are inextricably linked. On such a background in this present study, it was decided to incorporate evaluation of the level of cortical activation as a supportive document of perceptual efficiency and cognitive competence, which would facilitate in accuracy of anticipation required in the game of tennis. OBJECTIVES 1. To judge the level of anticipation in tennis players. 2. To study the level of CFF in tennis players. 3. To estimate the impact of CFF if any on the level of anticipation in tennis players.
  14. 14. 9 METHODOLOGY SUBJECTS 20 tennis players of Bangladesh Krira Sikhha Prathistan (BKSP) in the age range of 13-16 yr.s, with a mean age of 14.82 yr.s and SD of 1.91 yr.s were volunteered. They were the students of class VII to XI. All the players were categorized into two experimental groups and each group consisted of 10 subjects (Gr. A and Gr. B). The subjects of Gr. A comprised of high performer tennis players and Gr. B comprised of low performer tennis players. They were recognized as high performer and low performer according to their coaches. All the players having three to six years training experience according to their age. MATERIALS 1. Flicker Fusion Apparatus (CFF) (12021) (Lafayette Instrument, USA). 2. Bassin Anticipation Timer (BAT) (50575) (Lafayette Instrument, USA).
  15. 15. 10 MEASURES The Flicker Fusion Apparatus was used to measure the cortical arousal level of the subjects through visual ability and the Bassin Anticipation Timer was used to assess the level of anticipation in the subjects. RATIONALITY One of the finest aspects of human cognition that helps in sports behavior is anticipation. It is the predicted value of subtle change in stimuli based on certain assumptions with respect to changes in the spatial characteristics of the physical existence of the stimuli. As for example, in case of visual anticipation (what we do most of the time in our game situations) an individual athlete needs to carry out extremely narrow attentional focus to concentrate accurately onto the source of the stimulus in concern and to predictably relate to the gradual changes in spatial existence of the stimulus toward the ultimate goal of reaction. In these the players requires to accurately identify with the intensity and directional changed in the stimulus and again he or she required to predict accurately the corresponding spatial changes in the stimulus in that the players on almost predictably locate and/or follow even the finest changes in the location of stimulus. Hence, it becomes more important for the behavioral researchers to identify with the patterns of cues related to the shuttle changes in physical existence of the stimulus, so that those cues in turn would help in predicting the probable changes in the stimulus in the newer future, that might have been
  16. 16. 11 caused by the opponent players on or by any natural opposing factors such as, flow of air humidity ground condition, external temperature. Thus one of the most important basic components of anticipation, which could be objectively identified, is the possibility of predictable behavioral changes. It is the earnest task offer player to predict future direction and intensity of the movement, of an opponent based on assumptions already prepared in the cognitive schema of that player. That is the cognitive task of accommodation the newer visual cues with respect to the older ones, so that it does not create much of disequilibrium/ dissonance to delay the appraisal of the spartial character of the stimulus and to optimize the predictability of the future movement direction and intensity of the stimulus on the basis of that cognitive schema. Now the question comes whether these anticipatory cue utilization in the field correspond to that in the laboratory condition? From a Lagnaris point of view it is quite absurd to relate the both in same platform. Not only that for majority of sports trainer’s players, sports organize and event for a large number of sports science students it seems an issue of critical concern. But for the experimental sports psychologists or sports science researchers, this question however inspires the quest for similarity competitive or field Stuations with the appropriate changes brought in to the laboratory conditions. Some time it is quite possibility setting of a unique experimental paradigm in which the extraneous or erroneous variables would be aptly
  17. 17. 12 controlled by applying systematic rigorous methodology (Chattopadhyay et al, 1994). This is of much importance for no assessment of real time mental set up during competitive performance is possible and at this on test it is the customary practice to carry out simulated laboratory experiments to optimize conceptually what happens in the minds of players during competitions.
  18. 18. 13 PARADIGM OF EXPERIMENT SET-A Basal assessment of cortical activation was done using two-flash threshold (Critical flicker threshold 100 Hz. /sec.) to obtain the status of phasic level of CNS arousal before any stimulus induction, and thereby ascertaining the changes in cortical level (inhibition or activation) in consequence of alteration in perceptual level of the subjects (two trials were given to obtain the basal arousal). SET-B PHASE –I (Assessment of Cortical activation was measured followed by assessment of Anticipation with lower level of stimulus speed) VARIABLES ANTICIPATION (BAT) CFF SPECIFIC STIMULATION MPH - 10 100 Hz./sec. NO.OF TRIALS 8 4 SET-C PHASE –II (Assessment of Cortical activation was measured followed by assessment of Anticipation with higher level of stimulus speed) VARIABLES ANTICIPATION (BAT) CFF SPECIFIC STIMULATION MPH - 60 100 Hz./sec. NO.OF TRIALS 8 4 This paradigm was followed to the all of the tennis players. STANDARD METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
  19. 19. 14 Flicker Fusion Apparatus: The processor unit of CFF apparatus was connected with 220 volts AC connector. The external initiator cord was attached with the processor and the response switch was attached with the subjects unit, i.e., viewing panel of the instrument. There after the power switch was put on; and the luminance range; descending order; stimulus power, and sweep (flicker rate) were set by the experimenter. Proper instructions were given to the subjects. Bassin Anticipation Apparatus: Keep the instrument ready for use as per the instructions of the manual. Warning signal time (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 sec.s) and Runway light –speed (1 MPH to 999 MPH) should be adjusted according to the need. Digital clock ranges from 0.001 to 9.999 seconds. To the stationary visual field (0-20 degree) the subject sits at the end of the instrument. The responses of the subjects are contingent upon the runway speed and the accuracy in anticipation is judged as the index of high performance. PROCEDURE All the subjects were brought to the department of sport psychology of BKSP for the data purpose of collection of data for the experiment. In the beginning they were given proper instructions with regard to the standard
  20. 20. 15 method of administration and the purpose of the experiment. They were also kept aware of their role in the experiment. At first they were assessed with the phasic assessment of basal CNS arousal using two-flash threshold (Critical flicker threshold). Thereafter data was taken employing BAT for assessment of the level of anticipation using slower stimulation (i.e., lower level of stimulus speed- MPH- 10) following standard method of administration. They were given eight trials and data were collected and kept documented for the final analysis of data. Thereafter once again CFF (flicker rate- 100 Hz. /sec.- , four trials were given) was assessed to ascertain, whether anticipation task had induced any alteration in cortical level. Thereafter in phase- II of experiment they were assessed with BAT for assessment of the level of anticipation using slower stimulation (i.e., higher level of stimulus speed- MPH- 60) following standard method of administration. They were given eight trials and data were collected and kept documented for the final analysis of data. Similar to that of the Phase of I once again CFF (flicker rate- 100 Hz. /sec.) was assessed to ascertain, whether anticipation task had induced any alteration in cortical level, (i.e., inhibition or activation). Here, four trials were given to all of the subjects. INSTRUCTIONS Instruction for critical flicker fusion test: “Please sit here comfortably and put your eyes within the hole of the viewing panel of this instrument. Touch the thumb of your right hand on to the switch of the instrument. We are going to assess your ability to visualize
  21. 21. 16 something. At first at the ‘start’ signal you will see two white flashing lights. Gradually they will start to flicker and your task will be to let us know right at the point, where you saw it to flicker first by pressing the key at once. This will happen for few times. If you face any problem during the course of experiment, please let me know immediately”. Instruction for anticipation test: “Please come here and stay calm. Here you can see an instrument. It is called as Bassin Anticipation Timer. It measures some very important psychological factors related to high performance in sports. Your task is simple. You have to listen to my instructions very carefully. Here you hold on this key. Look there you can see a yellow light? I’ll give you a ready signal, and thereafter you’ll see the yellow light glowing for a few seconds, and then some red lights will be glowing intermittently following this path very rapidly. It will seem like the red lights are running towards you. Now, your task is to press the key just on dot, when you’ll see the last of the red lights glows at the end and passes by. Your task actually is to do that as simultaneously as possible so that, you can’t be late to respond or you don’t press earlier than the arrival of the red light at that end-point. I hope you could understand to what I said. Let’s try for some times to see whether you could understand your task correctly. This will happen for few times. If you face any problem during the course of experiment, please let me know immediately”.
  22. 22. 17 STATISTICAL TREATMENT Descriptive statistics i.e. measure of central tendency – mean (M), measures of variability – standard deviation (SD) and Spearman’s rank difference coefficient correlation (p) were computed for analysis of the data.
  24. 24. 19 RESULTS Descriptive statistical treatment (M and SD) was done to all the obtained data. Then correlation coefficient (p) by the spearman’s rank-difference correlation method was done to ascertain whether there exists any relationship between two variables (CFF and BAT). From the obtained results it is clear that there is a significant negative correlation between CFF and BAT in .05 levels (Table-II) and .01 levels (Table-II). It indicates that increment in CFF scores inhibited the accuracy in anticipation obtained by the BAT scores. Table-I N, df and critical values of the present study N df CRITICAL VALUE 0.05 0.01 10 8 .632 .765 Table-II Mean of the obtained basal CFF scores Subjects Statistics Variables (CFF) HP Mean 38.43 LP Mean 37.89
  25. 25. 20 No mean difference was observed. Hence, prior to the introduction of the perceptual task (anticipation) the subjects of two experimental groups were on similar status cortical activation. Table-III Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players in 10 MPH condition. Subjects Statistics Variables CFF BAT HP M 39.36 L-.04 SD 3.33 .02 p -.691 * LP M 36.05 .04 SD 4.01 L-.01 p -.702 * * P<0.05 Table-IV Mean (M), standard deviation (SD) and rank difference correlation values (p) for the significant relationship between the variables of tennis players in 60 MPH condition. Subjects Statistics Variables CFF BAT HP M 44.07 L-.13 SD 4.29 .06 p -.821** LP M 33.95 L-.21 SD 7.01 .11 p -.793** * P<0.05
  27. 27. 22 DISCUSSION The obtained result has depicted an encouraging nature of changes especially with regard to the changes in the level of cortical activation. Subjects of the present experiment were selected following purposive sampling method, and hence it was almost understood that, majority of them wouldn’t have significant level of pre-existing problems in cortical regulation either in the form of inhibition or activation, that could influence their perceptual task of time anticipation of visual stimulation. Observed data with regard to the pre- stimulus introduction assessment of the level of CNS arousal indicated that, there existed no difference between the two groups of tennis players, with respect to the basal level of CNS arousal. Thus, the result implied that, the players of the two differential groups had no prior differences with regard to the CNS arousal. This implied that, whatever be the future introduction of the stimuli, which could alter the perceptual level and hence, could bring forth some alteration in the level of CNS activation in the players. The alterations, if any, observed in the level of cortical activation, then would be considered due to the introduction of the stimulation itself, which caused the perceptual discrimination and resulted in the changes in the level of cortical activation. rom the results showed in the Table-III, it is evident that the subjects of both the groups performed almost similar to each other in scores obtained in BAT and the data also appeared highly consistent, suggesting a
  28. 28. 23 possibility that the perceptual discriminatory task in the form of anticipation had similar impacts on the subjects, who are accustomed to do similar type of activity (training and playing Tennis). More so, perhaps the task was not carrying differential levels of difficulty level to the players of the two different groups, who are basically selected and categorized on the basis of their inherent differences in performance in the game of Tennis. Tennis being the game in which players are required to react to the continuously changing direction and intensity of stimulation coming from the visual field. As per the requirement of the game, players need to face with continually changing perceptual tasks. This happens, since the velocity and the direction of the balls coming from the opponent player’s return are essentially unpredictable in nature, and hence, the player requires focusing onto some specific cues, that he/she can identify from the opponent player’s movements, playing style etc. Players vary in this specific capacity in focusing onto the relevant cues with respect to the opponent the player. Thereafter the question of identification of the specific cues, leading toward the prediction of the movement and subsequent placing of returns or placing of services from the opponent, arises. Once this identification is done, here comes the question of assessment of the velocity and exact direction of the returns from the opponents, and the task itself refers to assessment of the probable time the ball would lapse to reach. This perceptual discriminatory task is termed anticipation of time with regard to the specific visual stimulation. Hence, it is obvious that the players who
  29. 29. 24 are better able to judge this time lapse in match condition would have more time to shift his or her position to react upon the ball as accurately as possible by placing an appropriate return to the opponent. This ability to anticipate in the field situation is simulated in the laboratory situation depending on the accuracy of the experimental setting. The assessment of anticipation time incorporating Bassin Anticipation timer provides the experimenter with the information concerning the index subjects, with regard to their ability to anticipate the probable time lapse in occurrence of the stimulation in concern. Hence, it is clear that the whole process of anticipation of time requires a lot of sensory processing, requiring high level of integrated activation of the ascending reticular tract. An over-burden in ascending reticular system would lead to delay in processing and hence, would be the delayed anticipation, and a delayed anticipation would end up in a wholesome misinterpretation of the perceptual situation involved in the game. Contrary to that, a faster sensory information processing might lead to a better anticipation and availability of adequate time to react upon the situation in the form of better and accurate returns in the game of Tennis. Thus, it is obvious that the individuals having better ability to anticipate time would have better cortical integration leading toward faster and better information processing, and the success in sports performance in consequence.
  30. 30. 25 Results from the Table- III also suggest the justification of the notion concerning relation between the two above-mentioned processes. Like it happened with assessment of BAT, the two groups had more or less similarity in the level of CNS basal arousal too, with the score of the LPs, lower than that of their high performer counterparts. The most interesting feature of the Table-III is the observed correlation between the level of cortical activation and the level of anticipation. The significant relationship between the two variables, suggest that there exist relationship between the level of CNS activation and perceptual discrimination. Moreover, the negative relationship indicated that the shorter was the anticipatory time the more was level of CNS activation. This actually implied that the accuracy in anticipation was influenced by the heightened cortical activation. Actually heightened cortical activation perhaps facilitated in the faster sensory information processing in the ascending reticular activation system, leading to accurate anticipation and that might have helped the high performers in judgement of the reactions of the opponent players. Not only that, the faster anticipation and faster sensory information processing would lead to a better assumption concerning the movement and the directions and intensity of the returns of the opponent as accurately as possible. Most essentially those are the special abilities of the superior quality of players. Since, the anticipatory task in set-I was only involving perceptual discrimination of visual stimulation coming with a slower, speed and the players of both the groups were accustomed to respond to reactions from opponents
  31. 31. 26 having much faster pace, none of the subjects had faced any problem with regard to anticipating the stimuli accurately. This being the reason, it is observed that assessment of CFF followed by the assessment of anticipation task, didn’t cause much significant alteration in the level of CNS arousal, as compared to that of the basal pre-existing level, assessed by employing CFF measures (Table-II). Further to add, the relationship between scores obtained on CFF and BAT being negative, it is proved that the subjects having higher level of cortical integration could anticipate more accurately and thereby took shortest delay in anticipating visual stimuli. The relatively difficult or challenging perceptual situations would lead to some problems concerning adequate and faster sensory processing, and hence would lead to difficulty in anticipation of the occurrence of stimulation. Though this alteration in intensity of the stimulation is a regular feature in actual playing situation, a lot of the players can’t adopt to those changes readily, and that’s why they fall back and are considered as low level performers. But, this inability or lack of ability in processing stimulation could result in extreme level of cortical crisis in the players in concern. The results of Set- C of the experiment (Table- IV), prove that the players of the low performer group had faced problems in anticipating, and that’s why they had much delayed and inconsistent anticipation, as compared to their high performer counterparts. Not only that, majority of the HPs were found to be able to anticipate the challenging task of anticipating the faster visual stimulation (60 MPH), as accurately as possible and as fast as well,
  32. 32. 27 and that’s why the score obtained from them appeared so consistent. Now, the question comes what different happened to these players, as compared to the others (LPs), which might have helped them to perform better during assessment of BAT, and/or this might be a regular feature of these players. The scores obtained by those HPs in CFF, prove that they had a high level of cortical integration compared not only to the LPs, but also to their own basal Level of cortical activation. Hence, it could be assumed that, there happened an increment in the level of cortical activation, either leading toward disintegration or integration in the CNS adaptation process. Since there is a marked improvement in CFF scores as compared to the basal score of CFF observed in the HPs, it could be postulated that, the cortical activation reflected better CNS regulation in them. This finding got further support, hence a high correlation between the scores obtained on CFF and BAT (60-MPH), indicated that performance of BAT with higher intensity of visual stimulation didn’t cause any problem in the level of cortical activation. More so, the evidences of relationships between these two processes also depicted that, at least in HPs performance of BAT was influenced by the heightened level of CNS regulation, which might be well defined as higher-order cortical integration. Again, it might be postulated from the observed relationship that, a better performance in anticipation of visual stimulation didn’t put much pressure on the cortical arousal regulation system, leading to any inhibition. Thus, it appeared clear that the better accuracy in anticipation was aptly facilitated by improved cortical competence, and vice versa.
  33. 33. 28 The cortical competence in LPs also found to facilitate in performance in BAT. A minute scrutiny of the data indicated that the high performance in BAT (i.e., faster BAT) was related to higher CFF scores. Thus, it might be postulated from the observed finding that the higher-order cortical activation in the form of better cortical integration probably helped in faster sensory processing of stimulation and thereby might have resulted in faster anticipation of visual stimulation in the players of both the groups, and, since the cortical regulation and the level of sensory processing is better in the high performer players, they could benefit most from that, as compared to their low-performer counterparts.
  35. 35. 30 CONCLUSIONS 1. High performer tennis players are better able to anticipate accurately, particularly during more difficult anticipatory activities as compared to the low performers. 2. The level of critical flicker fusion ability of the high performer tennis players are better than the low performer tennis players. 3. Critical flicker fusion ability has positive impact on anticipatory performance in both high and low performer tennis players.
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