Computer Architecture
                      EE222 (A)
                                Summer 2010


Pre-requisite: Logic D...
Books
• Text Book
  – Computer System Architecture (3rd edition), by
    Morris Mano

• Reference Books :
  – Computer Sys...
Course Objective
• To learn the
  – basics of computer components
     •   Registers
     •   ALU
     •   DMA
     •   Me...
Course Contents
• This course shall cover the following main topics
   –    microcomputer
   –   microprocessor register
 ...
Course Grading
•   Class Quizzes (9% surprise + 21% announced) 30%
•   Assignments                                 5%
•   ...
Quizzes
• There shall be seven announced quizzes
  during the semester.
• Quizzes shall not be rescheduled for any body
  ...
Quizzes schedule
                  Quiz No.                         Week and Date
                     1                  ...
website
• Course website
  – http://192.168.1.32


• From website you can
  – Get lectures
  – Check your attendances (Mos...
Computer Architecture


  ?                                  ?



      EE-222 Computer Architecture
          Muhammad Bi...
Computer
    • The term computer is in use from mid 17th
      century, literally meaning “one who
      computes” (one is...
Computer
• Tell that whether the following devices are
  computer or not.
  –   AND, OR gate IC
  –   Digital clock
  –   ...
Computer
• Presently most widely accepted definition of computer
  is
• “A device that computes, especially a programmable...
Architecture
    • What is architecture??
    • Why should be we aware of the computer
      architecture????????

Compute...
Chapter – 04
REGISTER TRANSFER AND
   MICROOPERATION



     EE-222 Computer Architecture
         Muhammad Bilal Saif    ...
Chapter 4
Register Transfer and Microoperations
•   4-1   Register Transfer Language
•   4-2   Register Transfer
•   4-3  ...
Register Transfer Language (RTL)
• Combinational and sequential circuits (learned in logic
  design) can be used to create...
Microoperations
    • The operations executed on the data stored in
      registers are called microoperations.
    • Oper...
An elementary operation performed (during
 one clock pulse), on the information stored
 in one or more registers

       b...
ORGANIZATION OF A DIGITAL SYSTEM
• Internal hardware organization of digital
  computer can be best explained by

  – Set ...
Register Transfer Language (RTL)
• Rather than specifying a digital system in words, a
  specific notation is used, regist...
Hardware required for microoperation

    • The term “Register transfer” implies the
      availability of hardware logic ...
Chapter 4
Register Transfer and Microoperations
•   4-1   Register Transfer Language
•   4-2   Register Transfer
•   4-3  ...
Register Designation
• Registers are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by
  numbers (e.g., A, R13, IR)
• O...
Register Designation
• Designation of a register
          - a register
          - a bit of a register
          - portio...
REGISTER TRANSFER
• Copying the contents of one register to another is a register
  transfer
• A register transfer is indi...
CONTROL FUNCTIONS
    • Often actions need to only occur if a certain condition is true
    • This is similar to an “if” s...
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF
     CONTROLLED TRANSFERS
Implementation of controlled transfer
     P: R2 R1


Block diagram...
Example
• Write such a RTL statement which shows that
  the transfer from register Y to register Z shall
  only occur when...
SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS
   • If two or more operations are to occur
     simultaneously, they are separated with commas


...
SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS (Contd.)
• Consider the following simultaneous
  operation
              T: R2R1, R1  R2

• For ...
Practice
    • Tell how many buses are required in the
      following examples and whether edge
      triggered phenomeno...
BASIC SYMBOLS FOR REGISTER
               TRANSFERS
       Symbols           Description                     Examples
Capi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lecture 1

7,904 views

Published on

Computer Architecture

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Lecture 1

  1. 1. Computer Architecture EE222 (A) Summer 2010 Pre-requisite: Logic Design (EE221) EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 1
  2. 2. Books • Text Book – Computer System Architecture (3rd edition), by Morris Mano • Reference Books : – Computer System Design and Architecture (2nd Edition), V. P. Heuring, and H.F. Jordan – Computer Architecture and Organization (3rd edition) by John P. Hayes EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 2
  3. 3. Course Objective • To learn the – basics of computer components • Registers • ALU • DMA • Memory types • etc. – Operation of components of computer • During the course we shall not be considering any specific design but we shall be considering general design, which is mostly true for all designs. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 3
  4. 4. Course Contents • This course shall cover the following main topics – microcomputer – microprocessor register – ALU design – control unit design – instruction cycle – memory types – Read/Write cycles – memory mapping – address decoding – address decoder design – Interrupts – Polling – I/O devices interfacing – DMA – bus arbitration – introduction to CISC/RISC architecture EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 4
  5. 5. Course Grading • Class Quizzes (9% surprise + 21% announced) 30% • Assignments 5% • Class participation 5% • Mid term exam 25% • Final Comprehensive Exam 35% EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 5
  6. 6. Quizzes • There shall be seven announced quizzes during the semester. • Quizzes shall not be rescheduled for any body in any case. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 6
  7. 7. Quizzes schedule Quiz No. Week and Date 1 Week – 02 17th June 2010 (Thursday) 2 Week – 03 23rd June 2010 (Wednesday) 3 Week – 04 30th June 2010 (Wednesday) 4 Week – 05 7th July 2010 (Wednesday) 5 Week – 06 14th July 2010 (Wednesday) 6 Week – 07 21st July 2010 (Wednesday) 7 Week – 08 28th July 2010 (Wednesday) Time: 7:00 pm (In case of change, new time shall be announced) Venue: MLH EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 7
  8. 8. website • Course website – http://192.168.1.32 • From website you can – Get lectures – Check your attendances (Most probably attendance shall not be displayed on notice board) EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 8
  9. 9. Computer Architecture ? ? EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 9
  10. 10. Computer • The term computer is in use from mid 17th century, literally meaning “one who computes” (one is usually person performing mathematical calculations) [1] • Now-a-day: A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions. [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_computer EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 10
  11. 11. Computer • Tell that whether the following devices are computer or not. – AND, OR gate IC – Digital clock – ATM machine – Calculator – Abacus – Register IC – Keyboard – Mouse EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 11
  12. 12. Computer • Presently most widely accepted definition of computer is • “A device that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information.” (Answer.com) • According to the above definition, computer should have the following parts. 1. Processor 2. Input output devices 3. Memory 4. Storage (optional) EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 12
  13. 13. Architecture • What is architecture?? • Why should be we aware of the computer architecture???????? Computer architecture should be known to increase the yield (instruction/sec) of the computer EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 13
  14. 14. Chapter – 04 REGISTER TRANSFER AND MICROOPERATION EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 14
  15. 15. Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations • 4-1 Register Transfer Language • 4-2 Register Transfer • 4-3 Bus and Memory Transfer • 4-4 Arithmetic Microoperations • 4-5 Logic Microoperations • 4-6 Shift Microoperations • 4-7 Arithmetic Logic Shift Units EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 15
  16. 16. Register Transfer Language (RTL) • Combinational and sequential circuits (learned in logic design) can be used to create simple digital systems. • These are too basic to design a digital computer. • To overcome this problem digital systems are frequently characterized in terms of – the registers they contain, and – the operations that can be performed on registers data. • RTL: a language for describing the behavior of computer in terms of step-wise register contents. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 16
  17. 17. Microoperations • The operations executed on the data stored in registers are called microoperations. • Operands can be in one or more registers. • The functions built into registers are examples of microoperations – Shift – Load – Clear – Increment – … e.g. a bidirectional shift register is capable of performing the shift right and shift left microoperations EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 17
  18. 18. An elementary operation performed (during one clock pulse), on the information stored in one or more registers b a sel_a 1 clock cycle Registers ALU sel_b sel_c (R) (f) c Rd  f(R1, R2) or Rd  f(R1) or Rd  f(Rd) f: shift, load, clear, increment, add, subtract, complement, and, or, xor, … EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 18
  19. 19. ORGANIZATION OF A DIGITAL SYSTEM • Internal hardware organization of digital computer can be best explained by – Set of registers and their functions – Set of allowable microoperations provided by the organization of the computer – Control signals that properly perform the microoperations EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 19
  20. 20. Register Transfer Language (RTL) • Rather than specifying a digital system in words, a specific notation is used, register transfer language • For any function of the computer, the register transfer language can be used to describe the (sequence of) microoperations • Register transfer language – A symbolic language – A convenient tool for describing the internal organization of digital computers – Can also be used to facilitate the design process of digital systems. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 20
  21. 21. Hardware required for microoperation • The term “Register transfer” implies the availability of hardware logic circuit that can perform a stated microoperation and transfer the result of operation to the same or another register. R1  R1 + R 2 Above statement of RTL specifies that system has circuit to perform addition and then saving the result in R1 EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 21
  22. 22. Chapter 4 Register Transfer and Microoperations • 4-1 Register Transfer Language • 4-2 Register Transfer • 4-3 Bus and Memory Transfer • 4-4 Arithmetic Microoperations • 4-5 Logic Microoperations • 4-6 Shift Microoperations • 4-7 Arithmetic Logic Shift Units EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 22
  23. 23. Register Designation • Registers are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by numbers (e.g., A, R13, IR) • Often the names indicate function: – MAR - memory address register – PC - program counter – IR - instruction register • Registers and their contents can be viewed and represented in various ways – A register can be viewed as a single entity: MAR – Registers may also be represented showing the bits of data they contain 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 23
  24. 24. Register Designation • Designation of a register - a register - a bit of a register - portion of a register • Common ways of drawing the block diagram of a register Register Showing individual bits R1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 15 0 15 8 7 0 R2 PC(H) PC(L) Numbering of bits Subfields EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 24
  25. 25. REGISTER TRANSFER • Copying the contents of one register to another is a register transfer • A register transfer is indicated as R2  R1 – In this case the contents of register R1 are copied (loaded) into register R2 – A simultaneous transfer of all bits from the source R1 to the destination register R2, during one clock pulse – Note that this is a non-destructive; i.e. the contents of R1 are not altered by copying (loading) them to R2 EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 25
  26. 26. CONTROL FUNCTIONS • Often actions need to only occur if a certain condition is true • This is similar to an “if” statement in a programming language • In digital systems, this is often done via a control signal, called a control function – If the signal is 1, the action takes place, otherwise not • This is represented as: P: R2  R1 Which means “if P = 1, then load the contents of register R1 into register R2”, i.e., if (P = 1) then (R2  R1) P can be considered as control signal generated in the control section. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 26
  27. 27. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLLED TRANSFERS Implementation of controlled transfer P: R2 R1 Block diagram Control P Load R2 Clock Circuit n Load 0 R1 Timing diagram t t+1 Clock Load Transfer occurs here Registers and control circuit are positive-edge-triggered EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 27
  28. 28. Example • Write such a RTL statement which shows that the transfer from register Y to register Z shall only occur when A and B are both low. • Also draw the block diagram of the RTL statement found in the above part. • Write another RTL statement which shows that the transfer from register Y to register Z shall occur only when either A or B is one; nor when both are zero or one. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 28
  29. 29. SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS • If two or more operations are to occur simultaneously, they are separated with commas P: R3  R5,, MAR  IR • Here, if the control function P = 1, load the contents of R5 into R3, and at the same time (clock), load the contents of register IR into register MAR For above stated simultaneous operation, two buses are required EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 29
  30. 30. SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS (Contd.) • Consider the following simultaneous operation T: R2R1, R1  R2 • For such operations; in addition to two buses, registers with edge triggered flip-flops are also required. EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 30
  31. 31. Practice • Tell how many buses are required in the following examples and whether edge triggered phenomenon is essential or not 1. P: R1  R2 2. T: R1  R2, R3  R2 3. S: R1  R5, R2  R4 4. R: R1  R2, R3  R1 Edge triggering becomes essential, if a register is source and destination at the same time EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 31
  32. 32. BASIC SYMBOLS FOR REGISTER TRANSFERS Symbols Description Examples Capital letters & Denotes a register MAR, R2 numerals Parentheses () Denotes a part of a R2(0-7), R2(L) register Denotes transfer of R2  R1 Arrow  information Colon : Denotes termination of P: control function Comma , Separates two micro- A  B, B  A operations EE-222 Computer Architecture Muhammad Bilal Saif 32

×