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SENSORS FOR AGRICULTURE AND WATER
Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy
saibhaskarnakka@gmail.com
Lecture at Engineering Staff College ...
Water Use Efficiency
CANAL
MONITORING
MANUAL - DATA
COLLECTION
AUTOMATION - SENSORS
MANAGEMENT
MANUAL - SCHEDULE
AUTOMATIO...
Challenges in collecting data
The first problem primarily has to do with entering data manually, while
the second problem ...
IRRIGATION SCHEDULING
Irrigation scheduling is the process used
by irrigation system managers to determine the correct
fr...
An optimum irrigation schedule maximizes
profit and optimizes water and energy use.
Only 40%- 60% of the water is effect...
There are two situations farmers are
frequently faced
1. Under-irrigation (Where a limited
quantity of water is available...
NEED FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING
Proper timing of irrigation water applications is a
crucial decision for a farm manager to:...
OBJECTIVES
Maximum yield/biomass production.
Maximum economic return.
• Water conservation.
• Reduced nutrient leaching....
CANAL PARTICULARS
1 2
3
4
Demolished water pipe line Sluice wall damage and soil
being eroded
Culvert
damage
Sluice walls
...
IRRIGATION SCHEDULING PRACTICE
 Water requirement of rice crop at different growth stages
Stages of growth Avg. water req...
Advantages Of Irrigation Scheduling
 It enables the farmer to schedule water rotation among the various
fields
 It reduc...
Smart irrigation technologies
Existing Irrigation
Technology
Smart Irrigation Control Technology
This system is based on
fixed schedule and the
controll...
In order to achieve the above objectives the following is the on of the
basic recommendations
 smart irrigation controlle...
RAIN SENSOR
A rain sensor or rain switch is a switching device activated by rainfall.
Rain sensors for irrigation systems ...
INFORMATION VISUALISATION
HIERARCHY
Flow chart of digitalizing process
FARMER
DATE:DD/MM/YYYY
TIME: --:--
RAINFALL: Y/N
TEMPERATURE: --
T
T- Time of receiving water to his field,
--:--
Since mo...
BASIC COLOR LAYOUT
MODULES for locating sensors
Displaying water level
0
50
100
Details of rainfall
-Details of temperature
What is water use efficiency (WUE)?
The yield of marketable crop produced per unit of water used in
evapotranspiration .
W...
Virtual water
Water embedded in commodities
Commodity Virtual water in liters
One cup of coffee 140
One liter of milk 800
...
27
27
Crop WUE (Kg/ha-mm)
Rice 3.0
Jowar 9.0
Bajra 8.0
Maize 8.0
Finger
millet
13.4
Groundnut 9.2
WUE in different crops K...
28
Crop Water requirements (mm)
Rice 900-2500
Wheat 450-650
Sorghum 450-650
Maize 500-800
Sugarcane 1500-2500
Sugarbeet 55...
Crop Water requirements (mm)
Tomato 600-800
Potato 500-700
Pea 350-500
Onion 350-550
Bean 300-500
Cabbage 380-500
Banana 1...
Periods sensitive to water shortages
Crop Sensitive period
Alfalfa Just after cutting
Alfalfa
(for seed prod.)
Flowering
B...
Crop Sensitive period
Grape Vegetative period and flowering
more than fruit filling
Groundnut Flowering and pod setting
Ma...
Contd…
Crop Sensitive period
Pea / fresh Flowering and yield formation
Pea /dry Ripening
Pepper Through out
Pineapple Vege...
Crop Sensitive period
Sugar beet First month after emergence
Sugarcane Vegetative period
(tillering and stem elongation)
S...
Sensitivity of various field crops
to water shortages
Sensitivity Low Low –medium Medium- High High
Crops Cassava Alfalfa ...
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System
Overview
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System is a web based system that
provides th...
• Monitoring
• Control centre
• Sensors and Instrumentation lab at WALAMTARI
• Software development
• Operation and mainte...
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System
Introduction:
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System is one of the technique used to
q...
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System
Overview CNFMS
Around the world Smart Water Technology is revolutionising the
operat...
Technical architecture
Flow diagram
Canal Network Flow Monitoring System
Modules Allotted:
SMS Interface
(Both UI and Service)
This is one of the important ...
TYPES OF SENSORS42
SENSORS
CONTACT
PRESSURE TYPE
CAPACITANCE
TYPE
SHAFT
ENCODERS
BUBBLER
NON CONTACT
ULTRASONIC
RADAR
MMC
Pressure Sensors
> contact type
 submerged at a fixed level under the water surface.
 measures the equivalent hydrostati...
44
STAFF GUAGE
PRESSURE SENSOR
Bubbler Systems
> contact
 are hydrostatic pressure sensors
 are used to measure water level by detecting the pressure r...
Digital Pulsed Doppler
>contact type
 Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler systems use a transducer that alternates transmission and
...
47
Aqua Profiler
> Contact type
 The system is designed to measure both, the vector and the magnitude (using twin
velocity b...
49
Ultrasonic transmitters
> Non contact
 operate by sending a sound wave generated from a piezoelectric transducer to the s...
Radar
> Non contact
 Working principle is similar to ultrasonic sensors.
 operation of all radar level detectors involve...
SENSOR INSTALLATION
 Selection of right sensor
1. measuring range
>based on max. and min. water level
2. measurement inte...
3. installation
>details of permanent structures should
be collected.eg: bridge ,ridges etc.
4. environmental and seasonal...
 Data acquisition
>process of sampling signals such as voltage, current etc.
> these signals are further processed
 Tele...
DATA FLOW PATH
55
COMPONENTS OF RADAR SENSOR SYSTEM
56
Developed sensors for–the parameters water
level, soil moisture, relative humidity,
temperature ;etc.
Aqua Profiler
59
DATA VISUALISATION
60
Graphical representation
Tabular data representation
61
COMPARISON
62
SENSORS WATER LEVEL ACCURACY POWER INPUT COST/UNIT(Rs)
SERVICE OF AGENCY
1) CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC 1 year warrenty
>RADAR RAN...
3) HYDROVISION
>ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR 2575-50254
SEP3702 25m ±2% 24 Vdc
SHANGHAI
CX-RLM RADAR WATER
LEVEL SENSOR WITH AL...
5) SHANGHAI
CX-RLM-081 PULSE RADAR
INFRARED WATER LEVEL
SENSOR
20m <0.1% 7000-60230
RRF-15 70m ±5mm 60230-18690
VRPWRD51-5...
CANAL SENSOR TYPE LIMITATION MAINTANA
NCE
MARK
MAJOR RADAR NON
CONTACT
COST LESS 9
MAJOR ULTRASONIC NON
CONTACT
TEMPERATUR...
CANAL SENSORS TYPE LIMITATION MARK
MINOR DIGITAL
DOPPLER
CONTACT PERIODIC
REMOVAL
9
MINOR PRESSURE
SENSOR
CONTACT PERIODIC...
 Another consideration is that adjustment and operation of
radar and ultrasonic instruments are easy than contact type.
...
Canals Sensors Type Description Average cost for
complete installation
(Rs)
Installation
Major RADAR Non-contact Highly ac...
Permanent structures like bridges and drops are found to
be the suitable place for sensor installation.
Major field chal...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
 Operating Temperature Range: –40° to +80°C
 Storage Ranges
>Temperature: –40° to +80°C
>Relati...
MODELS AVAILABLE IN MARKET
72
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC
RADAR RANGING SENSORS
73
CS475-L
CS476-L
74
CS477-L
75
SONIC RANGING SENSOR
76
SR50A-L
VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS
DIGITAL WATER LEVEL RECORDER-RADAR TYPE77
DWLR-R
HYDROVISION
ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR78
SEP3702
What is a system?
A system is a set of interacting or interdependent
components forming an integrated whole or a set of el...
Block Diagram of System
ProcessorInput Transmission Output
Inputs (Sensors)
Contact sensors
 Soil moisture sensor
 Temperature and humidity sensor
 Pressure sensor
Non-Contact se...
Processing
 Arduino
 Micro Controller
An open source platform, easy to use software and hardware
54 digital input and output pins
14 analog input pins
16 MHz cr...
Arduino over microcontrollers :
Inexpensive
Cross-platform
Simple programming environment
Transfering Mechanisms
 Wired
 Cable
 Wireless
 Bluetooth
 GSM/GPRS
 Wifi
Output
• SMS
• Image
• Video
• Light
• Sound
• Display
Input Processor Transmission Output
oContact
• Pressure
• Capacitance
• Bubbler
• Soil moisture
sensor
oNon
contact
• Ultr...
Display
Soil Moisture Measurement System
(CLICK v1.0)
Soil moisture sensor Arduino
Circuit and program
SMS
Soil Moisture Measurement System
(CLICK 2.0 )
Soil moisture sensor Arduino Mega GSM modem- SIM900
Circuit and Program
Sensors
Ultrasonic sensor for water level Temperature and relative humidity sensor
Microcontroller and GSM Board
Arduino Uno Microcontroller GSM BOARD FOR SENDING SMS
TWEET AND CLICK
TWEET sensor for water level with GSM CLICK sensor for soil moisture with GSM
Soil Moisture Measurement System
(CLICK v3.0)
Soil moisture sensor Arduino
LEDs
Circuit and program
Display
Water Depth Measurement System
(TWEET v1.0)
Ultrasonic sensor HC- SR04 Arduino Mega
Circuit and program
SMS
Water Depth Measurement
(TWEET v2.0)
Ultrasonic sensor
HC- SR04
Arduino Mega GSM-SIM900
Circuit and program
Display
Temperature and Humidity Measurement
System
DHT11 sensor
Arduino
Circuit and program
SMS
Temperature and Humidity Measurement
System
DHT11 sensor Arduino Mega GSM modem- SIM900
Circuit and program
Power Analysis
1) Non rechargeable batteries
2) Rechargeable batteries
Electrically rechargeable
Solar panels
9V non rechargeable battery
12V electrically rechargeable battery
Installation in real time
Observations & Conclusions
Robust covering should be provided.
Graphical data transmission such as MMS is not possible
wit...
Limitations
Range of ultrasonic sensor is 3 m only.
Ultrasonic sensor can not be used, if it is to be
implemented in the s...
Future work
To install the device in the field, it is better to use solar
energy.
To reduce the power consumption,use logi...
RBC (Replogle, Bos, Clemmens) flumes
Water Level and discharge measuring
using ultrasonic sensor in RBC Flume
Ultrasonic sensor
Water Level and discharge measuring
using ultrasonic sensor in RBC Flume
Ultrasonic sensor
Water Level in Field water tube (Bowman)
using ultrasonic sensor
Water level measurement in
open canal using three
ultrasonic sensors
Glow Level – Color LEDs for
different water levels as
signals
Water
Glow Level – Color LEDs for
different water levels as
signals
Water
Glow Level for
Tube wells –
Colour LEDs for
different levels
of water in the
tube wells
Glow Level for
Tube wells –
Colour LEDs for
different levels
of water in the
tube wells
Glow Level systems applied in a field
Glow Level along the canals / streams / rivers
Soil Moisture
measurement in the
soil at various depths
using ER sensors and
Arduino
Field level monitoring
Smart phones and tablets
Aqua Profiler
14
1
River Surveyor
Portable sensors
River Surveyor
Smart phones and tablets
DATA VISUALISATION
15
0
Monitoring the water level & flows
Water management of tanks with
sensors – level and quantity
Water management: Sensors for
water flow and levels monitoring
Solar Power
Arduino, SIM 900, Battery,
Temp and Relative
Humidity sensor
Bowman Water Tube with
ultrasonic sensor
RBC Flum...
Developed sensors for measuring the
parameters - water level, soil moisture, relative
humidity, temperature
RBC (Replogle, Bos, Clemmens) flumes
AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATION
Drones Imaging and 3D
Meteorological predictions and information
Weather forecast
information to mobiles
Pest and disease
surveillance for major...
http://washtech.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/monitoring-water-for-people-launches-android-app/
Thank you
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY
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SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY

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SENSORS for AGRICULTURE and WATER USE EFFICIENCY

  1. 1. SENSORS FOR AGRICULTURE AND WATER Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy saibhaskarnakka@gmail.com Lecture at Engineering Staff College of India, Hyderabad on 24th May 2016
  2. 2. Water Use Efficiency CANAL MONITORING MANUAL - DATA COLLECTION AUTOMATION - SENSORS MANAGEMENT MANUAL - SCHEDULE AUTOMATION - CANAL AUTOMATION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS ON-FARM MONITORING MANUAL - DATA COLLECTION AUTOMATION - SENSORS MANAGEMENT MANUAL - SCHEDULE AUTOMATION - CANAL AUTOMATION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
  3. 3. Challenges in collecting data The first problem primarily has to do with entering data manually, while the second problem is caused by different colleagues in the field taking measurements in different ways People can cheat by sending information without being in the field based on their experience / guess.
  4. 4. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING Irrigation scheduling is the process used by irrigation system managers to determine the correct frequency and duration of watering. Effective irrigation is possible only with regular monitoring of soil water and crop development conditions in the field, and with the forecasting of future crop water needs.
  5. 5. An optimum irrigation schedule maximizes profit and optimizes water and energy use. Only 40%- 60% of the water is effectively used by the crop. With increasing scarcity and growing competition for water, judicious use of water in agricultural sector will be necessary.
  6. 6. There are two situations farmers are frequently faced 1. Under-irrigation (Where a limited quantity of water is available). 2. Over-irrigation( more than required water is available).
  7. 7. NEED FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING Proper timing of irrigation water applications is a crucial decision for a farm manager to: meet the water needs of the crop to prevent yield loss due to water stress; maximize the irrigation water use efficiency resulting in beneficial use; conservation of the local water resources; minimize the leaching potential of nitrates and certain pesticides that may impact the quality of the groundwater.
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES Maximum yield/biomass production. Maximum economic return. • Water conservation. • Reduced nutrient leaching. • Increase the water application efficiency.
  9. 9. CANAL PARTICULARS 1 2 3 4 Demolished water pipe line Sluice wall damage and soil being eroded Culvert damage Sluice walls damage,causing water leakage
  10. 10. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING PRACTICE  Water requirement of rice crop at different growth stages Stages of growth Avg. water requirement (mm) % of total water requirement (approx.) Nursery 50-60 5 Main field preparation 200-250 20 Planting to Panicle initiation (PI) 400-550 40 P.I to flowering 400-450 30 flowering to maturity 100-150 5 Total 1200-1460 100.0 • Moisture stress at active tillering phase - 30% yield reduction. • Moisture stress at reproductive phase - 50 - 60% yield reduction
  11. 11. Advantages Of Irrigation Scheduling  It enables the farmer to schedule water rotation among the various fields  It reduces the farmer's cost of water and labor through fewer irrigations, thereby making maximum use of soil moisture storage.  Lowers fertilizer costs  Increases net returns  Minimizes water-logging problems  Assists in controlling root zone salinity problems through controlled leaching.  It results in additional returns by using the "saved" water to irrigate non-cash Crops that otherwise would not be irrigated during water- short periods
  12. 12. Smart irrigation technologies
  13. 13. Existing Irrigation Technology Smart Irrigation Control Technology This system is based on fixed schedule and the controller executes the same schedule regardless of the season or weather conditions. water is wasted. Don’t consider the plant productivity which is not based on efficient irrigation. Existing technology these kinds of facilities are not easily available This system is based on everyday climate criterion and actual water need of plant. little chance of water wastage. Consider all the aspects of plants related to water irrigation. It is based on efficient irrigation. Can be controlled manually or automatically without physical presence at the system or field
  14. 14. In order to achieve the above objectives the following is the on of the basic recommendations  smart irrigation controllers smart irrigation controller is a device that gives your plants the right amount of water for the time of year, climate and weather. Smart irrigation controllers are again two types. 1. Sensor Based Controllers 2. Signal Based Controllers Sensor Based Controllers: uses real-time measurements of one or more locally measured factors to adjust irrigation timing. example: temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture.
  15. 15. RAIN SENSOR A rain sensor or rain switch is a switching device activated by rainfall. Rain sensors for irrigation systems are available in  Wire less  hard-wired versions,
  16. 16. INFORMATION VISUALISATION
  17. 17. HIERARCHY
  18. 18. Flow chart of digitalizing process
  19. 19. FARMER DATE:DD/MM/YYYY TIME: --:-- RAINFALL: Y/N TEMPERATURE: -- T T- Time of receiving water to his field, --:-- Since most of them are using basic cell phones, color depiction cannot be adopted. Also additional information may confuse them since they are unaware of the system
  20. 20. BASIC COLOR LAYOUT
  21. 21. MODULES for locating sensors
  22. 22. Displaying water level 0 50 100
  23. 23. Details of rainfall
  24. 24. -Details of temperature
  25. 25. What is water use efficiency (WUE)? The yield of marketable crop produced per unit of water used in evapotranspiration . WUE=Y/ET where WUE = water use efficiency (kg/ha mm of water) Y =The marketable yield (kg/ha) ET = Evapotranspiration (mm) Factors affecting WUE Nature of the plant Climatic conditions Soil moisture content Fertilizers and plant population
  26. 26. Virtual water Water embedded in commodities Commodity Virtual water in liters One cup of coffee 140 One liter of milk 800 One kg maize 900 One kg of wheat 1100 One kg of rice 3000 One kg of sugar 3200 One kg of chicken 6000 One kg of beef 16000 Virtual water of some important commodities
  27. 27. 27 27 Crop WUE (Kg/ha-mm) Rice 3.0 Jowar 9.0 Bajra 8.0 Maize 8.0 Finger millet 13.4 Groundnut 9.2 WUE in different crops Kg/ha-mm Yellamanda Reddy & Sankara Reddy (1995)
  28. 28. 28 Crop Water requirements (mm) Rice 900-2500 Wheat 450-650 Sorghum 450-650 Maize 500-800 Sugarcane 1500-2500 Sugarbeet 550-750 Groundnut 500-700 Cotton 700-1300 Soybean 450-700 Tobacco 400-600 Water requirement (mm) of different crops
  29. 29. Crop Water requirements (mm) Tomato 600-800 Potato 500-700 Pea 350-500 Onion 350-550 Bean 300-500 Cabbage 380-500 Banana 1200-220 Citrus 900-1200 Grape 500-1200 Pineapple 700-1000
  30. 30. Periods sensitive to water shortages Crop Sensitive period Alfalfa Just after cutting Alfalfa (for seed prod.) Flowering Banana Through out Bean Flowering and pod filling Cabbage Head enlargement and ripening Citrus Flowering and fruit setting more than fruit enlargement Cotton Flowering and boll formation Contd…
  31. 31. Crop Sensitive period Grape Vegetative period and flowering more than fruit filling Groundnut Flowering and pod setting Maize Flowering and grain filling Olive Just prior to flowering and yield formation Onion Bulb enlargement Onion ( for seed Prod.) Flowering Contd…
  32. 32. Contd… Crop Sensitive period Pea / fresh Flowering and yield formation Pea /dry Ripening Pepper Through out Pineapple Vegetative period Potato Stolonisation and tuber initiation Rice Head development and flowering Sorghum Flowering and yield formation Soybean Flowering and yield formation
  33. 33. Crop Sensitive period Sugar beet First month after emergence Sugarcane Vegetative period (tillering and stem elongation) Sunflower Flowering more than yield formation Tobacco Period of rapid growth Tomato Flowering more than yield formation Water melon Flowering and fruit filling Wheat Flowering more than yield formation
  34. 34. Sensitivity of various field crops to water shortages Sensitivity Low Low –medium Medium- High High Crops Cassava Alfalfa Beans Banana Cotton Citrus Cabbage Fresh green Millet Grape Maize Vegetables Pigeonpea Groundnuts Onion Paddy Sorghum Soybean Peas Potato Sugar beet Pepper Sugarcane Sunflower Tomato Wheat Water melon
  35. 35. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System Overview Canal Network Flow Monitoring System is a web based system that provides the requisite information of water flow in the canal network to the concerned officials for decision making. It forms basis for monitoring of release of water to canals against the water release schedule and for effective monitoring of Water regulation of Irrigation Systems.
  36. 36. • Monitoring • Control centre • Sensors and Instrumentation lab at WALAMTARI • Software development • Operation and maintenance - Sensors, instruments, transducers, communication systems, power, etc. • Decision support systems – Information visualization, Graphics, Artificial Intelligence, analysis, reports, etc. • Associated with CWPRS regarding capacity building on canal automation WATER MANAGEMENT CENTRE (CNFMS) WATER MANAGEMENT
  37. 37. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System Introduction: Canal Network Flow Monitoring System is one of the technique used to quantify water measurement at a required location in a canal by using advanced technology for effective irrigation. With Network Control solutions, the control of the entire network of channels is improved so that the flow calculations are optimised and the delivery of water to farmers can be managed effectively. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System is an Operations Management Solution to streamline internal processes and reduce costs by automating the collection and management of water delivery by using software tools to simplify the planning and execution of water delivery.
  38. 38. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System Overview CNFMS Around the world Smart Water Technology is revolutionising the operation and management of Open Canal Irrigation water distribution systems reducing the massive amounts of water lost from storage to farms. Using the limited water resources efficiently is becoming increasingly important as India is facing scarcity of water. Efficiency is a lot more than water usage; it’s about working smarter and providing with a better service, faster, quicker and cheaper. With around 70% of the worlds fresh water is being used for Irrigation, we should look forward for the ways to reduce water lost in inefficient irrigation infrastructure. Around the World Canal Automation is being implemented to reduce the water losses and secure more water for productive usage.
  39. 39. Technical architecture
  40. 40. Flow diagram
  41. 41. Canal Network Flow Monitoring System Modules Allotted: SMS Interface (Both UI and Service) This is one of the important module of CNFMS where in the concerned AEE/Section officer sends the gauge reading/discharge reading of his section to a particular mobile number defined. The concerned readings will be saved in the database and can be retrieved from the UI whenever required.
  42. 42. TYPES OF SENSORS42 SENSORS CONTACT PRESSURE TYPE CAPACITANCE TYPE SHAFT ENCODERS BUBBLER NON CONTACT ULTRASONIC RADAR MMC
  43. 43. Pressure Sensors > contact type  submerged at a fixed level under the water surface.  measures the equivalent hydrostatic pressure of the water above the sensor diaphragm.  It is like weighing the water. Staff Gages > contact type  The Staff Gage provides a quick and easy visual indicator of water level.  Made with a durable baked-on porcelain enamel finish on a metal plate. 43
  44. 44. 44 STAFF GUAGE PRESSURE SENSOR
  45. 45. Bubbler Systems > contact  are hydrostatic pressure sensors  are used to measure water level by detecting the pressure required to force air through a submerged tube.  the tube is mounted with the end of the tube below the water surface being measured, and the air emerges from the bottom of the tube as a stream of bubbles 45
  46. 46. Digital Pulsed Doppler >contact type  Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler systems use a transducer that alternates transmission and reception of ultrasound.  One main advantage of pulsed Doppler is its ability to provide Doppler shift data selectively from a small segment along the ultrasound beam, referred to as the “sample volume”.  The location of the sample volume is operator controlled. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Aqua Profiler > Contact type  The system is designed to measure both, the vector and the magnitude (using twin velocity beams) of individual velocity cells to account for velocity variations within the flow and obtain the flow profile.  A third vertical acoustic or hydrostatic sensor beam is used to measure water level. 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. Ultrasonic transmitters > Non contact  operate by sending a sound wave generated from a piezoelectric transducer to the surface of the process material being measured.  transmitter measures the length of time it takes for the reflected sound wave to return to the transducer.  successful measurement depends on the wave, reflected from the process material and moving in a straight line back to the transducer.  factors such as dust, heavy vapours, tank obstructions, surface turbulence, foam, and even surface angles can affect the returning signal when using an ultrasonic level sensor. 50
  51. 51. Radar > Non contact  Working principle is similar to ultrasonic sensors.  operation of all radar level detectors involves sending microwave beams emitted by a sensor to the surface of liquid.  electromagnetic waves after hitting the fluids surface returns back to the sensor which is mounted at the top.  The time taken by the signal to return back i.e. time of flight (TOF) is then determined to measure the level of fluid. 51
  52. 52. SENSOR INSTALLATION  Selection of right sensor 1. measuring range >based on max. and min. water level 2. measurement interference >natural or man made e.g.: presence of large rock in canal gives wrong reading 52
  53. 53. 3. installation >details of permanent structures should be collected.eg: bridge ,ridges etc. 4. environmental and seasonal conditions >wind , wave, salinity ,bank stability etc. should be determined 53
  54. 54.  Data acquisition >process of sampling signals such as voltage, current etc. > these signals are further processed  Telemetry >includes reporting information  Control >necessary steps followed after data analysis 54
  55. 55. DATA FLOW PATH 55
  56. 56. COMPONENTS OF RADAR SENSOR SYSTEM 56
  57. 57. Developed sensors for–the parameters water level, soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature ;etc.
  58. 58. Aqua Profiler 59
  59. 59. DATA VISUALISATION 60 Graphical representation
  60. 60. Tabular data representation 61
  61. 61. COMPARISON 62
  62. 62. SENSORS WATER LEVEL ACCURACY POWER INPUT COST/UNIT(Rs) SERVICE OF AGENCY 1) CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC 1 year warrenty >RADAR RANGING SENSOR 40275-72585 a)CS475-L 50mm-20m ± 5mm 9.6-16 Vdc b)CS476-L 50mm-30m ±3mm 9.6-16 Vdc c)CS477-L 400mm-70m ±15mm 9.6- 16 Vdc >SONIC RANGING SENSOR 2565-55285 SR50A-L 0.5-10m ±1cm 9-18 Vdc 2) VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS >DIGITAL WATER LEVEL RECORDER-RADAR TYPE 3025-60125 DWLR-R 15m-70m ±2mm 12 v 63
  63. 63. 3) HYDROVISION >ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR 2575-50254 SEP3702 25m ±2% 24 Vdc SHANGHAI CX-RLM RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSOR WITH ALARM 30 m <0.1% 4216-60230 1Year warranty 4) CHEMINS WATER LEVEL SENSOR LKZLD-A 30 m <0.1% 24 Vdc RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSPOR HD 30 m 6000-12000 64
  64. 64. 5) SHANGHAI CX-RLM-081 PULSE RADAR INFRARED WATER LEVEL SENSOR 20m <0.1% 7000-60230 RRF-15 70m ±5mm 60230-18690 VRPWRD51-56 20m ±10mm 48184-12460 VRPWRD35 20m ±3mm 24 Vdc 48184-12460 SHAANXI CHINA-RADAR WATER LEVEL SENSOR YK=RLT01 35m ±2mm 6023-72276 65
  65. 65. CANAL SENSOR TYPE LIMITATION MAINTANA NCE MARK MAJOR RADAR NON CONTACT COST LESS 9 MAJOR ULTRASONIC NON CONTACT TEMPERATURE VARIATION LESS 9 MAJOR DIGITAL DOPPLER CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 6 66
  66. 66. CANAL SENSORS TYPE LIMITATION MARK MINOR DIGITAL DOPPLER CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 9 MINOR PRESSURE SENSOR CONTACT PERIODIC REMOVAL 5 SUB CANALS STAFF GAUGES CONTACT HUMAN HELP 5 67
  67. 67.  Another consideration is that adjustment and operation of radar and ultrasonic instruments are easy than contact type.  In open channels, the flow measurement error of ultrasonic sensors, due to temperature error, can amount to more than 20%. Temperature sensitivity is around ± 15 -20 0 C  Previously, the price difference between radar and ultrasonic instrumentation was very high; today, the price of radar is comparable to that of ultrasonics. But while considering large scale installation a large amount variation will be there. 68
  68. 68. Canals Sensors Type Description Average cost for complete installation (Rs) Installation Major RADAR Non-contact Highly accurate but coastlier 30000- 60500 Stand alone poles or by providing extension hangings Major ULTRASONIC Non-contact Accurate but depends on temperature variation 15670- 35000 Stand alone poles or by providing extension hangings Major Digital doppler Contact Measures velocity also 10000 – 30000 Mounted to canal sides Minor Digital doppler Contact Measures velocity also 10000 – 30000 Mounted to canal sides Minor Pressure sensor Contact Based on weight of water 5000-25000 Submerged in canals Minor Staff guages Contact Human recording 1000 Mounted along canal sided 69
  69. 69. Permanent structures like bridges and drops are found to be the suitable place for sensor installation. Major field challenge include theft and unawareness about sensors. 70
  70. 70. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  Operating Temperature Range: –40° to +80°C  Storage Ranges >Temperature: –40° to +80°C >Relative Humidity: 20% to 80% RH  Vibration Resistance: Mechanical vibrations with 4 g and 5 to 100 Hz 71
  71. 71. MODELS AVAILABLE IN MARKET 72
  72. 72. CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC RADAR RANGING SENSORS 73 CS475-L
  73. 73. CS476-L 74
  74. 74. CS477-L 75
  75. 75. SONIC RANGING SENSOR 76 SR50A-L
  76. 76. VIRTUAL ELECTRONICS DIGITAL WATER LEVEL RECORDER-RADAR TYPE77 DWLR-R
  77. 77. HYDROVISION ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR78 SEP3702
  78. 78. What is a system? A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets. Each element in the system is called “component”.Every system is having following components 1) Input 2) Processor 3) Transmitter 4) Output
  79. 79. Block Diagram of System ProcessorInput Transmission Output
  80. 80. Inputs (Sensors) Contact sensors  Soil moisture sensor  Temperature and humidity sensor  Pressure sensor Non-Contact sensors  Ultrasonic sensor  Doppler sensor  Optical sensor
  81. 81. Processing  Arduino  Micro Controller
  82. 82. An open source platform, easy to use software and hardware 54 digital input and output pins 14 analog input pins 16 MHz crystal oscillator Serial communication is possible because of Tx , Rx pins Flash memory of 256 KB SRAM of 8 KB EEPROM of 4 KB Recommended voltage 7V-12V
  83. 83. Arduino over microcontrollers : Inexpensive Cross-platform Simple programming environment
  84. 84. Transfering Mechanisms  Wired  Cable  Wireless  Bluetooth  GSM/GPRS  Wifi
  85. 85. Output • SMS • Image • Video • Light • Sound • Display
  86. 86. Input Processor Transmission Output oContact • Pressure • Capacitance • Bubbler • Soil moisture sensor oNon contact • Ultrasonic • Doppler • Optical oMCU oArduino oWired • Cable oWireless • Bluetooth • GSM/GPRS • Wifi Overview •SMS •Sound •Light •Image •Display
  87. 87. Display Soil Moisture Measurement System (CLICK v1.0) Soil moisture sensor Arduino
  88. 88. Circuit and program
  89. 89. SMS Soil Moisture Measurement System (CLICK 2.0 ) Soil moisture sensor Arduino Mega GSM modem- SIM900
  90. 90. Circuit and Program
  91. 91. Sensors Ultrasonic sensor for water level Temperature and relative humidity sensor
  92. 92. Microcontroller and GSM Board Arduino Uno Microcontroller GSM BOARD FOR SENDING SMS
  93. 93. TWEET AND CLICK TWEET sensor for water level with GSM CLICK sensor for soil moisture with GSM
  94. 94. Soil Moisture Measurement System (CLICK v3.0) Soil moisture sensor Arduino LEDs
  95. 95. Circuit and program
  96. 96. Display Water Depth Measurement System (TWEET v1.0) Ultrasonic sensor HC- SR04 Arduino Mega
  97. 97. Circuit and program
  98. 98. SMS Water Depth Measurement (TWEET v2.0) Ultrasonic sensor HC- SR04 Arduino Mega GSM-SIM900
  99. 99. Circuit and program
  100. 100. Display Temperature and Humidity Measurement System DHT11 sensor Arduino
  101. 101. Circuit and program
  102. 102. SMS Temperature and Humidity Measurement System DHT11 sensor Arduino Mega GSM modem- SIM900
  103. 103. Circuit and program
  104. 104. Power Analysis 1) Non rechargeable batteries 2) Rechargeable batteries Electrically rechargeable Solar panels
  105. 105. 9V non rechargeable battery 12V electrically rechargeable battery
  106. 106. Installation in real time
  107. 107. Observations & Conclusions Robust covering should be provided. Graphical data transmission such as MMS is not possible with Arduino, Arduino compatible cameras are not adequately available in the market. Areas at which signal strength is less, power consumption by the system is more to send data as SMS. To overcome this problem one should go for the networks which are having high signal strength. Ultrasonic sensor should not be installed near the bank, as water near the bank may not be stable at all the times.
  108. 108. Limitations Range of ultrasonic sensor is 3 m only. Ultrasonic sensor can not be used, if it is to be implemented in the stilling well because of the reason that sentry angle is 15 degrees only. If flow is not smooth, measurement may not be accurate.
  109. 109. Future work To install the device in the field, it is better to use solar energy. To reduce the power consumption,use logical devices to activate the system only at required times and system should be idle for remaining. Automation of the gates if device installed at the reservoirs, automation of the motors if the device installed in the farming fields. Incorporate the exhaust fan in the device as heat sink, to protect the device from heat. To send images use Raspberry pi.
  110. 110. RBC (Replogle, Bos, Clemmens) flumes
  111. 111. Water Level and discharge measuring using ultrasonic sensor in RBC Flume Ultrasonic sensor
  112. 112. Water Level and discharge measuring using ultrasonic sensor in RBC Flume Ultrasonic sensor
  113. 113. Water Level in Field water tube (Bowman) using ultrasonic sensor
  114. 114. Water level measurement in open canal using three ultrasonic sensors
  115. 115. Glow Level – Color LEDs for different water levels as signals Water
  116. 116. Glow Level – Color LEDs for different water levels as signals Water
  117. 117. Glow Level for Tube wells – Colour LEDs for different levels of water in the tube wells
  118. 118. Glow Level for Tube wells – Colour LEDs for different levels of water in the tube wells
  119. 119. Glow Level systems applied in a field
  120. 120. Glow Level along the canals / streams / rivers
  121. 121. Soil Moisture measurement in the soil at various depths using ER sensors and Arduino
  122. 122. Field level monitoring
  123. 123. Smart phones and tablets
  124. 124. Aqua Profiler 14 1
  125. 125. River Surveyor
  126. 126. Portable sensors
  127. 127. River Surveyor
  128. 128. Smart phones and tablets
  129. 129. DATA VISUALISATION 15 0
  130. 130. Monitoring the water level & flows
  131. 131. Water management of tanks with sensors – level and quantity
  132. 132. Water management: Sensors for water flow and levels monitoring
  133. 133. Solar Power Arduino, SIM 900, Battery, Temp and Relative Humidity sensor Bowman Water Tube with ultrasonic sensor RBC Flume with ultrasonic sensor ClimaAdapt Project, Kondrapole, Miryalaguda, Nalgonda On farm water monitoring
  134. 134. Developed sensors for measuring the parameters - water level, soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature
  135. 135. RBC (Replogle, Bos, Clemmens) flumes
  136. 136. AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATION
  137. 137. Drones Imaging and 3D
  138. 138. Meteorological predictions and information Weather forecast information to mobiles Pest and disease surveillance for major crops Weather based crop insurance products Computer - models ObservationsWeather information VIPS
  139. 139. http://washtech.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/monitoring-water-for-people-launches-android-app/ Thank you

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