Situational Analysis Kothur


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Situational Analysis Kothur

  1. 1. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APKOTHUR VILLAGE, MIDJIL MANDALINTRODUCTIONMidjil Mandal is one of the 64 Mandals in Mahabubngar District, it is located inthe north-eastern part of Mahabubnagar District. This is the only Mandalidentified as ‘dark area’ where more than 90 % of the recharge capacity ofgroundwater resources are exploited. There are 28 villages in this Mandal. MidjilMandal is located at around 16 Degree 44 minutes N latitude and 78 Degree 21minutes E longitude. Dundubi Midjil Tributary Kothur Dundubi Stream Map 1 Location map of Kothur village and the Dundubi stream, Midjil Mandal (Source: Google Earth)The topography is undulating and dotted with granitic tors and sheet rocks.Other features are bushy vegetation, scattered and thorny scrub land, Dundubiand its tributaries flow through this Mandal, and presence of few ephemeraltanks all combine to produce a beautiful landscape.
  2. 2. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Photo 1 Kothur Village, Midjil Mandal Kothur VillageWithin Midjil Mandal, Kothur village isselected for V & A Programme. It isabout 50 kilometers distance fromMahabubnagar town and 7kmsaway from Mandal Headquarters - Midjil.This village has one hamlet called‘Mallapur’. The nearest major town isJadcherla, which is about 30 kms awayfrom this village. The National HighwayNo. 7 passes through Jadcherla town. The area around the village has somegranitic outcrops and the topography is undulating. There is a stream calledDundubi and its tributary adjoining this village. The total geographical area is 680hectares. 2AFPRO
  3. 3. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPhoto 1 Villagers are participating in the participatory resource mappingPhoto 2 Kalajatha – Awareness campaign on V & A Programme 3AFPRO
  4. 4. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPhoto 3 Women participation in the V & A awareness programmeIn the village Self Help groups (SHGs), Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs) and UserGroups are existing and are functioning. There are also village level institutionslike Watershed Association and Village Organization (VO)1 in the village. Thetransportation facilities are difficult to this village as it is about 7 kms from themain road. This village has telephone Communication facilities.SITUATIONAL ANALYSISPopulationThis is a heterogeneous village with representation of people from diverse castesand socio-economic structure. The total population of the village is 1462 with 224households. Majority of the villagers belong to Backward Caste (BC) andScheduled Caste (SC). The Other caste and Minorities are few in numbers. Thereis no Scheduled Tribe (ST) population in this village. Mallapur is one small hamletunder this Gram Panchayat. The Sarpanch of this village is a Woman from1 Federation of SHGs at Village level is called – Village Organisation (VO). 4AFPRO
  5. 5. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APGeneral category. She participates actively in all the programmes and activitiesin the village. 1000 POPULATION 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Backward Scheduled Other Caste Minorities Caste CasteGraph 1 Distribution of PopulationThe sex ratio is 965 (Males 744 and Female 718). This is in contrast to the sex ratioof children below 6 years which is 1148 (boys 54 and girls 62).Majority of the population is occupied with agriculture as primary activity. Thereare about 255 agricultural laborers. 5AFPRO
  6. 6. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Number of 300 Agriculture Labourers, 255 250 200 150 100 Number of non- Number of 50 agriculture village artisans, labourers, 20 15 0The poorest of the poor are from the BC and SC communities, about 12 familiesare identified by IKP / VELUGU2 programme.In this village the migration of people is not so high; only 14 people are migratingseasonally and are engaged in construction and agricultural work.EducationThe literacy rate is poor in this village as it is remote a remote village. This villagehas a middle level school and most of the children go to the school. There is onlyone boy not going to school. The literacy rate is 43% of which males is high (57%)as compared to females (29%).Self Help Groups (SHGs)There are 15 Self Help Groups (SHGs) for women, majority of them are inconsumption stage. About 4 are in asset formation and 2 in incremental stage.2 Indira Kranthi Patham (IKP) / Velugu : This the largest programme supported by World Bank in AndhraPradesh State for poverty alleviation, facilitated by Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP), underthe department of rural development, Government of Andhra Pradesh. 6AFPRO
  7. 7. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP General Total women population 590 No.of women covered in SHGs 218 No. of SHGs in Village 15 Total corpus 764388 SHGs networked (Yes/No)? Yes Agriculture Labour 145 Single woman 2 Women headed HH 15 Stage of Women SHGs No. of groups Primitive 1 Consumption 8 Incremental income 2 Asset Formation 4 Total SHGs 15Regarding member’s participation in group meetings all decisions are takencollectively and they are happy with the result.SHGs participation in community decision making /activities - Groups representbut are not able to pursue better for getting an assurance for proposed actions. CASTE WISE REPRSENTATION IN SHGs OC 27 1 BC 103 SC 88 0 20 40 60 80 100 120Name of SHG Date of Corpus (Rs) Others Corpus formatio SC B OC Tota Savings Interes DRDA/D (Rs) (Rs) n C l t PIP contribut ionAmbedkar 28.9.1995 13 0 0 13 47850 3806 12500 30000 64156 7AFPRO
  8. 8. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APArunjyothi 28.9.1995 15 0 0 15 54900 4392 12500 30000 71792Swathi 28.9.1995 15 0 0 15 54900 4392 12500 30000 71792Vasantha 14.10.95 6 9 0 15 54450 4392 12500 30000 71342Bramarambika 12.3.1999 0 15 0 15 36000 2880 7600 90000 46480Malleshwari 15.4.1997 0 24 0 15 46350 3708 0 0 50058Santhosimatha 26.12.99 1 14 0 15 31950 2556 12500 80000 47006Susmitha 4.6.1999 0 12 3 15 34650 2772 12500 90000 49922Indira.p.darsini 12.12.97 0 8 2 10 28500 2280 12500 30000 43280Lalitha 15.12.97 0 3 12 15 42750 3420 12500 30000 58670Jyothi 25.3.1997 2 5 8 15 46800 3744 12500 30000 63044Vidya 8.6.1999 1 12 2 15 34650 2772 0 0 37422Rajeshwari 12.8.1999 5 10 0 15 39150 3132 0 0 42282Jhansi 12.12.97 15 0 0 15 31950 2556 0 0 34506Maruthi 18.9.2003 15 0 0 15 11700 936 0 0 12636Total 88 10 27 218 596550 47738 120100 764388 3SHGs need to be strengthened in the following areas; involving them in non-farmbased livelihood activities (diversification and economic security), moreparticipation for improving the Natural Resources and motivating them forpolitical representation.Health and SanitationThere are 140 sanitary latrines existing in this village, during transect in the villageit is found that still majority of people desecrate outside, which would lead tohealth problems. As the number of sanitary latrines existing are inadequate theirnumbers need to be increased.Kitchen Garden: There is only one kitchen garden in the village; it is the mostdiversified and meeting all the vegetable and fruit needs of a family. There ispotential to encourage the villagers for having kitchen gardens – for health andnutrition of the families. 8AFPRO
  9. 9. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPoorest of the PoorThere are only 12 poorest of the poor families identified in this village; they couldbe given priority and be brought under the appropriate schemes of theGovernment.Rainfall and TemperatureThe Normal Rainfall of Kondurg Mandal is 618 mm as compared to the DistrictNormal of 604mm. And the south west monsoon is erratic which accounts for themaximum rainfall. Kondurg Mandal is an interior area, with hot summers (Temp.39 deg C to 41 deg C) and warm winters (25 deg C to 35 deg C). The summerperiod is from March to May.Table 1 Rainfall pattern – Midjil Mandal Rainfall in (mm) NORMALS 618.0 1999-2000 524.7 % OF DEVI -15.1 2000-01 761.4 % OF DEVI 23.2 2001-02 691.0 % OF DEVI 11.8 2002-03 619.9 % OF DEVI 0.3 2003-04 711.4 % OF DEVI 15.1LandThe land use pattern of Kothur village is shown in graph 1. This is for the latestdata for year 2004-05, it is observed that there is no forest and pasture landcategories. 9AFPRO
  10. 10. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Area under other grazing Land put to Area sown more than pastures and Miscellaneous sown (total Other fallow uncultivable Cultivable agriculture Barren and Permanent cropped Net area and groves tree crops waste once forest lands non- landGraph 2Table 2 Land Use Pattern Land Use Pattern Area (Hectares) 2004-2005 Total Geographical area 680 Net area sown (total cropped area) 476 Cultivable waste 152 Area sown more than once 120 Barren and uncultivable land 92 Land put to non-agriculture use 3.2SoilsThere are three types of soils in the village - Black soils (48%), Sandy soils (27%)and Red soils (21%) (see graph 2). Some of the lands have turned alkaline due toirrigation and high evaporation conditions. 10AFPRO
  11. 11. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Red Soil SOILS 21% Sandy soils 31% Black soil 48%Graph 3 Types of soilsAgricultureAgriculture is the main livelihood activity in this village and also the dependentagricultural laborers are more. Majority of the farmers are marginal and smallland holders. Castor, Cotton, Jowar, Redgram, Maize, Paddy and Groundnut arethe major crops grown in this village, which are grown mostly during the Kharif3season. A village with Cranes – Kongala Kothur This village in the past was well known for paddy, there used to be water all year round surrounding the village and hence attracted the cranes and egrets. Especially during and after the rainy season the whole village trees were occupied by the birds. Then this village was popularly called as ‘Kongala Kothur’ or Kothur with cranes. People also strongly believed that if the cranes have not appeared, there will be less rainfall that year. Therefore the village elders used to visit the neighboring villages and would tie messages to the trees where cranes resided, requesting the cranes to return to Kothur. There is no water, therefore no cranes are visible in the village as a result this village is no more called ‘Kongala Kothur.’ The present scenario is unimaginable and contrasting, most of the paddy growing fields are left fallow and they are covered with Prosopis Juliflora and also the soils have turned saline / alkaline.In this village over years people were cultivating traditional crops like redgramand castor. In the last 5 years they have switched over to the commercial crop3 There are basically three seasons, Kharif – Rainy, Rabi – Winter, Zaid – Summer. 11AFPRO
  12. 12. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APMaize. Their priority has changed because of market prices, input costs andother risk factors like pests.As this village is remote very few farmers cultivate vegetables. There is also onemango orchard of 2 hectares in this village. The chemical fertilizers use hasincreased, on an average farmers are using upto 5 bags per acre of land. CROPPING PATTERN 500 450 450 400 350 300 300 IN ACRES 250 200 150 110 100 65 50 50 40 50 0 Redgram Castor Paddy Cotton Ground nut Jowar MaizeGraph 4 Cropping patternTable 3 Crops cultivated in Kothur Village (2004-05) Crop Name Area (in acres) Irrigated Rainfed Total Castor 0 450 450 Cotton 0 300 300 Jowar 0 110 110 Maize 0 65 65 Paddy 50 0 50 Redgram 50 50 Ground nut 40 40 Total 50 1015 1065 12AFPRO
  13. 13. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APThe farmers are satisfied with the outputs from the following rainfed crops Castor,Cotton, Jowar, Redgram and Maize which are cultivated during the Kharifseason this year. Although there were intermittent rains due to depressions in Bayof Bengal, it appeared that they would loose their crops but the subsequentweather conditions were favorable, especially during the ripening stage and thecrops were saved but not with the case of Paddy and Jowar, the intermittentrains arrived during harvesting period and they had to face the losses.The major crops cultivated in this village in the last 20 years were basically rainfedcrops red gram (20 yrs back), Castor (10 yrs back) and now Maize (see graph ). MAJOR CROPS GROWN Maize Castor Redgram 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Present 10 years 20 years 1 ago agoGraph 5 Time line – Major crops Cultivated 13AFPRO
  14. 14. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Case Study 1 Mr. Upender Reddy is 25 years old, he is into farming since last 6 years after his father expired. He owns 11 acres of cultivable land (7.5 acres is irrigated and 2.5 acres is rainfed). Although he drilled 4 borewells only two of them are functioning. In his rainfed agricultural field he cultivates groundnut, castor and redgram. Earlier he used to leave one acre of rainfed land fallow, for his cattle grazing in it. Of the 7.5 acres irrigated land, 4 acres cotton and 2 acres paddy is cultivated, and about 1 acre of land is left fallow in rotation. Earlier this family had 15 nos. of cattle (11 buffalos and 4 cows), because of drought he has sold all of them last year. He doesn’t have any cattle now. He visits the Agriculture University and interacts with agricultural officers for advice on cultivation of various crops. He gave the soil samples for testing for understanding the soil condition, so that he could improve it. He uses less chemical fertilizers and more Farm Yard Manure. He is one of the progressive farmers selected for the programme.There is a nursery in the village started under the Watershed project, the samefacility could be used for growing useful saplings for tree crops, agro-forestry andagri-horticulture.As most of the farmers are marginal and small and are either SCs / BCs throughintroduction of certain practices their lands could be made more fertile.The agricultural produce is sold to non-institutional sources without any valueaddition. There are Rythu Mithra Groups in the village although farmers are wellorganized but they are unable to get the extension services effectively.Land HoldingMajority of the farmers in the village are Small and Marginal4 and most of thembelong to scheduled caste and backward caste (see graph 3). There are onlyfew large farmers in the village.4 Marginal Farmer – 1 to 2.5 acres of dry land and Small Farmer – 2.6 to 5 acres of dry land inMahabubnagar District. 14AFPRO
  15. 15. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP LAND HOLDING PARTICULARS Land Holdings Marginal Land Holdings Small Land Holdings Large Other Caste Other Backward Caste Schedule Caste 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90Graph 6 Land holding particularsLivestockBecause of the subsequent drought conditions there was shortage of fodder, asa result the number of families possessing livestock has come down in the last 10years (see graph below). Most importantly the dairy activity has got affected,although the private commons available for grazing has increased as manyfarmers have left their fields fallow. Livestock is also an important asset to copewith drought situation and difficult times. The number of small ruminants haveincreased as compared to 20 years back, but their numbers are coming down,due to shortage of fodder and drinking water availability. There sheeps andgoats are usually kept by Shepherd community called Kurumas. Dairy animalsare also possessed by majority of the families. There is also priority andpreference of people for getting engaged in dairy activity and there is a milkcollection center in the village. There is need to create alternative solutions forfodder availability to encourage keeping the livestock. Backyard poultry is avery common activity for majority of the people. 15AFPRO
  16. 16. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP LIVESTOCK POPULATION 3500 Current (2005) 3000 upto 10 years ago (1995-2004) 2500 >10 to 20 years ago(1985-1994) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Cows Bullocks Buffaloes Sheep GoatGraph 7 Livestock population – Timeline 16AFPRO
  17. 17. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APGraph 8 Resource Map of Kothur Village 17AFPRO
  18. 18. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APWater ResourcesAlthough there are 8 number of tanks in the village, the irrigation potential islimited due to non / poor maintenance of the tanks. Three tanks are non-functional. The total area irrigated under the tanks is just 28.8 hectares.There are 40 openwells, this village having located close to the dundubi tributaryhas sandy soils. As the soils are sandy, the openwells, filter points and borewellsneed to be lined to prevent collapsing of the walls. The 24 openwells existing inthe village are functional during and few months after the rains.Photo 4 Because of above normal rains this year groundwater levels have increased 18AFPRO
  19. 19. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APPhoto 5 A filter point well – along the banks of Dundubi tributaryOf the 120 borewells only 70 are functional. Whereas all the 50 filter wells arefunctional especially this year due to good amount of rains received. Thegroundwater levels are highly fluctuating due to the presence of sand in theground – more groundwater is available if there is flooding in the tributary ofDundubi stream and its tributary.People are more and more dependent on the filter wells and borewells forirrigation leading to over exploitation of the meager groundwater resources. Forimproving the irrigation potential the following possibilities are existing:1. Renovation of existing structures2. Creation of proper drainage facilities for water harvesting and treating the water logging areas.3. Desilting of tanks, renovating the feeder channels and drainage lines and removal of vegetation occupying the tank bed.4. Creation of new water harvesting structures at feasible locations. 19AFPRO
  20. 20. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APWatershed ProgrammeThis village was selected for the watershed project in the year 1995-96 underEmployment Assurance Scheme (EAS). About Rs. 16 lakhs were spent on variouswatershed works. Watershed Development Fund (WDF) contribution by thestakeholders is about Rs. 96 thousand which is available with WatershedAssociation.The Watershed Committee executed the following works under the project :laying of earth bunds of 1400 meters length, constructed 2 percolation tanks withrevetment, 5 masonry checkdams, 220 gully control structures and 1 feederchannel.Status of water resourcesSurface water – Adequate storage facilities are created sharing with informalsystem.Groundwater - About 40% of open wells are dry and bore wells are being drilled togreater depths. The dry open wells can be used for recharging the aquifers. Thedrilling of borewells is a recent practice and the numbers are increasingaffecting the existing filter wells and openwells.Drinking water (DW) - Adequate DW sources are created and shared judiciously.Water is available throughout the year and there are hand pumps too. Thevillage is having an overhead tank and water is supplied regularly through pipes.Soil Moisture - Moisture content improved very little with the implementation ofthe watershed programme and farmers are able to get one secure crop.EnergyMost of the families are still using fuel wood as source of energy for domesticcooking, which is causing health problems to women. It also involvesconsiderable amount of time to fetch the firewood. About 40 smokeless chullahsare provided in this village, which are less polluting and conserve theconsumption of fuel wood. 20AFPRO
  21. 21. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APAbout 55 LPG gas connections were provided to 55 families, only 35 families areusing them. They don’t use them for regular cooking, because the LPG refillingcosts are very high for the families to afford. Although there are 10 biogas plantsin the village, only one biogas plant is functioning. Rest of the biogas plants needto be repaired for making them functional.Energy conservation is also an important issue, to save energy (electricity) thereare some options like: The farmers need to install capacitors for all agriculturalborewells, these will reduce the consumption of the power and also prevents theburning of motors due to power fluctuations.Lighting is the most essential thing, especially for children’s education, fordomestic and street lighting they could use white Light Emitting Diodes which arecool, bright and long lasting. On pilot basis some Lighting modules could beinstalled in the village. With them villagers would save the precious subsidizedelectricity consumption.As majority of the farmers are marginal and small, the draught animals are still amajor source of energy for agricultural activities and local transportation.Women are spending lots of time and energy for fetching drinking water,fuelwood and fodder, i.e., about 1 hour per day for each of the resources. Thefuelwood access has increased because of the excessive growth of ProsopisJuliflora.Common Pool Resource (CPR)The productive CPR is very much limited about 18 acres and also there islimitation to develop CPR for creation of alternative livelihoods. The revenue landavailable is mostly along the Dundubi tributary, which floods every year. 21AFPRO
  22. 22. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APInstitutions Functioning at Village levelThese are the following Government Departments or Agencies programs /services in the village.Ongoing Programmes• SGRY,• 9th Finance commission,The total amount allocated till date for the above programmes is rupees 72thousand only.Natural Resources Management (NRM) • Agriculture Department / Rythu Mitra Groups (RMGs). • ·Horticulture Dept • Animal Husbandry • Irrigation Dept (Minor / Medium / Major)Social Aspects • Dist. Rural Dev. Agency (DRDA) / District Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP) / Indira Kranthi Patham • DPEP / Education • Medical and Health • SC Corporation • BC Welfare / BC Corporation • Social Welfare Department • Anganwadi / Women and Children Welfare • ICDS / Child Development Programme • Housing Department – Houses constructed by the government for SCs / BCs / Poor.Services • Civil supplies / Public Distribution system • Rural water supply (Panchayat Raj dept.) • Electricity • Telecommunications / BSNL – Telephone facilities • Artisans - Adarana scheme for artisans – supply of tools by Govt. • NEDCAP – (biogas plants) 22AFPRO
  23. 23. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APInfrastructure ExistingThe following infrastructure exists in the village: Water and Soil Conservation Activities 1. 8 Irrigation Tanks 2. 5 Borewells for drinking 3. 1 Overhead tank 4. 2 Check dams Buildings 1. Panchayat Office 2. Primary School 3. Community hall Noon-meal center building – near the school Roads CC roads within the village, blacktop road connecting the village with the main road at Midjil and the road connecting Mallapur hamlet. Common Facilities 1. This village is having electricity service 2. About 7 kms away the transportation services are available for the villagers. Everyday only once the bus service is available to this village, rest of the time people commute through autorickshaws and jeeps. 3. Telephone connectivity is existing in this village. Dairy / Veterinary services 1. One milk collection centre is existing in this village.Infrastructure gaps Water and Soil Conservation Activities 1. 2 Irrigation Tanks 2. 2 borewell - Hand Pumps for drinkingwater 3. House Hold level connections from overhead tank 4. 4 Check dams 23AFPRO
  24. 24. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP Marketing Infrastructuure 1 godown for community grains storage Roads Black top road connectivity to Midjil village and Mallapur hamlet. Common Facilities Villagers have requested for Village knowledge center and Automatic weather station. Library / Resource center A Secondary school building Anganwadi building for small children.READINESS AND WILLINGNESS OF THE VILLAGERSDuring the focused group discussions the villagers have expressed their readinessand willingness on the following aspects. • Involvement in production enhancement activities • Working on Agriculture based micro-enterprises. • Non-agriculture based micro-enterprises. • Promoting more percolation tanks for rainwater harvesting. • Development of assigned lands • Leasing of land to SHGs by the community • Seed bank and seed improvement • Management of kuntas and tanks • Desilting of tanks/conversion to percolation tanks and reviving community practice of desilting the tanks • Converting check dams to percolation tanks • Taking up ridge level percolation pits • Taking supply/feeder channels to the tanks • Use of CPR for tree plantations • Value addition to agricultural produce • Demarcating land for protection (from grazing & tree felling) 24AFPRO
  25. 25. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APSUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThis preliminary study is useful in understanding the various types of Resourcesand the ongoing livelihood activities in the pilot village. And based on this studythe following observations were made:Agriculture1. People are traditionally involved in agriculture but there is need for them to adapt to the organic and sustainable agricultural practices.2. Agriculture is the major livelihood activity in this village, hence there is need to give them better skills in on-farm and off-farm related activities• On-farm: Olericulture and Horticulture.• Off-farm: Dairy, Backyard poultry, ram lamb, sheep development, etc.3. The villagers need to be mobilized for collective decision in choice of crops and marketing.4. There is no seed bank in this village, a seed bank could be promoted for conserving the traditional indigenous seeds which are resistant to climate variability.5. Majority of the farmers are small and marginal, there is a need to provide additional livelihood opportunities for the farmers.6. The black and red soils are suitable for diverse crops.7. Need to adapt scientific methods (like Soil testing) for better management of the soils.8. There is also need to provide with knowledge and technology to improve the existing lands and to bring the fallow lands under cultivation.9. Should have better Marketing linkages / information10. Advise on cropping – choice of crops and management practices, there is a need for better extension of services by the agriculture department.11. There is still more potential for strengthening the farm based activities.12. More credit could be accessed from banks for inputs. 25AFPRO
  26. 26. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP13. There is a lot to improve or work for non farm based livelihood activities, improvement of natural resources to cope in lean season and for food security.Livestock14. The stress period for availability of fodder is during March and July. There is a need to promote alternative measures to mitigate the impact.15. There is a need to improve the dairy sector. The milk production is directly related to availability of fodder. The farmers are well aware of the leguminous fodder, there is a need to encourage and provide seed and other inputs for fodder improvement.16. Breeding is limited to few months only, between February and March, and October and December months. There is need to improve the overall breeding programme and also to control the seasonal diseases with the help of para-vets yet to be identified.17. There is potential for further development of dairy as supportive livelihood activity with the improvement of existing storage and transportation facilities.Water18. More area can be brought under cultivation through water conservation measures and practices.19. The 14 open wells in the village which are not functioning can be converted into the recharge wells.20. There are 8 tanks in the village out of which only 5 tanks are used for irrigation and the total irrigated area is only 28.8 hectares. Need to renovate the remaining 3 tanks and to increase the capacity of rest of the tanks.21. There is need to improve the following aspects: - fodder development, Agro- and social forestry, horticulture development, promotion of quality of seeds, vermiculture, Sustainable Agricultural methods, non-farm livelihoods, etc and also Facilitation for silt removal from the village tanks for application in the dry lands.Energy22. The villagers need to get exposed to the successful case studies elsewhere on energy conservation and alternative technologies. 26AFPRO
  27. 27. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP23. Need to revive the defunct biogas plants.24. Villagers need to be introduced to Improved chullahs / stoves for energy conservation, gasifier stove - Anila, solar cookers etc.25. Explore options for installation of Gasifiers based electricity generators – which would work with wasted biomass.26. Installation of White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in few households for demonstration on power conservation.27. Women are spending lots of time and energy for fetching water, fuelwood and fodder, i.e., about 3 hours per day. There is need to improve options in these sectors – availability and access.Common Pool Resources (CPR)28. There is potential to plant useful saplings all along the 12 acres of land available along the road margins and 6 acres of land along the canal bunds involving women SHGs. Options for improving the 1600 acres of wasteland available along the Dundubi tributary in the village.Social Capital29. Group centered activities are already going on in this village through SHGs and Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs) which need to be strengthened further. Through provision of revolving fund the women groups could access the credit for group centered livelihood activites.30. Strengthening SHGs by facilitating access to credit and markets through convergence.31. Other CBOs in the village need to be further strengthened and networked at the Gram Panchayat level.Services32. Establishment of Village knowledge Center and training center on using the computers.33. Establishment of Automatic weather station – for knowledge on the climate variability and weather information.34. More credit should be made available to the villagers through banks and other sources for their activities. 27AFPRO
  28. 28. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, AP35. All the households should have sanitary latrines.36. Similarly the safe drinking water access to be made available to all the households.Livelihoods Diversification37. Alternative livelihood activities: The people in this village are mainly dependant on agriculture as primary activity. As majority of the farmers are marginal and small, there is need for livelihoods diversification by the people. The people need to be provided trainings and skills for adapting to diverse trades. This would also provide additional employment opportunities. People are well aware of the developments in various fields, therefore it is easy for them to diversify and adapt to other livelihood options.38. The women and youth in the village should be imparted trainings in Micro enterprise development.39. Alternative livelihood options need to be provided to the educated youth in the village. For example youth could be trained on electrical repairs (motor winding and pumps) and servicing home appliances.ACTIVITIES COMPLETEDIn Kothur village the following activities were completed till date • Awareness through interaction with community and awareness programmes using folk media, songs, puppetry, street plays, etc. • Primary data collection – Structured format and Focused Group Discussions. • PRA exercises for community participation, awareness and information collection (Resource Mapping, seasonality and Transect walk). • Identification of Pilot Farmers and collection of the agricultural output samples from Pilot farmers. • Grama Sabhas were held and the villagers have taken resolution to participate in this programme. • Case studies (from pilot villages) collected. • Process documentation – record of activities and events in the project villages, video and photo documentation of all the events. 28AFPRO
  29. 29. V & A Programme Situational Analysis Stage-II Report, APACTIVITIES PLANNED FOR YEAR 2006A. Implementation of the Programme – Field Level Activities 1. Facilitate PTD on agriculture, water and energy for selected farmers and groups 2. Capacity building farmers (on specific best practices1 ) and CBO’s (institutional aspects) 3. Demonstration of location specific best practicesB. Capacity Building, Documentation and Awareness1. Validation and documentation of selected coping practices beyond pilot villages2. Awareness campaign on climate change/variability3. Development of information, education and communication (IEC) material4. Establishment of the Village Knowledge Centers5. Training of weather Managers.AFPROs role will be major with respect to all the above aspects, except for B4and B5 points where it is supportive role to MSSRF. AFPRO will be working togetherwith National and International Consortium partners, through sharing, learningand incorporating the ideas for successful implementation of the V & Aprogramme.All the proposed activities for implementation are in Yearly Plan of Operation(YPO), 2006.Note: 1. All the Participatory Technology Developments will be implemented through Pilot Farmers. 2. Where ever possible some of the activities will be implemented through convergence with ongoing programmes.ANNEXURESI. SUCCESS STORIES OF NGOs IN ANDHRA PRADESHII. MAPS OF MIDJIL MANDALIII. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS INFORMATION OF KOTHUR VILLAGE, MIDJIL MANDALIV. YPO, 2006 29AFPRO