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Psycho social issues in disaster management 2

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  4. 4. Disaster-affected people experience various psychological reactions. These reactions immediately follow the event while socio-economic impacts like lack of employment; homelessness, environmental destruction and disorganisation emerge as a consequence, following the devastation caused by the disaster. The emotional reactions should be understood based on the manifestation of various stress reactions, level of effort put by the people for their own reconstruction, the pattern and amount of disability created due to these psychological stress etc.
  5. 5. The emotional reactions should be understood based on the manifestation of various stress reactions, level of effort put by the people for their own reconstruction, the pattern and amount of disability created due to these psychological stress etc. 5
  6. 6. PSYCHOLOGICALLY PREPARED? ARE WE PSYCHOLOGICALLY PREPARED? ARE WE For every physical injury, there may be 5-6 psychological injuries This may overwhelm and impede our emergency and/or medical response.
  7. 7. CRITICAL INCIDENT Exposure to a traumatic event in which both of the following were present: CRITICAL INCIDENT   The person experiences, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others.  The person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness or horror. (DSM-IV TR)
  8. 8. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT – CONSIDERATIONS PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT – CONSIDERATIONS  Prior experience with a similar event  Prior trauma  The intensity of the disruption in the survivors’ lives  The resilience of the individual
  9. 9. CONSIDERATIONS PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT – CONSIDERATIONS PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT –  The length of time that has elapsed between the event occurrence and the present •Children/families •Seniors  Pre-existing vulnerabilities •Disabled •Bereaved •Health impairments  Man-Caused vs. •Women Naturally Occurring Events
  10. 10. CONSEQUENCES OF CRITICAL INCIDENTS OFTEN CONSEQUENCES OF CRITICAL INCIDENTS OFTEN INCLUDE LOSS INCLUDE LOSS Loss of employment / income Loss of material goods Loss of loved ones  Tangible Loss Loss of home
  11. 11. THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE It’s important to be involved in all of these dimensions, not just response
  12. 12.  Intangible Loss INCLUDE LOSS CONSEQUENCES OF CRITICAL INCIDENTS OFTEN INCLUDE LOSS CONSEQUENCES OF CRITICAL INCIDENTS OFTEN Loss of safety / security (real or perceived) Loss of predictability Loss of social cohesion/connection/support Loss of dignity, trust and safety Loss of positive self-image/self-esteem Loss of trust in the future, identity, independence Loss of hope Loss of CONTROL
  13. 13. EMERGENCY POSSIBLE PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO A LARGE-SCALE EMERGENCY POSSIBLE PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO A LARGE-SCALE  Many people survive disasters without developing any significant psychological symptoms.  For other individuals, the reactions will disappear over time. “Just because you have experienced a disaster does not mean you will be damaged by it, but you will be changed by it.” (Weaver 1995)
  14. 14. GRIEF AND LOSS GRIEF AND LOSS  Not an even process  Takes time  Can become stuck in the process  May spawn other problems  Nothing like T & T (Time and Talking)
  16. 16.  Primarily directed toward “normal” people who are responding ROLE OF DISASTER MENTAL HEALTH? ROLE OF DISASTER MENTAL HEALTH? normally to an abnormal situation  Improve resistance, resilience and recovery.  Identifying those at risk for severe social or psychological impairment  Identify those in need of additional or special services.
  17. 17. ROLE OF DISASTER MENTAL HEALTH? ROLE OF DISASTER MENTAL HEALTH?  Mitigate post trauma sequelae  May prevent future problems  Helps people to handle problems in a way that does not create MORE problems  Convey sense of compassion and support for people.
  18. 18.  Experience has shown that: TRAUMA PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO No one who sees a disaster is untouched by it. Most people pull together & function during and after a disaster, but their effectiveness is diminished. Most people do not see themselves as needing mental health services following a disaster and will not seek such services.
  19. 19.  Experience has shown that: TRAUMA PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO Survivors respond to active, genuine interest & concern. Survivors may reject disaster assistance of all types. Disaster mental health assistance is often more practical than psychological in nature. Social support systems are crucial to recovery.
  20. 20. PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO TRAUMA  While there may be specific disaster-related stressors, underlying concerns and needs are consistent across a range of traumatic events. These include: A concern for basic survival Grief and loss over loved ones & loss of valued and meaningful possessions Fear & anxiety about personal safety & the physical safety of loved ones A need to talk about events & feelings associated with the disaster, often repeatedly A need to feel one is a part of the community & its recovery efforts
  21. 21. Phases of Disaster Honeymoon (community cohesion) llllllllllll Reconstruction Heroic f (a new beginning) r ie Pre-Disaster Disillusionment G gh ms) o u t er Threat T h r to g g in min Warning EVENT ork o W (c Inventory Trigger Events and Anniversary Reactions Time 1 to 3 days 1 to 3 years
  22. 22. (COMMUNITY COHESION) HONEYMOON HONEYMOON Survivors may be elated Happy just to be alive This phase will not last
  23. 23. DISILLUSIONMENT DISILLUSIONMENT Reality of disaster “hits home” Loss and Grief becomes prominent
  24. 24. WHAT DO YOU THINK? What main attributes and skills should a volunteer have when offering psychological support?
  25. 25. ESSENTIAL ATTRIBUTES AND SKILLS ESSENTIAL ATTRIBUTES AND SKILLS  Good Listening skills  Patient Empathetic  Caring attitude Non-judgmental Trustworthy   Approachable approach  Culturally aware Kind Committed Flexible Able to tolerate chaos
  26. 26. AID T FIRS CAL OGI HOL PSYC OF LS GOA  Psychological first aid (PFA) promotes and sustains an environment of: SAFETY CALM CONNECTEDNESS SELF-EFFICACY HOPE
  27. 27. THE ENERGY CURVE THE ENERGY CURVE Agitation Anxiety Tension Reduction Baseline
  28. 28. REACTIONS PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO TRAUMA SURVIVORS’ NEEDS AND REACTIONS  People often experience strong and unpleasant emotional and physical responses following exposure to traumatic events (e.g. disasters).  These may include a combination of: SURVIVORS’ NEEDS AND •Fear & anxiety •Sleep disturbances •Grief & loss •Physical pain •Shock •Confusion •Hopelessness •Shame •Loss of Confidence •Shaken faith •Mistrust •Aggressiveness
  30. 30. CATEGORIES OF REACTIONS AFTER THE INCIDENT CATEGORIES OF REACTIONS AFTER THE INCIDENT •Acute Stress Disorder / Post Trauma Stress Disorder •Grief •Depression •Avoidance (emotional) •Resilience •Substance abuse Mental Health •Risk taking and Illness •Over Dedication Human Distress Behavior in Responses High Stress Environments •Fear / worry •Sleep disturbance •Altered productivity
  31. 31. HOW DO NGOS HELP? How do we achieve “The right to life with dignity”? Prevent/mitigate impacts of disasters Provide food, water, health, shelter, sanitation, education, psychosocial support Provide protection – presence, advocacy, reporting Help rebuild lives and livelihoods Advocate for affected people + promote changes to ineffective or unjust systems Mobilize governments, general public to help
  32. 32. Integrated NGOs (Relief and Development) S O G N L A N O TI A N R E T N I EFICOR CARE Oxfam World Vision Save the Children (US, UK, etc.) Caritas/Catholic Relief Services/Development & Peace PLAN ADRA Specialized in Relief or Specific Sectors MSF/Doctors Without Borders (France, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada) Global Medic Action Contre le Faim – health nutrition and water Canadian Food Grains Bank
  33. 33. NATIONAL NGOS AND COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOS) Characteristics Often focused on specific sectors (eg. Health) Sometimes faith-based or ethnically based Some related to larger international movements Some are quasi-governmental Capacity often weak, but commitment often high. Membership sometimes changing due to conflict Issues Are they representative of the community? Appropriate capacity building measures? Sustainability? Accountability? Impartiality/Neutrality
  34. 34. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Confederations Multiple branches in same country Coordination of planning and structures among members Leadership and response staffing positioned globally Federations One office in each country Tighter coordination of planning, structures Leadership and response staff usually positioned globally One-office NGOs Leadership and response staff usually in head offices Smaller; focused on a few countries
  35. 35. General Public RESOURCE STREAMS Mass appeals Large donors, foundations Fundraising from the public and corporations equaled approximately 24% of humanitarian assistance from govt sources Government Grants UN Contract Resources in Kind – good and services International NGOs (excluding Red Cross) manage approximately 40-60% of all humanitarian assistance funding 6 or 7 large INGO “families” manage most of these resources
  36. 36. 10 PRINCIPLES OF THE CONDUCT OF CONDUCT 1. The humanitarian imperative comes first 2. Aid is given regardless of the race, creed or nationality of the recipients and without adverse distinction of any kind. Aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone 3. Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint 4. We shall endeavor not to act as instruments of government policy 5. We shall respect culture and custom 6. We shall attempt to build disaster response on local capacities 7. We shall be found to involve program beneficiaries in the management of relief aid 8. Relief aid must strive to reduce future vulnerabilities to disaster as well as meeting basic needs 9. We hold ourselves accountable to both those we seek to assist and those from whom we accept resources 10. In our information, publicity and advertising activities, we shall recognize disaster victims as dignified humans, not hopeless objects
  37. 37. THE HUMANITARIAN CHARTER Standard Common to All Sectors Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Food Security, Nutrition and Food Aid Shelter, Settlement and Non-Food Items Health Services
  38. 38. RESPONSE PREPAREDNESS Early Warning Systems Relief Operations Manuals Emergency/Contingency Plans Identifies most likely disaster scenarios. Outlines roles and responsibilities Rapid Response Teams Assessment and Implementation Teams Teams need proper equipment Prepositioning supplies or arranging for quick delivery Emergency Response Fund - funds available immediately for emergencies
  39. 39. The Web of Relationships in Emergencies Peacekeepers Rebels Search & Rescue & National Militias Government Bilateral Donors UN System/ P R Multilateral L I Disaster O V Agencies C A Affected A T People L E G S O E V C Vulnerable T T North NGOs/ South NGOs/ O Communities R Red Cross Local partners CBOs General Pubic/ Corporations Newsmedia
  40. 40. Case 11: Disaster workers energy levels, Relief worker’s Self-Care IMPACTS OF DISASTERS ON THE HEALTH SECTOR Topic: Workers tire after 1-2 weeks in disaster (health work activity in the disaster situation) “I think the fatigue of staffs would peak about one week after the earthquake. I thought we should not have felt “I have to be here” and took rest.” “We felt that we had to be a leader and act because I am the health worker in the area. We were totally tired just after two weeks. We held conference with assistant health workers from outside areas. I said that we had no energy to continue. Replies from assistants were warm. They said “How can we assist you to continue your work?” Lessons •Emergency workers work until they are very tired – they are also stressed •Outside mental health staff needed to help identify and solve worker fatigue issues •Perceived failure in saving lives can cause stress among disaster workers 40
  41. 41. Psychosocial programming Case 25: Counseling for disaster survivors, Sri Lanka Topic: NGO provision of trauma counseling and psychosocial programming Indian Ocean Tsunami devastated three quarters of the coastline of Sri Lanka. At its worst, in the early stages, there were nearly a million displaced persons. MERCY Malaysia began response with their Psychosocial Support programs, which covered trauma counseling as well as psychosocial activities. MERCY Malaysia made efforts to deploy Tamil speaking mental health support volunteers in order that the help would fully benefit the beneficiaries. Five hundred out of the 2,000 survivors who were counseled by their volunteers were children. With the children, MERCY Malaysia volunteers provided counseling through art and play therapy. MERCY Malaysia’s volunteers visited the communities living in IDP camps. Psychosocial intervention was given on an individual basis, in family groups as well as in the form of community counseling sessions. Their volunteers also developed artwork and informative posters illustrating facts on tsunamis. MERCY Malaysia conducted a Mental Health Support Training Programme to better equip mental health workers as well as family support workers to assist those affected. Lessons •Deploy psychosocial volunteers who speak the local language •Art and play therapy used with children •Psychosocial intervention took place on individual, family and community levels •Knowledge of the risk and lessons on preparedness help individuals and communities to deal with their experiences in a disaster 41
  42. 42. Psychosocial programming Case 26: Measures for Psychosocial Support and Coping with Trauma, Tsunami, Thailand 2004 Topic: Actions of the Department of Mental Health The tragedy of tsunami that struck Thailand on 26 December 2004 took a psychological toll on both adults and children. The Department of Mental Health launched a sustained effort to support those who were affected in dealing with the trauma and stress of having lived though the disaster. It mobilized staff response teams with psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses and pharmacists covering each affected district. These teams provided individual and group counseling as well as medication for those in need. Home visits are currently conducted on a weekly basis, and the programme is scheduled to continue with monthly visits for two years. DOMH also arranged outreach to schools to expand psychological education to assist in coping with trauma. Counseling, drugs and treatment have been provided to victims. Lessons •Team approach includes psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses and pharmacists •Interventions include home visits, and individual and group counseling •Opening a mental health center expanded the reach of the psychosocial interventions 42
  43. 43. Psychosocial programming Case 35: Youth helping families to recover, IFRC Youth Award - Together for humanity: Reducing the impact from disasters - Return of Happiness - Costa Rica Red Cross Topic: Programming involving youngHonduran adult population Hurricane Mitch on mental health of the people “Return of Happiness”, the programme presented by the youth of the Costa Rica Red Cross was winner of the Youth Award 2007. In the response to a disaster, youth volunteers are mobilized to ensure psycho-social support to the vulnerable groups, especially children, with at particular focus on child protection. The special attention given to the training of youth volunteers, close cooperation with UNICEF as well as with the Psychosocial Support Unit of the National Society, and the prompt mobilization of the youth volunteers in the local communities together resulted in increased motivation of the youth volunteers. This makes the programme highly sustainable and contributes to rebuilding the material and social aspects of the local communities. Lessons •Youth volunteers can be mobilized to help provide psychosocial support to vulnerable groups especially children •Youth volunteers must be trained •Support from UNICEF motivated youth volunteers and helped the community recover 43
  44. 44. •” Activities Suggested With Children PSYCHOSOCIAL PROGRAMMING 44
  45. 45. Sub Issue 5: Elderly Sub Issue 2: Families PSYCHOSOCIAL PROGRAMMING “When helping the old-age population……. Ensure medical aid and physical well-being. Guard against extreme feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Encourage healthy grief reactions, such as crying, talking about losses. Allow elders to talk about their fears, anxieties and guilt. Encourage group meetings with elderly survivors. Encourage participation in community decision making.” 45
  46. 46. •” Activities Suggestions With Adults PSYCHOSOCIAL PROGRAMMING 46
  47. 47. Case 62: Mourning the dead, The disaster of Armero (Colombia), 1985 Hurricane Mitch on mental health of the Honduran adult population Topic: Recovering dead bodies KEY PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES IN RECOVERY The town of Armero, in the Colombian Andes, was destroyed on 13 November 1985 by a volcanic eruption that caused an avalanche of ash, boiling mud, rocks, and trees. The landslide was almost 2 km wide and reached speeds of 90 km/h. It killed 80 percent of the 30,000 inhabitants of Armero, and left almost 100,000 inhabitants homeless in the surrounding region. It was impossible to recover the corpses since the vast majority were dragged a great distance and buried under tons of sand and rubble. This situation prevented traditional ceremonies from being carried out, and many months after the disaster, family members were excited by rumors that the dead had been seen nearby or in far-off places, or wandering like a lost madman. Each of these false reports revised new hopes that were always followed by new disappointments. In the places where the houses stood, and which could more easily be identified later than in the immediate months after the disaster, headstones were placed with the names of the dead, and relatives now place flowers and say prayers there. They have become symbolic graves where families can conduct memorial activities, albeit belatedly. Lessons •Corpses are often lost in a disaster before relatives can claim them and bury them as their culture dictates •Symbolic sites are identified where relatives can place headstones and to pay their respects to their dead relatives 47
  48. 48. A weather system consisting of an area of low CYCLONE pressure, in which winds circulate at speeds exceeding 61 km/hr, also known as ‘Cyclone’ or Tropical Storm.
  49. 49. CYCLONES FROM 1891– 2002
  50. 50. E CYCLON SUPER The super cyclone of October 1999 generated a wind speed of 252 km/h with an ensuing surge of 7–9m close to Paradip in Orissa which caused unprecedented inland inundation up to 35 km from the coast. It is worth noting that, at times, persistent standing water was identified in the satellite imageries even 11 days after the cyclone landfall, as it happened in the Krishna delta in May 1990 and in several other instances. The Andhra Pradesh cyclone in 1977 which hit Divi Seema also generated winds exceeding 250 km per hour.
  51. 51. 2005 THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT, lays down institutional and coordination mechanism for effective Disaster Management (DM) at the national, state, district and local levels. As mandated by this Act, the Government of India (GoI) created a multi- tiered institutional system consisting of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) headed by the Prime Minister, the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) by the respective Chief Ministers and the District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) by the District Collectors and co-chaired by Chairpersons of the local bodies. These bodies have been set up to facilitate a paradigm shift from the hitherto reliefcentric approach to a more proactive, holistic and integrated approach of strengthening disaster preparedness, mitigation and emergency response.
  52. 52. AUTHORITY NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), as the apex body in the GoI, has the responsibility of laying down policies, plans and guidelines for DM and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters
  53. 53. In essence, NDMA will concentrate on prevention, preparedness, mitigation, rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery and also formulate appropriate policies and guidelines for effective and synergised national disaster response and relief. It will also coordinate the enforcement and implementation of policies and plans.
  54. 54. NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE The DM Act 2005 has mandated the constitution of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of specialised response to a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction and control of the force is vested in, and exercised by, NDMA and the command and supervision of this force is vested in the Director General of NDRF. Presently, NDRF comprises eight battalions with further expansion to be considered in due course.
  55. 55. The National Institute of Disaster Management MANAGEMENT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER (NIDM) has institutional capacity development as one of its major responsibilities along with training, documentation of research, networking and development of a national level information base. NIDM will function closely within the broad policies and guidelines laid down by NDMA and assist in developing training modules, impart training to trainers and DM officials and strengthening of Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) in the state. It will also be responsible for synthesising research activities. NIDM will be geared towards emerging as a ‘Centre of Excellence’ at the national and international levels.
  56. 56. AUTHORITY STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT At the state level, the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) headed by the Chief Minister, will lay down policies and plans for DM in the state. It will, inter alia, approve the state plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by NDMA,
  57. 57. AUTHORITY DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT At the cutting edge level, the District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) headed by the District Magistrate, with the elected representative of the local authority as the co-chairperson,will act as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in the district in accordance with the guidelines laid down by NDMA and SDMA.
  58. 58. LOCAL AUTHORITIES This includes Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), district and Cantonment Boards and Town Planning Authorities for control and management of civic services. These bodies will ensure capacity building of their officers and employees in DM, carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected areas and will prepare DM plans in consonance with guidelines of NDMA, SDMAs and DDMAs
  59. 59. CIVIL DEFENCE In any disaster, it is the community that is always the first responder. Outside help comes in only later. Training the community and making such response organised is therefore of utmost importance.
  60. 60. WMO EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS IMD Hydrological Oceanographic Meteorological satellite data from ships, observations from ocean data buoys, coastal radars (conventional and Doppler) and national and international satellites (geo-stationary and polar orbiting) Automatic weather stations Rain gauges Wind profilers
  61. 61. EFICOR formed the Disaster Management Committee (DMC) in COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS each target habitation. The DMC has taken-up the ownership of community assets (raised borewells pump sets, etc.). The Village level DMC's were attached to a single management structure, called Disaster Management Society. Core members of the Federation were provided necessary training and exposure for managing the future disasters. This federation is also tapping government resources and managing their own programmes. Each DMC in consultation with DMS is mobilizing the available resources from the Govt. and other sources during the time of disaster occurrence. In each DMC at least 2 to 3 women members were nominated. DMC also ensures the consistency of Task force s, periodic mock drill exercises that are to be performed in the habitations in every quarter. DMC also makes sure that there is a review and updation of Task Force and DMC in every 3 years, for active participation from all levels in the habitations.
  64. 64. PRE FLOOD ACTIVITIES Conducting meeting in the village regarding the possible extent of flood and actions to be taken. Checking of all rescue material. i.e.- bottles, coconut, ropes, thermocoal boats, etc Early warning group preparation Identification of old people, pregnant ladies, kids Identification of high raised place Rice collected from all households First aid material made ready Kept ear on Radio news by warning groups
  65. 65. DURING FLOOD ACTIVITIES Announcement in the village Evacuation to safer place to old age people, ladies, kids, sick people & live stock Moved people to safer place (i.e. aged people, pregnant women, children, sick people etc…) Arrangement for temporary shelter Approached Govt. for emergency relief Availed rice and dal from Government for camp. Used EFICOR high raised bore well for drinking water Monitored the Water levels and receding status.
  66. 66. POST FLOOD ACTIVITIES Flood Area survey House damage survey Water logging sites survey Call to govt. medical team for medication Cleaning of Debris and cleaning whole Village. Bleaching powder spreading in water and logging areas House damage assessment Crop damage assessment (both the reports were given to the govt officials, they were so amazed to see that how accurately it has been done. Further the compensation and new houses were sectioned according to this assessment. Relief from Govt. & EFICOR distributed through DMC & Task force Govt. Relief distributed equally in the village Sick people were taken to hospital
  67. 67. CYCLONE? HOW DO WE MITIGATE THE HAZARD FROM A Monitoring early warning systems Infrastructure cyclone walls communal shelters Education and planning
  68. 68. The frequency of heavy precipitation events has increased over most land areas - Rainfall in Mumbai (India), 2005: 1 million people lost their homes
  69. 69. RY OVE REC IN RNT LEA NS SO LES E FIV 1. It is possible to reduce loss of life and property through preparedness 2. Preparedness is necessary at every level – national, provincial, local and community 3. Preparedness is necessary in every sector 4. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning to ensure better coordination among various sectors in different levels 5. Such planning needs to be formalized in the shape of manuals and Standard Operating Procedures so that there is no confusion during and after disasters
  70. 70. O C RE F O ES PL CI IN PR VE FI 1. Holistic - cover housing, infrastructure, education, livelihood, health, psycho-social care etc. 2. Long term - provide livelihood support including development of skill, provisioning of credit and marketing support etc 3. ‘Build back better’ - ensure that the houses and infrastructure constructed after disasters withstand the hazards and risks of nature and the hazards do not become disasters again 4. Sustainable - integrate environmental issues, such regeneration of mangroves, conservation of water, 5. Inclusive - care for poor and vulnerable - women, children, aged, physically and mentally challenged people
  71. 71. O W E M A FR RY VE O C RE Recovery Pre- Disaster Recovery Planning Sort Term Intermediate Long Term (0 -30 days) (1 to 6 months) (6 m to 3 years) • Search and rescue • Permanent housing • Intermediate shelter • Emergency health • Livelihood support • Health Care • Temporary shelter • Restoration of physical • Continuation of support • Food, clothes Infrastructure for food, clothes etc • Damage assessment • Restoration of • Psycho-social care • Restoration of critical social infrastructure • School and day care infrastructure (power, • Psycho-social recovery • Preparation of telephone, drinking • Documentation long term recovery plan water etc) • Memorials • Arranging resources
  72. 72. N E G A D E SH NI FI N U India has developed a legal and institutional system of disaster management India has also taken important steps for better response and preparedness Lots to be done for preparedness to match acceptable risks Prevention and mitigation continues to remain weak Early warning of flood and extreme weather events needs lots of improvements Hazard resistant building bye laws notified, but standard of implementation is poor Strengthening of lifeline structures still unattended task Many metropolitan cities have accumulated risks and vulnerabilities that trigger mega disasters in future Country is yet to develop a risk transfer and risk insurance system
  73. 73. References 1. In Times of Crisis: Supporting Others, Supporting Ourselves, John Gaspari, LCSW, Executive Director, USC Center for Work and Family Life, PPT 2. PSYCHOSOCIAL, I n t e r n a t I o n a l R e c o v e r y P l a t f o r m 3. NGOs and Disaster Management, Presented on behalf of the PAGER NGOS by: Mike Weickert, World Vision Canada, PPT 78

Editor's Notes

  • Disasters are numerous and are by their very nature a serious threat to the health and well-being of the people involved. They have social and psychological consequences that can interfere with a person's ability to carry on with his or her life.
  • Disasters are numerous and are by their very nature a serious threat to the health and well-being of the people involved. They have social and psychological consequences that can interfere with a person's ability to carry on with his or her life.
  • When people experience an escalation of emotion, they also experience a rise in their energy level. As people become anxious, their energy level begins rising. By the time they are agitated their energy level may be very high. De-escalation can help bring someone’s energy level down, or reduce their level of tension to the point that they are able to regain control. When a person is calm again, they may feel like their energy level is lower than normal. Eventually, their emotion and energy will level off. This information is true for everyone, not just people affected by disasters.
  • The Standards in the five chapters: Water and Sanitation, Nutrition, Food Aid, Shelter and Site Planning, and Health are universal, and applicable in all contexts.          They are also open to interpretation, and in many cases are subjective.          The standards use words like "adequate", "sufficient", and "acceptable".          These standards are an attempt to illustrate some of the components of "a life with dignity".          Those who adopt these standards, while recognizing that many factors are beyond their control, will strive to meet them as minimums, and wish to be held accountable in this endeavor
  • How to do mitigate the risk from a cyclone? Early warning systems are needed to give people time to make their home safe (e.g. board up windows and doors), or to evacuate to a designated shelter. This may come in the forms of alarms or sirens sounded throughout a town, or notification by radio, television and local enforcement services (police, fire brigade etc.). Meteorological stations around the globe can trace the track of a cyclone and predict when and where the storm will make landfall. So in may cases warnings can be made in advance of the disaster. In cyclone-prone regions infrastructure can be emplaced to decrease the damage caused by the cyclone For example, “cyclone walls” (top photograph) have been built along coastal areas to stop or lessen the impact of a storm surge. These can also be used as roads along which residents can evacuate. In low lying coastal regions communal storm shelters can be built. These act as an evacuation point for people living in the surrounding areas. For all of these measures to work the population need to be educated about the threat of the storms and what to do in case of an emergency.
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