Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO http://e-geo.orgCenter for Climate Change and Environment Advisory CCCEA) Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP 21ST June 2012
In the life of a farmer climate Variability andExtreme events are moreimportant thanclimate change
Climate Change / Variability inSemi-arid regions Precipitation is less than potential evapotranspiration. Low annual rainfall of 25 to 60 centimeters and having scrubby vegetation with short, coarse grasses; not completely arid.
Climate Change / Variability in Semi-arid regionsClimate Variability and extremes are anexpected characteristic of semi-arid lands.The people vulnerable to droughts, which triggerfrequent subsistence crisesIncreasing crop failures, dislocation, famine,poverty, increases stratification and the socialinequities.
Major challenges of Agriculture Climate change - Soil fertility Water variability - management extremes Impact of Burning of crop Alkalinity of soils hazardous residue pesticides and nitrogen
NREGA The primary objective of the act is poverty alleviation, a further objective is stated “...as creation of durable assets and strengthening the livelihoods base of the rural poor...” NREGA links two of the most critical problems of our times: namely, extreme poverty and climate change. The linkage is forged through environmental services which are provided by rural households when they engage in works under NREGA.
The livelihoods of the rural poor are directly dependent on environmental resources — land, water, forests — and are vulnerable to weather and climate variability — as water stress increases, groundwater levels recede, soil fertility declines and forest habitats disappear.
NREGA ObjectivesPrimary Supplementing employment opportunities(Additional not substituted)Auxiliary Eco-restoration & regeneration of natural resource base for sustainable rural livelihood Process Outcomes Strengthening grass root processes of democracy Infusing transparency & accountability in rural governance
Vulnerability of poor in rural areasLivelihoods of rural poor based on natural resources - Land, Water, Biodiversity, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Forest ProduceTwo-thirds of households derive income directly from natural sourcesNatural resources are threatened by stresses Biotic & AbioticClimate Change -- an additional stressPoor are most vulnerable to Climate ChangePoor are first and worst affected – least contributed to itAgriculture & natural resource based livelihoods at immediate riskRural poor do not have resources to cope
Nature of WorksWater based Land based• » Water conservation• » Water harvesting • » Land development• » Micro and minor irrigation works Forest/ Agro--Forestry• » Provision of irrigation • » Afforestation facilities • » Horticulture• » Desilting of tanks• » Renovation of traditional Infrastructure water bodies• » Flood control and protection • » Rural roads works
Of the 2.7 million works being undertaken in over 600 districts, nearly 80 per cent are water, land and forestry- related. These not only provide local environmental services, they have the potential to yield co-benefits of adaptation and mitigation to global climate change; the former through rejuvenation of the livelihood base and thereby strengthening resilience of rural communities, the latter through enhanced carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, pasturelands and woody
NREGA Types of Works Andhra PradeshNature of works taken up 70 % water conservation 10 % Irrigation related 5% Plantations 2 % road connectivity 13 % others
WaterConservation Rural Afforestation Connectivity- 51% of the worksundertaken - 17% of total works - 14% of the works undertaken- Water Conservation undertakenand Water - UP, MP and BiharHarvesting - AP and MP leading leading in the in the forefront in number of works- Renovation of these activities undertakenTraditional WaterBodies- Micro IrrigationalWorks- Drought Proofing
SL framework: Determinants of adaptive capacityLivelihood ExamplesresourcesHuman Knowledge of climate risks, conservation agriculture skillsSocial Women’s savings and loans groups, farmer-based organizationsPhysical Irrigation infrastructure, seed and grain storage facilitiesNatural Reliable water source, productive landFinancial Micro-insurance, diversified income sources Policies, institutions and power structures
Defined and prioritised under the act, works can significantly change the environment through rejuvenation of the natural resource base. Water conservation, land development and afforestation through NREGA can provide local services such as ground-water recharge, enhanced soil fertility and increased biomass. These, in turn, can generate global benefits such as adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and biodiversity conservation.
NREGA works with programmes of agriculture and allied sectors are leading to enhanced yields. With the scope of works under NREGA expanded to include lands of small and marginal farmers, it is possible to significantly enhance the irrigation potential in rainfed areas and drought-proof small-holder agriculture, leading to sustainable, higher yields.
Conservation technologies — stress-tolerant, climate-resilient varieties of seeds, drip irrigation, zero-tillage, raised-bed planting, laser-levelling, Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI), can build adaptive capacities to cope with increasing water stress, providing “more crop per
Similarly, strengthening land development practices such as land levelling, conservation bench terracing, contour and graded bunding, and pasture development prevent soil erosion and loss of organic matter. Reclamation of wastelands and degraded lands together with afforestation, horticulture plantation and agro- forestry have the potential to sequester carbon both above and below ground, thereby contributing to carbon mitigation.
Category of worksPriority wise Water conservation & Water harvesting Drought Proofing including Afforestation Irrigation Canals including Micro/Minor Irrigation Works Provision of irrigation facilities to SC/ST Renovation of traditional Water bodies Land development Flood control & Protection Works Rural connectivity Any other works approved by GOI
Ref: http://...Mainly presentations of Dr. Rita Sharma