Water level sensors

5,389 views

Published on

Water level sensors a comparative study

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Very enlightening! I've had this Water Level Sensor for a few months now (i've hooked it up to my fish tank). It is my belief that it works via capacitively, and I was hoping wondering if this is the best way to monitor my tank.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,389
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
292
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water level sensors

  1. 1. STUDY ON WATER LEVEL SENSORS Dr. N. SAI BASKAR REDDY, Co- Ordinator, ClimaAdapt Project, WALAMTARI Presented by, Miss. Hafisa Hameed Miss. Jomol T Joseph KCAET,KAU, KERALA 1 UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF :
  2. 2. SENSORS? • Receives energy from one system and transmit it to another • i.e. physical variable into signal variable • Energy transmitted may be electrical, mechanical or acoustical 2
  3. 3. TYPES OF SENSORS SENSORS CONTACT PRESSURE TYPE CAPACITANCE TYPE SHAFT ENCODERS BUBBLER NON CONTACT ULTRASONIC RADAR MMC 3
  4. 4. Pressure Sensors > contact type • submerged at a fixed level under the water surface. • measures the equivalent hydrostatic pressure of the water above the sensor diaphragm. • It is like weighing the water. Staff Gages > contact type • The Staff Gage provides a quick and easy visual indicator of water level. • Made with a durable baked-on porcelain enamel finish on a metal plate. 4
  5. 5. STAFF GUAGE PRESSURE SENSOR 5
  6. 6. Bubbler Systems > contact • are hydrostatic pressure sensors • are used to measure water level by detecting the pressure required to force air through a submerged tube. • the tube is mounted with the end of the tube below the water surface being measured, and the air emerges from the bottom of the tube as a stream of bubbles 6
  7. 7. Digital Pulsed Doppler >contact type • Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler systems use a transducer that alternates transmission and reception of ultrasound. • One main advantage of pulsed Doppler is its ability to provide Doppler shift data selectively from a small segment along the ultrasound beam, referred to as the “sample volume”. • The location of the sample volume is operator controlled. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Aqua Profiler > Contact type • The system is designed to measure both, the vector and the magnitude (using twin velocity beams) of individual velocity cells to account for velocity variations within the flow and obtain the flow profile. • A third vertical acoustic or hydrostatic sensor beam is used to measure water level. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Ultrasonic transmitters > Non contact • operate by sending a sound wave generated from a piezoelectric transducer to the surface of the process material being measured. • transmitter measures the length of time it takes for the reflected sound wave to return to the transducer. • successful measurement depends on the wave, reflected from the process material and moving in a straight line back to the transducer. • factors such as dust, heavy vapours, tank obstructions, surface turbulence, foam, and even surface angles can affect the returning signal when using an ultrasonic level sensor. 11
  12. 12. Radar > Non contact • Working principle is similar to ultrasonic sensors. • operation of all radar level detectors involves sending microwave beams emitted by a sensor to the surface of liquid. • electromagnetic waves after hitting the fluids surface returns back to the sensor which is mounted at the top. • The time taken by the signal to return back i.e. time of flight (TOF) is then determined to measure the level of fluid. 12
  13. 13. SENSOR INSTALLATION • Selection of right sensor 1. measuring range >based on max. and min. water level 2. measurement interference >natural or man made e.g.: presence of large rock in canal gives wrong reading 13
  14. 14. 3. installation >details of permanent structures should be collected.eg: bridge ,ridges etc. 4. environmental and seasonal conditions >wind , wave, salinity ,bank stability etc. should be determined 14
  15. 15. • Data acquisition >process of sampling signals such as voltage, current etc. > these signals are further processed • Telemetry >includes reporting information • Control >necessary steps followed after data analysis 15
  16. 16. DATA FLOW PATH 16
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF RADAR SENSOR SYSTEM 17
  18. 18. DATA VISUALISATION Graphical representation 18
  19. 19. Tabular data representation 19
  20. 20. COMPARISON 20
  21. 21. SENSORS WATER LEVEL ACCURACY POWER INPUT COST/UNIT(Rs) SERVICE OF AGENCY 1) CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC 1 year warrenty >RADAR RANGING SENSOR 40275-72585 a)CS475-L 50mm-20m ± 5mm 9.6-16 Vdc b)CS476-L 50mm-30m ±3mm 9.6-16 Vdc c)CS477-L 400mm-70m ±15mm 9.6- 16 Vdc >SONIC RANGING SENSOR 2565-55285 SR50A-L 0.5-10m ±1cm 9-18 Vdc 2) VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS >DIGITAL WATER LEVEL RECORDER-RADAR TYPE 3025-60125 DWLR-R 15m-70m ±2mm 12 v 21
  22. 22. 3) HYDROVISION >ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR 2575-50254 SEP3702 25m ±2% 24 Vdc SHANGHAI CX-RLM RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSOR WITH ALARM 30 m <0.1% 4216-60230 1Year warranty 4) CHEMINS WATER LEVEL SENSOR LKZLD-A 30 m <0.1% 24 Vdc RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSPOR HD 30 m 6000-12000 22
  23. 23. 5) SHANGHAI CX-RLM-081 PULSE RADAR INFRARED WATER LEVEL SENSOR 20m <0.1% 7000-60230 RRF-15 70m ±5mm 60230-18690 VRPWRD51-56 20m ±10mm 48184-12460 VRPWRD35 20m ±3mm 24 Vdc 48184-12460 SHAANXI CHINA-RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSOR YK=RLT01 35m ±2mm 6023-72276 23
  24. 24. FIELD OBSERVATIONS LOCATION : DC4 Mirialaguda circle • Sensor locations are identified with respect to the permanent structures in the canal network. • Difficult to get continuous power supply for the power input. In such cases we can go for solar panels. • Farmers are unaware about the sensors. • Canal lining and maintenance works are now going on the field. 24
  25. 25. • Major portion of the canal was unlined. • Before installation of sensors canal maintenance should be done to get accurate measurement. 25
  26. 26. LEVEL CONVERSION TO DISCHARGE • Using manning's formula v = 1/n R 2/3 S ½ Q = Av WAZERABAD MAJOR BED WIDTH TOP WIDTH n SIDE SLOPE REACH 1 6.28m 5m 0.02 1 ½: 1 REACH 2 4.54m 3m 0.03 1 ½ : 1 REACH 3 5.13m 3 m 0.02 1 ½ : 1 REACH 4 4.70 m 3m 0.02 1 ½ : 1 REACH 5 4.70 m 3m 0.02 1 ½ : 1 26
  27. 27. PERMANENT STUCTURES STRUCTURES DISTANCE FROM WAZERABAD MAJOR CHILLAPUR BRIDGE 0.910 km DILVARPUR BRIDGE 4.68 km DILWAPUR S.L BRIDGE 10.22 km S.L BRIDGE 13.20km S.L BRIDGE 14.80 km DROP CUM S.L BRIDGE 11 16.977 km DROP CUM S.L BRIDGE 14 18.41 km S.L BRIDGE 19.84 km 27
  28. 28. UNLINED L6 MAJOR AT WAZEERABAD 28
  29. 29. DROP 1 AT L5 MAJOR PIPE 1 AT L5 MINOR 29
  30. 30. ROCKS PLACED TO INCREASE WATER LEVEL DURING LOW FLOWS 30
  31. 31. CONCLUSIONS Based on study • Since radar is independent of external weather conditions such as rain, solar radiation, wind or fog, we believe that radar measurement is actually more suitable to the major canals for more accurate measurements. Economic considerations prefer ultrasonic sensors if environmental conditions allow. • From the data collected among the suppliers, by the cost and error analysis, recommended radar sensors are, >Digital water level recorder (DWLR-R) 31
  32. 32. CANAL SENSOR TYPE LIMITATION MAINTA NANCE MARK MAJOR RADAR NON CONTACT COST LESS 9 MAJOR ULTRASONIC NON CONTACT TEMPERATURE VARIATION LESS 9 MAJOR DIGITAL DOPPLER CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 6 32
  33. 33. CANAL SENSORS TYPE LIMITATION MARK MINOR DIGITAL DOPPLER CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 9 MINOR PRESSURE SENSOR CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 5 SUB CANALS STAFF GAUGES CONTACT HUMAN HELP 5 33
  34. 34. • Another consideration is that adjustment and operation of radar and ultrasonic instruments are easy than contact type. • In open channels, the flow measurement error of ultrasonic sensors, due to temperature error, can amount to more than 20%. Temperature sensitivity is around ± 15 -20 0 C • Previously, the price difference between radar and ultrasonic instrumentation was very high; today, the price of radar is comparable to that of ultrasonics. But while considering large scale installation a large amount variation will be there. 34
  35. 35. Canals Sensors Type Description Average cost for complete installation (Rs) Installation Major RADAR Non-contact Highly accurate but coastlier 30000- 60500 Stand alone poles or by providing extension hangings Major ULTRASONIC Non-contact Accurate but depends on temperature variation 15670- 35000 Stand alone poles or by providing extension hangings Major Digital doppler Contact Measures velocity also 10000 – 30000 Mounted to canal sides Minor Digital doppler Contact Measures velocity also 10000 – 30000 Mounted to canal sides Minor Pressure sensor Contact Based on weight of water 5000-25000 Submerged in canals Minor Staff guages Contact Human recording 1000 Mounted along canal sided 35
  36. 36. • Permanent structures like bridges and drops are found to be the suitable place for sensor installation. • Major field challenge include theft and unawareness about sensors. 36
  37. 37. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS • Operating Temperature Range: –40° to +80°C • Storage Ranges >Temperature: –40° to +80°C >Relative Humidity: 20% to 80% RH • Vibration Resistance: Mechanical vibrations with 4 g and 5 to 100 Hz 37
  38. 38. SITE DATA 38 DROP NO: 1 0.914 Km DROP NO: 3 8.045 Km DROP NO: 5 11.529 Km DROP CUM REGULATOR 8 15.690 Km DROP NO: 12 17.160 Km DROP NO: 16 20.589 Km DROP CUM REGULATOR 23 22.433 Km DROP NO: 25 23.622 Km
  39. 39. HYDROVISION ram.warriar@hydrovision.de VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS athul@virtualweb.co.in CAMBELLSCIENTIFIC Krishna.Kishora@elcometech.com JAYCEETECH jayceetech@vsnl.net PROTOCOL INSTRUMENTS Sales@baseelectronics.in 39
  40. 40. MODELS AVAILABLE IN MARKET 40
  41. 41. CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC RADAR RANGING SENSORS CS475-L 41
  42. 42. CS476-L 42
  43. 43. CS477-L 43
  44. 44. SONIC RANGING SENSOR SR50A-L 44
  45. 45. VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS DIGITAL WATER LEVEL RECORDER-RADAR TYPE DWLR-R 45
  46. 46. HYDROVISION ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR SEP3702 46
  47. 47. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • We would like to express our heart felt thanks to Er. L. Narayana Reddy, Director general,WALAMTARI, for giving us this wonderful opportunity. • We thank Dr. N. Sai Bhasker Reddy for his support, valuable guidance, profound suggestions, constant backing, prolific encouragement and advice throughout this project work at WALAMTARI. With deep respect. • We sincerely acknowledge, Dr. Yella Reddy, for providing the necessary information and related data and for the timely help rendered by him. • We express our heartfelt gratitude to Sravanthi, water manager, WALAMTARI, Pranith, WALAMTARI for providing relevant data and necessary help and support for field data collection. 47
  48. 48. • We offer our hearty thanks to Vanitha ,AE (Irrigation and CAD Dpt), Ramesh, FTC for their sincere and timely help in getting the necessary information for the study. • We express our heartfelt thanks to Krishna Reddy and Kiran for their help extended towards us in course of this work. • Above all we bow our head before the God Almighty whose blessings empowered us to complete this work successfully. 48
  49. 49. 49

×