Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems) account for 39% of the energy used in commercial buildings in the United States.
Green building design for sustainable urban habitats
Green Building Design forSustainable Urban Habitats 28 June ‘12 Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy Sustainable Habitat Management for 20-11-2012 Chief Executive Officer [CEO], Clean DevelopmentGEOECOLOGY ENERGY ORGANISATION [GEO] 20 – 22 Nov 2012 CCCEA, Dr. MCR Human Resource Development http://e-geo.org Institute of AP, Hyderabad
Since the Industrial • incalculable technological achievements Revolution the • population growth world has • corresponding increases in resource use witnessed global Resource ozonepollution landfills toxic waste deforestation warming depletion depletion All these efforts are straining the limits of the Earth’s “carrying capacity”— its ability to provide the resources required to sustain life while retaining the capacity to regenerate and remain viable.
Sustainability SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (The Brundtland Commission,1987)
Materialization Dematerialization Pollution, rapidly increasing GHG Environmental awareness, politicalEnvironmental degradation (burden) emissions, health problems, widespread action, policy formulation and habitat destruction, permanent damage implementation, national and global to natural capital sustainable development commitments. Economic growth The Kuznets Curve (adopted, notably by the World Bank)
Global Climate Change and Urbanization Part I 1900 15% urban 2000 ~50% urban
Approaches to energy efficient housing• Vernacular approach to design (passive architecture, local materials, use of local labor): Low income/low cost housing and mass housing programmes of the government; certain pockets in India (Kerala and Auroville)• Adoption of Energy conservation building code in envelope design, labelled appliances for households; particularly applicable to middle and high income group housing• Green rated housing : Energy and resource efficiency looked at holistically in addition to indoor environmental quality and societal issues
Use of low embodied energy technologies for housing
Works of Charles Correa : Architectural expressions with dominance of natural climate control measuresOrientation and shading as persolar geometry Excellent ventilationCourtyard design and use ofmature tree for shading Design for daytime and nighttime use
Sustainability and the Construction IndustrySustainability is becoming a central concern for us all out of wider recognition that rising populations and economic development are threatening the degradation of the earths resources.The construction, maintenance and use of buildings impacts substantially on our environment and is currently contributing significantly to irreversible changes in the worlds climate, atmosphere and ecosystem.Buildings are by far the greatest producers of harmful gases such as CO2 and this eco-footprint can only increase with the large population growth predicted to occur by 2050 and the industrialization of the developing world.
How the Construction Industry can move towards Sustainable Development– Energy: reducing energy consumption, being more energy efficient and using renewable energy and alternative technology.– Materials: Choosing, using, re-using and recycling materials during design, manufacture, construction and maintenance to reduce resource requirements.– Waste: Producing less waste and recycling more.– Pollution: Producing less toxicity, water, noise and spatial pollution.
Aspects of building material adoptioNaturalSocialEconomicalPoliticalCulturalHistoricalEnvironmental
Building Industry- Facts Population Vegetation Climate Air Quality Construction Watersheds Transportation 1/6 of the world’s 1/4 of world’s 2/5 of world’sfreshwater withdrawals wood harvest material & energy flows
Environmental and Economic Impacts of Buildings Fresh Water Withdrawals 16 Timber Harvest 25 Raw Materials Consumption 30 Global CO2 Emissions 35 Global Energy Use 40Municipal Solid Waste to Landfills 40 50 Ozone depleting CFCs in Use 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentage Compiled from:Worldwatch Paper #124
Application of SustainabilityPre-Design On-Site Design Construction O&MMaterial Selection EnvironmentallyBuilding Program Site Analysis Maintenance Plans & Assessment ConsciousProject Budget Indoor Quality Site Development ConstructionTeam Selection Energy Efficiency & Layout Preservation ofPartnering Passive Solar Resource Efficienc Watershed Features &Project Schedule Design Renovation Management & VegetationLaws, Codes Materials & Housekeeping & Conservation Waste Mgmt& Standards Specification Custodial Practices Site Material IAQ IssuesResearch Indoor Air & Equipment Source ControlSite Selection Quality Practices
How does the Construction Industry consume Energy?• Consider the embodied energy in every brick in everystructure. Every brick has used energy at every stage in itsproduction and use.• Energy is consumed when:– Extracting raw materials.– Producing materials (Manufacturing process).– Transporting materials.– Transporting workforce.– Building structures.– Using and powering structures.– Maintaining structures and demolishing structures.
Materials• Around 50% of all global resources go into the constructionindustry, with a specific example being that 70% of all timberis used for building.• It is therefore very important that a sustainable approach tochoosing and using materials is adopted.• The environmental and economic benefits of sustainability areinherently linked when considering building materials, due tothe long-term financial advantages of recycling, using recycledproducts and sourcing heavy materials locally.• Life-Cycle Assessment, Eco-Labelling and Embodied EnergyAudits all of which can help choosing materials and assess thebalance between short-term costs and long-termenvironmental, social and financial benefits.
How to Choose and Use Materials in a more Sustainable way• Considerations to take into account when re-evaluating the way in which materialsare used in construction:– What reserves are left of our materials, and how can their completesuccessive depletion be prevented?– What are the pollution impacts of the manufacturing process involved withcreating new materials?– How can existing materials be recycled (roof tiles, bricks, timber, etc.) and canthey be designed and used in a way more conducive to re-use?– How much energy is consumed in the transport of materials? (try sourcingheavy, bulky materials locally and lightweight materials globally).– Can more prefabricated components be used? (reduces waste and dust onsite).– How can more low maintenance materials be used in order to reduce furtherenergy and resource use in the future of the building?
Indian vernacular architectureIs the informal, functional architecture of structures, often inrural areas, of India, built of local materials and designed tomeet the needs of the local people. The builders of thesestructures are unschooled in formal architectural design andtheir work reflects the rich diversity of Indias climate, locallyavailable building materials, and the intricate variations in localsocial customs and craftsmanship. It has been estimated thatworldwide close to 90% of all building is vernacular, meaningthat it is for daily use for ordinary, local people and built by localcraftsmen.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_vernacular_architecture
Building indoor environment covers the environmental aspects in the design, analysis, and operation of energy- efficient, healthy, and comfortable buildings. Fields of specialization include thermal indoor airarchitecture, HVAC design, comfort, quality (IAQ), control lighting, acoustics, systems Indoor environment
Environmental Condition(s) Symptoms• Ergonomic Conditions • Headache• Noise and Vibration • Fatigue • Poor Concentration • Dizziness • Tiredness • Headache with nausea • Ringing in ears • Pounding heart• Relative Humidity • Dry throat • Shortness of breath or bronchial asthma • Irritation and infection of respiratory tract• Relative Humidity • Nasal problems (stuffiness, irritation)• High Temperatures• Warm Air • Skin problems (dryness, irritation, rashes)• Low Relative Humidity• Excessive Air Movement• Artificial Light • Eye problems (burning, dry gritty eye)
Most people spend at least half of their lives indoors.Poor indoor air Indoor air can INDOORquality can be be more harmful AIR more harmful than outdoor CONCERNS for children . air. Poor indoor air quality can cause respiratory problems.
Based on Specific Building Combustion Furniture Chemical activity Building Food Water materials Smoking Outdoor air activity pollution Sources of Indoor Pollutants
Contamination Contamination Inadequate from inside from outside ventilation 52% building 16% building 10% Contamination Microbial Unknown sources from buildingcontamination 5% 13% fabric 4% Cause of SBS
Personal factors(health, psychology, sociology Air temperature Mean radiant temperature & situational factors)Air movement / velocity (see Relative humidity (see also Insulative clothing wind chill factor) perspiration) Activity levels. Thermal Comfort
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infras ound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics can be seen in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Acoustics
How to Control/ Eliminate Indoor Air PollutantsDon’t Smoke inside Pay attention to Check combustion the home. housekeeping. appliances. Control/ eliminate Test your home for excess Radon moisture • Improve home ventilation
Have Never run yourfurnace, flues, ch car inside animney inspected attached garage and cleaned Install a carbon Never use monoxideunvented space detectorheaters/ gas logs in your home
Control Moisture In and Around the Home Repair leaks and drips Check to be sure clothes dryer vented to outside Move water from gutters and downspouts away from house Use ventilating fan in kitchen and bathroom No water in crawl space
are fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.MOULDS
HIGH INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORSFOUND IN NASAL FLUIDS OF PERSONS INDAMP BUILDINGSMITES, BACTERIA, MOLDS, ENDOTOXINS ALLCONTRIBUTEMINIMIZED BY HUMIDITY & MOISTURECONTROL IN BUILDINGS
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: RADON• In 1990 EPA placed indoor air pollution at the top of the list of 18 sources of cancer risk• Indoor pollution is rated by risk analysis scientists as high-risk health problem for humans• Radon is one of the three most dangerous indoor air pollutants, along with cigarette smoke and formaldehyde• Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, after smoking• Nearly 1 in 15 homes in the U.S. has high level of indoor radon• Homes with high radon level can be fixed
A. Cracks in concrete slabsB. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: RADON Spaces behind brick wallsC. Pores and cracks in concrete blocksD. Floor wall jointsE. Exposed soil as in a sumpF. Weeping tile, if drained to open sumpG. Mortar jointsH. Loose fitting pipe penetrationsI. Open tops of block wallsJ. Building materials such as some rocksK. Water, from some wells
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: Radon Resistant-Construction RADON TechniquesA. Gas Permeable LayerB. Plastic SheetingC. Sealing and CaulkingD. Vent PipeE. Junction Box Other radon reduction techniques include sealing, home/room pressurization, heat recovery ventilation and natural ventilation.
BIOCHAR URINALS TAPPING NITROGEN FROM URINE OF ANIMALS AND PEOPLE USING BIOCHAR
OTHER BIOCHAR APPLICATIONSBIOCHAR BRICKS, GREEN BUILDINGS