Phytochemical Processing

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Phytochemical Processing

  1. 1. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROCESSING SAIFUL IRWAN ZUBAIRI PMIFT, Grad B.E.M. B. Eng. (Chemical-Bioprocess) (Hons.), UTM M. Eng. (Bioprocess), UTM ROOM NO.: 2166, CHEMISTRY BUILDING, TEL. (OFF.): 03-89215828, FOOD SCIENCE PROGRAMME, CENTRE OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY, UKM BANGI, SELANGOR
  2. 2. PROCESSING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Preserve active phytochemical ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate the active phytochemical ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Covert the raw material into the most convenient form </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the unwanted materials </li></ul><ul><li>Adding economic value to herb material to satisfy </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain pure phytochemical </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chart of Classification and Separation of Plant Material Based on Solvent Polarity and Process (Phytochemicals Approach) Plant Material H2O-Glycerol Extraction Non-Polar compound extraction SFE (Phytonics: Phytosol) Terpenoids Essential Oil (e.g. mono & Esquiterpenes: geraniol, limonese Diterpenoids (Phytol, abietic acid) Triterpenoids (Cucurbitacin) Carotenoids ( β-Carotene, lutien, Zeaxanthin, etc) Multi Solvent Extraction Process Terpenoids (e.g. Menthol, carrone, squalene, α-Carotene, lycopene) Lipids Polar Compound Extraction Flavanoid (e.g. anthocyanin-cyanidin, flavanols- Kaemferol, isoflavanoid-rotenone) Polar alkaloid (e.g. Ephedrine) Sugar & Derivatives (e.g. monosacharide, Oligosacharide, sugar alcol) Fiber Acid Hydrolysis filtrate Cellulose filtrate Hemicellulose filtrate Lignin
  4. 4. Chart of Classification and Separation of Plant Material Based on Solvent Polarity and Process (Herbal Approach) Plant Material Solvent Extract filtrate Freeze dried Whole concrete extract Membrane Filtration or Low T vacuum evaporation Whole concentrate extract Water Extract Spray dried Whole powder extract Freeze dried Whole freeze dried extract Spray dried Concentrate extract
  5. 5. EXAMPLES OF RAW MATERIALS TEA TREE PANDAN CITRONELLA EUCALYPTUS CINNAMON KESUM CURRY TONGKAT ALI
  6. 6. OVERALL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
  7. 7. PRETREATMENT OF HERBS
  8. 8. PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL AND THE PROCESSING OF ESSENTIAL OILS RAW MATERIAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS EXTRACTION PURIFICATION
  9. 9. Percolation Process
  10. 10. Reflux Extraction
  11. 11. Soxhlet Extraction
  12. 12. Steam Distillation
  13. 13. Phytosol Extractor (industrial scale)
  14. 14. PURIFICATION PROCESSES
  15. 15. FREEZE DRYING <ul><li>Freeze drying is the process of removing water or other solvent from a frozen product by sublimation. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional drying cause the </li></ul><ul><li>material to shrink, damaging the </li></ul><ul><li>cells while in freeze drying </li></ul><ul><li>process, the solid components </li></ul><ul><li>are held in place by rigid ice. </li></ul><ul><li>Freeze drying is also used to </li></ul><ul><li>prepare tissue samples for </li></ul><ul><li>electron microscopy. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SPRAY DRYER <ul><li>SPRAY DRYING is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form liquid feed stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Spray dryer involves the atomization </li></ul><ul><li>of a liquid feedstock into a spray of </li></ul><ul><li>droplets and contacting the droplets </li></ul><ul><li>with hot air in a drying chamber. </li></ul>
  17. 17. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROCESSING : CASE STUDIES
  18. 18. CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves Process Flow Chart for Crude Cinnamon Oil Production Cinnamon Leaves Drying Size Reduction Extraction ( Apply heat & agitation) Condensation Product (Crude Essential Oil) Deionized Water Steam is formed carrying along essential oil
  19. 19. Process Flow Chart for Crude Cinnamon Oil Purification Crude Essential Oil Neutralization (pH Control) Separation (centrifuge) Other method: clarifying, purifying and decanting Product (Essential Oil) Distillation (using laboratory set) Solvent Solubility (add solvent) Evaporation CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves
  20. 20. C Cinnamon Leaf (1000 kg) 1000 kg COARSE GRINDER Deionized water (5000 kg) Condensation Rate : 700 kg/hr Water Oil (15%) Oil (85%) Leaf + 30% water Water + Oil 1 L 0.5 M NaOH 26 L Cinnamon Oil C Soap Purified Cinnamon Oil (25 L) CASE STUDY I: Production of Cinnamon Oil from Cinnamon Leaves
  21. 21. CASE STUDY II: Production of Phyto-Extract from Tongkat Ali Process Flow Chart for Herb Processing – Tongkat Ali Tongkat Ali Sizing (Grinding)/Drying Extraction Filtration Product (Concentrate Extract) Packaging Solvent (Deionized Water) Spray Dryer (other product intensification method can also be used - freeze drying) Concentrate Product (Powdered Form) EXTRACTION
  22. 22. CASE STUDY II: Production of Phyto-Extract from Tongkat Ali Deionized Water (120kg) T = 120 O C t = 2 Hr Extract + fibre (40kg) Slurry Water Extract T feed = 70 O C 1.5 brix FILTER efficiency = 56% EXTRACTOR SPRAY DRYER efficiency = 80% Hot Air 306 kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Evaporation Rate = 12.6 kg/hr Recovery = 3% Moisture content = 2% t = 7 hrs HOLDING TANK Temperature = 70 0 C Tongkat Ali (40kg)
  23. 23. CASE STUDY III: Production of Soybean Powder Soy bean Soak (24 hrs) Dehulling Wet Grinding (Soy: Water 1:4) Soy Extract Product Solvent (Deionized Water) Filtration Spray Dry T = 90 0 C, t = 1 hr 5% Maltodextrin, 1% Sodium Casienate
  24. 24. Dehulling 1000 kg Soy 4000 kg Deionized water Soy Fiber 4000 kg extract 200 kg Maltodextrin 40 kg Sodium Casienate T = 90 0 C t = 1 hr 2420 kg Soy Solution 2 brix T 1 = 185 0 C T 2 = 105 0 C Hot Air Feed (2300 kg/ hr) t = 24 hrs Evaporation Rate = 100 kg/ hr Product Flow Rate = 20.16 kg / hr Recovery = 20 % Moisture content = 2 % CASE STUDY III: Production of Soybean Powder Wet Grinding Filter Press
  25. 25. CASE STUDY IV: Extraction of Oleoresin (Curcuminoid) from Turmeric Process Flow Chart for Production of Cucurminoid Turmeric Sizing & Drying Steam Distillation Wet Turmeric Fine Grinding Crystallization Solvent (Deionized Water) Drying Vacuum Distillation Volatile Oil Product (Curcuminoid) Packaging Ethanol
  26. 26. CASE STUDY IV:Extraction of Oleoresin (Curcuminoid) from Turmeric Coarse Grinder Fine Grinder 1000 Kg Turmeric 5000 kg Dioinized water Evaporation Rate: 833 kg/hr 4200 kg water + volatile Oil Water 20 kg volatile oil 70% Water 600 kg fine turmeric 800 kg water + 1000 kg turmeric DRYER VACUUM DISTILLATION UNIT STEAM DISTILLATION UNIT OIL SEPARATOR OIL STORAGE Volatile Oil Packaging CRYSTALLIZER 24 Kg Curcuminoid FILTER UNIT EXTRACTION VESSEL
  27. 27. Raw Material Sizing (Grinding)/Drying Extraction Filtration Ultrafiltration Spray Dryer Solvent (Deionized Water) Microfiltration Reverse Osmosis PURIFICATION CASE STUDY V: Production of Plant-Based Sugar from Stevia Product (Stevioside: 66%) T = 100 0 C, t = 2 hrs Maltodextrin
  28. 28. CASE STUDY V: Production of Plant-Based Sugar from Stevia Sweet Tea (100kg) Deionized Water (2500kg) T = 100 O C t = 2 hrs Water Extract Water Extract (400 kg solution + 2 kg maltodextrin) T feed = 70 O C 1.5 brix EXTRACTOR SPRAY DRYER efficiency = 80% Hot Air 550kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Evaporation Rate = 100 kg/hr Product Flow Rate = 1.75 kg/hr Recovery = 5% Moisture content = 2% Purity = 66% t = 4 hrs PURIFICATION (microfiltration, Ultrafiltration Reverse osmosis) Impurities
  29. 29. CASE STUDY VI: Production of Pegaga Powder M EXTRACTOR M M Pegaga (cleaned and ground) Deionized Water BLENDING TANK EVAPORATOR SPRAY DRYER PLATE & FRAME FILTER T = 120 0 C t = 2 hrs T = 70 0 C Water Extract T feed = 70 O C 5 brix Hot Air 306 kg/hr T = 170 O C T 1 = 170 O C T 2 = 103 O C Recovery = 2% from raw material Moisture content = 2% max Water Process Plant Layout for the Production of Pegaga Powder
  30. 30. Pegaga Cleaning Sizing Extraction Evaporation Blending Spray Drying Packaging Dehydrated Product Figure 1: Process Flow for the Production of Pegaga Powder

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