KHAMMAM DISASTER MITIGATION AND PREPAREDNESS PROJECT EVALUATION REPORT APRIL 2008
CONTENTSACCRONYMNS .................................................................................................................. 5EXECUTIVE SUMMERY ................................................................................................... 61. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 62. OBJECTIVES OF THE EVALUATION ....................................................................... 83. METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 84. GODAVARI RIVER AND FLOODS............................................................................ 95. DMPP PROCESS........................................................................................................ 11 5.1 Selection of Project area: ..................................................................................... 11 5.2 Base line Survey .................................................................................................. 11 5.3 Participatory Analysis of Disaster Risk ................................................................ 11 5.4 Formation and strengthening of DMC and DMS .................................................. 11 5.5 Formation and strengthening of the Task Force.................................................... 14 5.6 Appropriate Disaster Mitigation Structures .......................................................... 14 5.7 Village Disaster Contingency Plan ....................................................................... 14 5.8 Formation of Vulnerability Reduction Fund ......................................................... 14 5.9 Sustainability ....................................................................................................... 146. DATA ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 227. FACTORS AND IMPACTS........................................................................................ 288. POLICY AND PROGRAMME ................................................................................... 349. CASE STUDIES ......................................................................................................... 3510. CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................... 40
ACKNOWLEDGMENTSRev. Dino L. Touthang Executive Director, EFICORMr. Sanjeev Kumar Bhanja Director - Programmes Department, EFICORMr. Ramesh Babu Officiating Manager - Direct Projects, EFICORCommunity and all the other stakeholdersEVALUATION TEAM1. Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy Team leader, External Evaluator - CEO, GEO http://e-geo.org2. Mr. Harshan K.Y Team Member, Program Coordinator- HIV project EFICOR3. Mr. Eshwar Rao Team Member, Partner organization, IEM4. Mr. Daich K. Madhvi Team Member, Project Incharge- Koya IDP, EFICOR5. Kunja Tirupathi Rao, D. Praveen Kumar, Gaddam Adaamu Disaster management Society representing the Community6. Mr. Ramesh Babu Facilitator, Manager- Direct Projects, EFICOR
ACCRONYMNSAP - Andhra PradeshCBDP – Community Based Disaster Preparedness.CBO - Community-based OrganizationDMC – Disaster Management CommitteeDMPP - Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness ProjectDMS - Disaster Management SocietyEFICOR – Evangelical Fellowship of the Indian Commission on Relief www.eficor.orgGoAP - Government of Andhra PradeshGP - Gram PanchayatITDA - Integrated Tribal Development AgencyNGO - Non-Governmental OrganizationNTFP - Non-Timber Forest ProductPADR - Participatory Analysis of Disaster Risk:PRA - Participatory Rural AppraisalSC/ST - Scheduled Caste/Scheduled TribeSHG - Self-help GroupVDC - Village Development CommitteeVRF – Vulnerability Reduction Fund.
EXECUTIVE SUMMERYEvaluating helps to assess how well the DMPP was implemented and areas forimprovement. It is about asking what has happened and why - what is and what is notworking. It is about using evaluation to learn more about an organisations activities, andthen using what has been learnt. Using evaluation to learn more about an organisationsactivities, and then using what has been learnt to demonstrate achievements.DMPP Goal is to reduce vulnerability among the communities in Khammam district ofAndhra Pradesh. EFICOR has established a Disaster Management Committee (DMC), andhas trained 20 young people as an emergency response task force, responsible for rescueand evacuation. Vulnerability assessment and contingency planning have been conducted ineach village, and women’s self-help groups and farmers’ groups have been established.EFICOR has also initiated a number of physical measures. It has installed raised handpumps in seven of the habitations, and made provision for repairs by training mechanics andissuing toolkits. EFICOR has also been involved in testing alternative cropping in thehabitations to help with food security. Each village selected two farmers, who have receivedhybrid seeds that are stronger varieties and more resistant to pests (which are morecommon during flood periods and heavy rains). They have also provided diesel poweredirrigation pumps to two habitations, benefiting approximately 35 farmers. These are intendedto extend the duration of the cultivation period. EFICOR has also facilitated tree planting.Formation of Disaster contingency plans in the 9 habitations (authorized by the localPanchayats), Capacity building of 30 members of the partner agency, IEM in dealing withnatural disastersThe project purpose is to ensure that the Disaster Mitigation Project implemented for thepast five years in the Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh is sustained through theownership and continued efforts of the community.The following are the major outputs of the project; DMC in each project habitation is formedand strengthened to address the vulnerability of the community to disasters; The 9 DMCsnetworked into DMS; All the DMS members understand the purpose, roles, responsibilityand management of the DMS.For post project sustainability the DMS is linked with the local partner agency IEM, who willmonitor and offer consultancy to the DMC and the DMS; The DMS after the project exitperiod, has an active network with the government for tapping available resources (training,finance, etc.) related to disaster management.The successful implementation of DMPP and the learning’s need to be well documented andthe experience should be scaled up to facilitate other disaster prone areas in India and elsewhere.1. INTRODUCTIONDisaster Response, Preparedness and Mitigation Programme In EFICOR is for alleviatingpeople affected by disaster from pain and loss, giving them a hope for the future and assistthem in rebuilding their lives is the focus of disaster intervention programmes. EFICOR wasinvolved in major disasters of the country and in about 10 – 15 minor disasters eachyear. Community based disaster preparedness programmes are organized in selected
disaster prone areas, to train the people to respond immediately and appropriately so as tominimize the damage when a disaster strikes.Khammam Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness Project is an innovative project ofEFICOR. Khammam DMPP was implemented to help the vulnerable communities in 9 floodprone habitations covering 5600 people living along Godavari River, located inBhadrachalam, Dummegudem and Kunavaram Mandals, Khammam District, AndhraPradesh State, in developing a Comprehensive Flood Management Plan to enable them torespond effectively at disaster situations.MAP 1 Khammam DMPP implementation area
The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the impact of EFICOR’s intervention fromJanuary 2003 to March 2008 and documentation of various learning’s from the pastintervention for future reference and replication.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE EVALUATION• To identify, from a broad cross section of beneficiaries, how DMPP activities have contributed to lasting improvement in a communities ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from natural hazards focusing on Floods.• To analyze what changes have occurred in the community towards their livelihood after implementing various activities like early crops etc. and• To find out the capacity of DMS (Disaster Management Society) which was formed by EFICOR to networking among the DMC’s and with the government3. METHODOLOGYFor the evaluation the information collected is quantitative, qualitative and descriptive forcovering the following broad aspects: 1. Study of the processes and achievements during implementation 2. Experiences of the people at various levels involved in the DMPP. 3. Learning’s from the studies conducted earlier. 4. A sample of 6 habitations (5 DMPP habitations and 1 control village) were visited for primary data.Preparation for evaluation study: Desk Research, literature review, preparation ofquestionnairesPrimary Data: Information is collected from primary stakeholders using structured formats,Focused group discussions, Interviews with all stakeholders, case studies collected fromprimary stakeholders, Meeting with the staff.Secondary data analysis: Baseline information, existing reports, DMC records, SHGregisters, financial statement and proposal.Table 1 Source of information on the aspects S.No Aspects of study Source of information 1 Institutions Key persons in the village Small group (mixed) Verification in larger group 2 Community Participation Small group (mixed) 3 DMC Watershed committee members / WDT/ other members Small group (mixed) Watershed records
4 Women Representation from SHGs Samakhya (village level) 5 Health and Education Representation from SHGs Anganwadi worker ANM 6 Poverty Representation from SHGs Identified poor 7 Water Resources Mixed group (men, women, landless, aged etc 8 Agriculture Same as above 9 CPR Same as above 10 Timeline Same as above 11 Social Capital Larger group4. GODAVARI RIVER AND FLOODSThe river is about 1,450 km (900 miles) long. It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik andMumbai in Maharashtra around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea, flows southeastacross south-central India into Andhra Pradesh, and empties into the Bay of Bengal.Photo 1 Godavari river at BhadrachalamIt is a seasonal river, approximately 80% of its discharge flows into the Bay of Bengal duringthe monsoons between July and October. After Bhadrachalam the river enters a gorge in theEastern Ghats, a mountain range and becomes very narrow.Flooding is a prevalent problem along Godavari, and affects the area most years during therainy season (June to August). Normal floods last three to four days, but the most severerecorded flood, in 1986, lasted for 20 days. Water enters the low lying areas at the firstwarning level itself. Hence a flood bank was constructed along the bank to prevent flooding
of the town. One of the reasons for occurrence of floods in this part of the river is attributedto heavy rainfall that occurs in the southwestern sector of the monsoon depressions due tostrong convergence in that sector. By examining the rainfall distribution associated with themonsoon disturbances (lows and depressions) in Godavari river basin. When thedisturbance-centre is away from the basin, heavy rainfall may also occur in the basin areaclose to the confluence line and cause severe floods in the river. The confluence line is thezone of convergence between the northeasterlies to the west of the disturbance centre andthe monsoon westerlies. (G. Nageswara Rao, 2001)
5. DMPP PROCESS Selection of Project area:A vulnerability assessment has been conducted in the target habitations. Finally 9habitations were selected for the project, covering parts of 3 Mandals, in Khammam District.The habitations have been selected considering its vulnerability to disaster and economicalbackwardness. Base line SurveyA disaster loss survey format was prepared in the local language and survey was conductedin 9 habitations to collect the basic information for the implementation of DMPP. A mastersheet was prepared for incorporating detailed information in contingency planning. PADRtool was developed and used to get the details on capacity building and vulnerability in theareas of social, human, natural, physical, environmental and spiritual aspects of thecommunity, and to design the program in an holistic approach. Also developed and testedstandardized tools for need assessment with assistance of external experts.The following PRA techniques were adopted to find out the vulnerability and capacity of thecommunity. Participatory Analysis of Disaster RiskAs a part of situational analysis, Participatory Rural Appraisal conducted in all projecthabitations and findings were cross checked with the community for the preparation ofvillage contingency plan and syllabus for Task Force training. EFICOR team membersorganized this exercise.Following PRA Exercise was conducted for situational analysis. • Social Mapping • Resource Mapping • Seasonal Analysis • Transect Walk • Venn Diagram(institutional mapping) • Time Line Formation and strengthening of DMC and DMSDisaster Management Committee (DMC): A 7 member committee was selected by thecommunity in 9 habitations. The committee consists of 3 female and 4 male members. Forthe monitoring, motivation and implementation of the program, these committee memberswere given the first phase training on the following topics. • Introduction to EFICOR • Purpose and process of Disaster Preparedness • Committee and its Role • Role of Disaster Management Committee • Purpose of PADR activities • Committee members as a leader • Task Force and its functions • Future Plan • Working with the governmentTeaching Method – Participation and Group Discussion
Role of DMC: EFICOR formed the Disaster Management Committee (DMC) in each targethabitation. The DMC has takenup the ownership of community assets (raised borewells,pump sets, etc.). The Village level DMCs were attached to a single management structure,called Disaster Management Society. Core members of the Federation were providednecessary training and exposure for managing the future disasters. This federation is alsotapping government resources and managing their own programmes. Each DMC inconsultation with DMS is mobilizing the available resources from the Govt. and othersources during the time of disaster occurrence. In each DMC at least 2 to 3 womenmembers were nominated.DMC also ensures the consistency of Task force s, periodic mock drill exercises that are tobe performed in the habitations in every quarter. DMC also makes sure that there is a reviewand updation of Task Force and DMC in every 3 years, for active participation from all levelsin the habitations.
The Disaster Management Bill, 2005 Disaster Management Act, 2005 The National Disaster Management Authority National Disaster Response Force State Disaster Management Authority District Disaster Management Authority MP / MLA DISTRICT ZP CHAIRPERSON DISASTER MANAGEMENT CELL / TASK DISTRICT FORCE / RELIEF COLLECTOR / AND JOINT COLLECTOR SC / ST RDO / SUB- IE ITDA CORPOR ATION COLLECTOR M LAW AND ORDER ENGINEER MRO / DM SOCIETY AGRICULTURE MDO MPTC / HEALTH ZPTC DM DM DM DM DM DM DM DMDMC / DMS Organisational DMCs of each village in the areaStructure GRAM PANCHAYAT DM COMMITTEE TASK FORCE TEAMS CBOs – RYTHU MITHRA GROUPS, SELF-HELP GROUPS, ETC. WARNING RESCUE FIRST SHELTER RELIEF AID MANAGEMENT
Formation and strengthening of the Task ForceDisaster Task Force Selection: 20 volunteers were chosen from the 9 habitations, as TaskForce leaders and they are playing a key role in disaster relief operations. They were givenTraining of Trainers (TOT) in the following areas and they have trained the village taskforcemembers for Warning, Rescue and Evacuation, First Aid, Shelter Management, Relief andRehabilitation, etc.Role of Task Force: There are five Task force teams formed in each habitation to respond toany disaster occurance 1) Warning group: Provides early warning to the community throughprovided instruments 2) Rescue Group : To ensure all the vulnerable groups of peopleevacuated to the safer places based on the warning they receive.3) First Aid Group: First Aidgroup will provide emergency first aid to the affected people and further they will take thevictim to the hospital for proper treatment. 4) Shelter management: group will be responsiblefor settling all the affected and homeless people in temporary sheds and 5) reliefmanagement team will take the responsibility of accessing relief materials from varioussources and govt. departments. Each group consists of at least 5 to 7 members and detailedrole responsibility has been entrusted to them in order to respond during the time of anynatural calamity. Appropriate Disaster Mitigation StructuresThe local community has identifies their most immediate needs and plans appropriatestructures in their respective habitations through PADR exercise, such as availability ofpotable water during the flood and drought. Village level Disaster Management Committee isprimarily responsible for the development of mitigation structures. The structures identifiedare like, raised tube wells, water harvesting structures, embankments, evacuation shelters,escape routes etc., which have been done step by step during project period. Village Disaster Contingency PlanIn all the target habitations a disaster contingency plan was developed through PADRexercise. This village contingency plan has been submitted to and linked with the GramPanchayat, Mandal and District level Government Contingency Plans through the DMS. Formation of Vulnerability Reduction FundA Vulnerability reduction Fund has been opened by the DMC in order to respond duringemergency situation. This is mainly to meet the immediate need of the community beforegetting an external aid / support. DMC with the community consent decided to utilize thefund for 1. Food aid for the initial stage of disasters, provide loan assistance for theagriculture purpose and emergency need of the individual families for wedding, medicationetc. They have also fixed the nominal interest for the given amount. SustainabilityFor the sustainability of DMC, DMS linked with local partner IEM . This project would besustainable because the community participation, partner agency cooperation andgovernment support is ensured. The other aspects for sustainability: 1. The Disaster Management Committees (DMC) are strengthened.
2. DMCs are linked to local Gram Panchayats. Local GP president or ward member are one of the DMC members and are also actively involving in all the DMC activities and decision making process.3. IEM support to DMcs for conducting mock drills for the community, monitoring the work of volunteers and the task force.4. DMS representing 9 habitations does overall monitoring and ensures the sustainability of the activities.5. The maintenance of the new tube-wells is the responsibility of the DMC and each DMC is having a caretaker, trained in tube well maintenance and equipped with set of appropriate tools.6. DMC takes the responsibility of reviewing and updating the contingency plan every year and links with the Government for support7. Local resident Volunteers and task force member’s skills and capacities were built updated and new volunteers would be selected by the DMC.8. Local federation has been capacitated to advocate with the government to tap the resources and strengthen the link between the government and the community.9. DMC has taken the entire responsibility for the maintenance and repair of Irrigation pump sets, provided to the local farmers with mutually agreed criteria.10. Networking with Government and other organizations / institutions for sustainability.11. Provision of one time grant to the Vulnerability Reduction Fund formed by the existing DMCs for vulnerability reduction activities of the habitations, loan for seeds of short duration/early variety crops, agricultural equipments and irrigation.12. Orientation and Motivation of the Community and DMC on the concept of DMS.13. Formation of DMS (The General Body of the DMS consists of all DMC members and the 2 volunteers of the Task Force from all the 9 habitations.)14. Trainings conducted on conceptual understanding of the purpose, roles and responsibility of the DMS for all DMF members.15. Trainings conducted on managing the DMS i.e. book keeping accounting, monitoring of DMC and Task Force activities, linking and networking, understanding and working out the contingency plan for the Core Committee members within 6 months of the project.16. Core Committee members were introduced to the relevant government departments.17. Invited resource persons from government for information sharing on government disaster management initiatives and resources.
DMPP PROGRAMME EVENTS TIMELINE (2003-08)2003• March-June - baseline survey was conducted in 10 project habitations.• Awareness program was conducted on the concept of CBDP in 10 habitations.• PADR Assessment in 9 habitations (Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis using PRA tools)• Training on CBDP for IEM Volunteers and missionaries (4 spell program) 1. Biblical perspective on disaster management. 2. Understanding multi hazards and response. 3. Community based disaster preparedness 4. Role and responsibilities of community based DMC and Task Force.• Selection of DMC and Task Force teams in 9 habitations.• Total number of DMC members 9@8 =72 including (40%-50%) women.• Task force for 5 different groups (Warning, Rescue & Evacuation, First Aid, Shelter Management and Relief Management). Each group has 20 – 25 members, who are between 15 – 25 years of age.• DMC training content: Concept of Disasters, Disaster management, CBDP, leadership , Community mobilization, Govt. shemes and Role of DMC in mitigating disasters etc..• TASK Force training: Community Based Disaster preparedness, Role and responsibility of task force with various groups, organizing meetings at the village level, mock drills, community mobilization etc.• Skills training conducted for DMC and Task Force team in 9 habitations.• Organized Exposure visits for TASK force team to Kakinada, Rajahmundary, Chirala and Hyderabad.• Preparation of contingency plan for 9 habitations.2004• Village Contingency plan has been prepared and submitted to the DMC at village level and relevant officials at Mandal and District level.• Vulnerability Reduction Fund raised by each DMC to respond in emergency.• 7 high raised bore wells were provided in 7 habitations for drinking water purpose during and after the floods.• Disaster Management Society (networking body) has been formed represented by 9 habitations and has been registered as an apex body of DMC.• 90 farmers were provided with seeds (Paddy-early crops, Chillies, Black gram and cotton) and fertilizers.• 2 habitations (Sithanagaram and Vinayakapuram) were provided with Irrigation pump set @ Rs. 24000/ each.• Monthly mock drill exercises were regularly being performed in the project habitations.• 10 days fire fighting training was provided to the Task Force and certificates were issued by the district Fire Exchange to the participants.2005 to 2008Regular Visits to the habitations • Training 4 times in each year on disasters and development. • Taskforce meetings and training programs were conducted. • Exposure visits for the taskforce members and farmers • Government intervention or network to access various entitlements like lift irrigation, land development, loans, agricultural related tools etc. • Capacity building training programs for DMC. • Skills training program on tailoring for selected women from the taskforce. • One high raised borewell in one village for safe drinking water after experiencing 2006 floods.
6. DATA ANALYSISDMC - PARTICIPATION AND FUNCTIONINGThe participation and functioning in DMC is very good. The community recognizes theimportance of DMC, therefore there is a good participation in all the activities of DMC. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN DMC 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Interest in SHGs Importance of Participation in Participation in Participation in formtion and DMC DM Committee Federation Gram Sabha participation activities and activities and meetings meetingsIndex Aspect Very Low Low Medium High Very High Weightage 1 2 3 4 5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5Index Aspect Functioning of SHGs Weightage Involvement of Women Effective Leadership Very Poor Review, Monitoring and 1 Follow up of Selection of DM Committee Poor members Effectiveness of Trainings received by 2 Selection procedure of Chairperson Meetings, attendance and records Average Functioning of 3 task force DMC FUNCTIONING Involvement of SHGs in DMC Good activitiesThe functioning of DMC and other related activities are going on well. Participation of people in planning and4 Role of Sarpanch & Village Microplan status Very Good Social auditing5 & transparency Level of contributions for VRF
Table 2 Project Habitations general information No of hand 10th MunicipalSl No of No of pumps EFICOR above School & waterno Village Name houses population working pumps students anganvadi taps Acres1 Seethanagaram 85 1000 3 no 50 2 yes 302 M.Kasinagaram 100 600 4 no 30 2 no 203 K.Kasinagaram 150 750 10 1 55 4 no 40 Old4 Bandarigudam 100 400 4 1 30 2 no 105 Kristavaram 120 800 8 1 50 2 no 356 Vinayakapuram 70 400 6 1 10 2 no 107 Chellampalem 101 700 11 1 35 2 yes 308 Polipaka 150 700 10 1 50 2 no 509 Gunduvarigudam 35 250 3 1 15 2 no 10 Total 911 5600 59 7 325 20 2 235Table 3 Interventions all gist. Total Aspect (nos.) 1 Total field visits (52 weeks @ 3 visits x 9 habitations) 1404 2 Total trainings / workshops 15 3 Total participants - Men 36 4 Total participants - women 36 5 Total Exposure visits (no.) 6 6 Exposure visits - Total Participants (no.) 100AGRICULTUREMain crops being cultivated currently are Paddy, Chillies and Cotton, Paddy, Jowar, Pulses,Groundnut and til were being cultivated as main crops about 5 years back. The input costsas well the yield of the respective crops increased in the last 5 years.Seasonal migrants from Chattisgarh state provide cheap agriculture labour for harvestingchillies and for all other activities. The number of households with agriculture based incomesource is decreasing. This is an indicator for diversification of livelihoods into non-farmsector.The qualitative aspects of agriculture extension and the farmers institutions functioning hasimproved. EFICOR played an important role in institution building, capacity building andconvergence of extension services in the project area. This is clearly visible in the projecthabitations as compared to the control village.The farmers were encouraged to farm into Rythu Mithra Groups (RMGs), which are effectiveand are also able to save money through thrift and savings.LIVESTOCK m. patha Control kashinagaram krishtavaram bandarigudem polipaka chellampalem habitation
Current before Current before Current before Current before Current before Current before (2008) 2003 (2008) 2003 (2008) 2003 (2008) 2003 (2008) 2003 (2008) 2003No. of 35 150 150 390 230 450 300 1000 200 300 200 500CowsNo. of 600 1300 140 210 100 300 200 300 180 200BullocksNo. of 15 50 70 40 40 80 4BuffaloesNo. of 100 0 20 58 0 0SheepNo. of 50 1000 52 0 100 100 300 0 30GoatNo. of 400 600 1500 2300 2000 1200 500 1000 300 300 800 500chickens/ ducksThe above table shows that there is overall decrease in livestock as compared to thesituation about 5 years back.FISHERIESIn some habitations non-traditional households have adapted to fishing, this trend is moreprevalent in M. Kashinagarm where from 4 households in 2003 increased to 15 householdsin 2008.DRINKING WATER AND GROUNDWATERAdequate drinking water is created and being shared judiciously, this kind of cooperation isvery much important especially during occurrence of floods. The groundwater levels aredepleting in some habitations.COMMON POOL RESOURCESThe availability of grazing lands are coming down.SUPPORT / FACILITATION INSTITUTIONSThe functional village level support / facilitation institutions are increasing in number like; 1. Rural Infrastructure Development Fund(RIDF) 2. JFM / CFM programmes by Forest Department 3. Agriculture Department / Rythu Mithra Groups, Seed, Vermicomposting, fertilizers, saplings, etc. 4. Horticulture Dept 5. Comprehensive Land Development Programme / Indira Prabha 6. Animal Husbandry 7. Fisheries 8. Irrigation Dept (Minor / Medium / Major) 9. Dist. Rural Dev. Agency (DRDA) / District Poverty Initiatives Programme (DPIP) / Indira Kranthi Patham 10. DPEP / Education 11. Medical and Health
12. SC Corporation 13. ST Welfare/Tribal Welfare 14. BC Welfare / BC Corporation 15. Tribal welfare / ITDA 16. ICDS / Child Development Programme 17. Anganwadi / Women and Children Welfare 18. Housing Department 19. Road 20. Civil supplies / Public Distribution system 21. Rural water supply (Panchayat Raj Department.) 22. Electricity 23. Telecommunications / BSNL / mobile / WLL / WIRELESS access.MIGRATIONAs the literacy rate is increasing, the educated youth are migrating to other places for highereducation or employment .ENERGYPeople were found using traditionalinefficient biomass stoves for cookingand hot water requirements. Theconcern for fuel wood is growing as theCommon Pool Resources are depletingor becoming inaccessible. They facedifficulty in cooking during the rainyseason and floods. There is a possibilityof facilitating portable efficient stoves as“relief stoves” in these flood proneareas.EDUCATIONThe percentage of girls and boys notenrolled and the percentage of children working as wage labors is one of the main concernsin all the habitations.SHGsThere is an increase in number of SHGs formed in the project habitations, EFICOR hasactively encouraged women to form into SHGs. These SHGs have also formed intofederations at village level. The corpus of SHGs and federation has improved.ROLE OF WOMEN IN DMCWomen also attend the DMC meetings in all habitations and actively participate in decisionmaking process in some habitations.INFRASTRUCTUREThe infrastructure available to the people in the project habitations to cope with floods(before, during and after) is like:Panchayat Office Building, Primary / Secondary School Buildings, Church / temple /Community halls, Noon-meal center building, Anganwadi building, Between and within the
habitations road link, Milk collection center and Communication Facility (telephone / mar /wireless / mobile).HEALTHThe most common health problems faced by community during and after floods are:vomiting, cholera, Malaria, Diarrhea and fever.Note: No significant differences are found in the Control Village in the above aspects.RESPONSE OF COMMUNITY BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER OCCURANCE OFFLOODSPre flood activities1. Conducting meeting in the village regarding the possible extent of flood and actions to be taken.2. Checking of all rescue material. i.e.- bottles, coconut, ropes, thermocoal boats, etc3. Early warning group preparation4. Identification of old people, pregnant ladies, kids5. Identification of high raised place6. 4) Rice collected from all households7. First aid material made ready8. 5) Kept ear on Radio news by warning groupsDuring flood activities1 Announcement in the village2 Evacuation to safer place to old age people, ladies, kids, sick people & live stock3 Moved people to safer place (i.e. aged people, pregnant women, children, sick people etc…)4 Arrangement for temporary shelter5 Approached Govt. for emergency relief6 Availed rice and dal from Government for camp.7 Used EFICOR high raised bore well for drinking water8 Monitored the Water levels and receding status.Post flood activities1. Flood Area survey2. House damage survey3. Water logging sites survey4. Call to govt. medical team for medication5. Cleaning of Debris and cleaning whole Village.6. Bleaching powder spreading in water and logging areas7. House damage assessment8. Crop damage assessment (both the reports were given to the govt officials, they were so amazed to see that how accurately it has been done. Further the compensation and new houses were sectioned according to this assessment.9. Relief from Govt. & EFICOR distributed through DMC & Task force10. Govt. Relief distributed equally in the village11. Sick people were taken to hospital
7. FACTORS AND IMPACTSAn assessment exercise was made with the stakeholders in the project for understandingthe weightage of factors in the DMPP. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Avg.Social 40 25 25 25 20 25 25 185 26.43Human 20 30 30 30 35 35 35 215 30.71Physical 10 10 15 15 15 10 10 85 12.14Natural 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 40 5.71Financial 10 15 10 10 10 15 15 85 12.14Environmental 10 15 15 15 15 10 10 90 12.86 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 Social Human Physical Natural Financial EnvironmentalOut of total 100 points for each capital the stakeholders were asked to give weightage. Fromthe above chart, it is clear that DMPP focused more on the Human and Social aspects.Where as the Physical, Natural, Financial and Environmental capitals were prioritized underthe convergence of programmes.SIX CAPITALSSocial: Community Based Organizations / Institutions (like DMC, VDC), Networks (likeDMS), Demographic profile, Poverty, Employment, Education, etc.Human: Capacities, Capabilities, Skills, Knowledge, training, awareness, sensitization, etc.Physical / Infrastructure: Bore wells, roads, Boats, community buildings, communication,electricity, etc.
Natural: Agriculture, Livestock, fisheries, water resources (quality and quantity)Financial: Vulnerability Reduction Fund (VRF), Relief fund, access to Micro-finance andbanks, EFICOR support, etc.Environment: Occurrence and intensity of floods and drought, meteorology informationaccess, climate variability, etc.These activities have had a number of impacts on the community. These impacts areorganized into five categories: social, human, natural, physical, economic andenvironmental.SOCIAL IMPACTSAs a result of the capacity-building and training inputs, villagers are better able to organizethemselves and feel more confident. Young people are trained to work in teams in rescueand evacuation techniques, and show pride and strength in demonstrating their new skills.Villagers frequently mention that flooding has become less of a problem in their community,not because the levels or duration of the floods have changed, but because they feelempowered through their training to deal effectively with the flood when it comes. Theestablishment of farmers’ groups has helped to facilitate the exchange of information andknowledge of new cropping systems. EFICOR has also been instrumental in establishingwomen’s self-help groups, which have empowered women and given them a communityvoice. Women are also part of the DMC.EFICOR’s training and capacity-building activities have strengthened the community’s abilityto cope with illness. Whilst the number of cases of illness during droughts and floods has notnecessarily decreased, first-aid training has helped villagers to feel more confident aboutdealing with minor illnesses and injuries, and identifying and referring problems that requiremedical attention. SOCIAL ROLE OF GRAM PANCHAYAT ACCESS TO POVERTY OF VILLAGE HEALTH DISASTER THE POPULATION SERVICES MANAGEMENT HOUSEHOLDS AND %AGE OF COMMITTEE VULNERABLE AGE GROUP LOCAL INSTITUTIONS TASK FORCEHUMAN IMPACTSIllness is the primary human impact of both the drought and the flooding. The installation ofraised hand pumps has ensured clean water supplies, and villagers report substantial
reductions in diarrhea. New skills have also been imparted through the hand pump caretakertraining programme and the technical support for growing alternative seed varieties. HUMAN KNOWLEDGE / KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING AND SKILLS NETWORKING LOCAL SPECIFIC INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING COMMUNICATION TRAINING AWARENESS SENSITIZATIONPHYSICAL ASSETSEFICOR’s primary impact in reducing vulnerability has been the installation of raised handpumps, which ensure a clean water supply during both drought and flooding. Previously,many villagers had to walk up to 2km to get drinking water during droughts, becausegovernment installed hand pumps dried up. During flood periods, these wells becomeblocked and contaminated. Because the flooding is relatively brief, and there is nearby highground, villagers do not report effects on other assets, such as livestock and householdgoods.
INFLUENCE OF SCHEMES AND PROGRAMME / GRANTS OR SUBSIDIES PHYSICAL RELIEF CENTERS: HIGH REACH AREAS AND SHELTERS (SCHOOLS / LIFE SAVING ACCESS TO COMMUNITY PUCCA EQUIPMENT CENTERS / HOUSES / BOATS / LIFE RELIGIOUS PLACES, RAISED JACKETS / ETC. BOREWELLS FOOD / COOKING NEEDS, LIGHTING AND OTHER ESSENTIALS ROADS AND COMMUNICATION AND WARNING SYSTEMS INFORMATIONNATURAL RESOURCESKhammam District is rich in natural resources and soils are fertile. Flooding and droughtprimarily affect crops, and EFICOR has responded with its programme of hybrid seeds. It isan important step in the long-term mitigation of the effects of these hazards on naturalresources and food security.
NATURAL ACCESS TO CPR AND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK FISHERIES, MICRO- ENTERPRISES, ETC. INPUT, PRACTICES LAND CHOICE OF AND OUTPUT DEVELOPMENT CROP AND SUPPORT AND ACCESS SHORT TO IRRIGATION DURATIONENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSIn the event of climate variability the occurance of floods and drought is unpredicatable.Whilst flooding can cause displacement and destruction, it also brings many benefits; fishingincreases, teak wood carried by the flood waters is collected and sold or used in the village,and fields receive important nutrients from the flood waters. ENVIRONMENTAL FLOODS DROUGHT OCCURANCE OCCURANCE AND INTENSITY AND INTENSITY CLIMATE VARIABILI TY FACTORSFINANCIAL IMPACTSEFICOR’s pilot cropping programme is helping villagers to experiment with alternative seedsand cropping patterns that are suited to flood and drought conditions, thereby reducing croplosses. Diesel-powered water pumps help to irrigate agricultural land with river water.
FINANCIAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF COMMUNITY SHGs ACCESS TOMICRO-FINANCE LOANS FROM BANKS SUPPORT ORGANISATIONS PROJECTS / PROGRAMMES / RELIEF DMC COMPENSATION / GRANT VULNERABILITY / RELIEF AND REDUCTION FUND (VRF) REHABILITATION SUPPORT FROM GOVT. AND OTHER AGENCIES
8. POLICY AND PROGRAMMEThe Government of India, initiated the following measures related to disasters management:The Disaster Management Bill, was passed in 2005Disaster Management Act, came into existence in 2005The National Disaster Management Authority was formedNational Disaster Response Force is also formedProvided facilities for formation of State Disaster Management Authority, District DisasterManagement Authority and local authorities.The Disaster Management Unit of Andhra Pradesh under the Ministry of Finance, initiallywould be involved in the following activities: • formation of a long-term mitigation policy • undertaking key hazard studies • restoring and strengthening infrastructure with improved design • use of innovative methods such as the setting up of the Vulnerability Reduction Fund Trust • improved methods of capacity building through innovative training and orientation programmes and community participation • extensive use of mass media and multimedia.Typical relief package of the Government supplied during the 2006 floods includes:Rice, Dal, Oil, Salt, Potato, Onion, Chilly powder packet, Turmeric powder, Sambar powder,Garam masala, Washing soap, Bath soap, Dettol bottle and Biscuit packet Short term and long term measures by Govt., Institutions, organizations and community at different levels anticipated as such.District level Sr. Long term Sr. No Short term No01 Infrastructure 01 District task force Relief and Rescue operations02 Embankments 02 Compensation03 Communication04 Relief funds05 Road06 HousingMANDAL/ FEDERATION LEVEL Sr. Long term Sr. No Short term No01 Hostel 01 Seeds Provision02 Education 02 Land reclamation03 School provision 03 Fertilized Provision04 SC/ST Welfare hostel 04 Evacuation relief and rehab. centres05 Vocational training center06 Loan access to bank and institutions
07 Marketing centers08 Early warning systems & AwarenessVILLAGE / HABITATION LEVEL Sr. Long term Sr. No Short term No01 PHC 01 First aid / health care camp02 Asha Workers 02 Relief- rice, pulses, clothing, vegetables, kerosene, blankets, buckets, plates, mugs, mats03 Boat 03 Temporary shelters04 Rescue materials- Net, life jacket, 04 Compansation mega phone05 Radio06 Micro finance and enterprises07 Village roads08 Sanitation09 Potable water10 High raised bore wells11 Housing12 Identification & shelter9. CASE STUDIESCASE STUDY 1Kunja Tirupathi Rao, P. BandarugudemMy name is Kunja Tirupahi Rao. I am 25 years old. I had studied up to 10th class. We areliving in this village right from our ancestors (around 100 years). My father has been addictedto liquor. He used to harass and beat us frequently. To avoid this harassment, we left thathouse and we went to our Grandmothers (Mothers mother) house. After 2 years, we havebuilt a small house. Now we are living in a better condition.In the year 2003, brother Ramesh (from EFICOR) came to our village. At that time I amcutting the firewood. He stopped the motorcycle engine and asked for the name of thevillage. I said it is Bandarugudem and I had asked him "Who are you?"."I am Ramesh, Icame from EFFICOR organization", he replied. He asked weather the floods of RiverGodavari can affect this village. "In 1986 the complete village got submerged", I replied. Hesaid that we are going to form a committee in this village. All the people in our villageassembled and in the presence of the village Head, Kateboina Pullaiah, DMC was formedand I was selected as a volunteer to the committee. At that time I dont know anything. Thefirst training on DMC was given to me in RedCross building at Bhadrachalam. I like socialService very much. Sangram, from EFFICOR used to come to our village very frequently toconduct meetings. I invited all our villagers for the meeting. One big flood has submergedour village in 1986 i.e. before EFFICOR came to our village. At that time I was a child. Ididnt get any economic support. None of our villagers were educated. Even in agriculturepractice they are not experts. They used to cultivate Red gram, Jower, Ragi and other smallmillets. They learned cultivation of Rice from 2001. From 2002 onwards they started growingCotton, Rice and Chillies. In 2003 August, Mr.Sangram from EFFICOR has informed that theEFFICOR will support the villagers in growing the useful trees like, Guava, Mango, Papaya,Orange and Grapes. In the evening at around 5.30 pm, I brought these plants from
EFFICOR and distributed 3 plants per house. I felt very happy in doing this activity. After thatin 2004, Mr. Madan came. Agricultural officer A. Thatha Rao has given training about theagriculture practiced in Kasinagaram. He had given many advices on agriculture and welearnt a lot from him. The farmers expressed that they are ready to attend such trainingprograms conducted anywhere in the future. Madan stayed here only for few days. After thatMr. Das came and conducted meetings on Raythu Mithra program through which farmerswill get loans for low interest, so that they can avoid private financiers who collect highinterest. Famers will become debt free and concentrate more on cultivation. Then farmersdecided that it is a good scheme and formed into two groups namely 1. Vasantha (R.M.G.)and 2.Lillipuvvu (R.M.G.). They paid Rs.50/month for six months. After six months, the BankManager has given loan of Rs.57000/-(Rupees Fifty Seven Thousand) for each of theseRMGs. We had repaid that money to the Bank. This time the Bank had given Rs.114000/-(Rupees One Lakh Fourteen Thousand) as loan. By seeing all this process, the third groupformed namely Mahanandi and has approached the bank and promised to repay the loan ifthey get it. Bank has allotted Rs.50000/-(Rupees Fifty Thousand). Now all the people of thevillage are under RMGs. The Govt. and the officials from various departments like ITDA aregiving preference to the farmers of these groups.Irrigation Water: VDC & DMC committees had written a letter to the P.O. of ITDA mentioningthat we are not getting the water from Taliveru Project. Every year the crops got affected justbefore harvesting due to lack of water supply. We need irrigation water. Turubakavaagu(rivulet) flows from west to east just beside the village and it contains full of water inthe rainy season. You can provide lift irrigation from this rivulet. We had submitted this letterto the P.O. at ITDA office. He sent the concern officials to the village and they conducted asurvey. They found that there is a potential to irrigate about 136 acres of land, andsanctioned Rs.2,58,500/- for agricultural bore (Tube Well). For getting this we had gone toITDA office around 250 times under VDC & DMC committees. We met the P.O. around 20times. This is all possible because the EFFICOR organization has trained us on differentaspects like How to talk with the officials, How to fill the application etc. Before 2003, i.e.before the EFFICOR interaction with our village, we don’t know about the governmentsubsidy and how to get it. VDC & DMC committees are discussing all the issues that arehappening in the village. Political parties are exploiting the people’s development fundmoney since 30 to 40 years. Due to effective training from the EFFICOR, we are able toknow and understand what is happening in the society.Why our village is called Bandarugudem?About 100 years ago there was a village by name Yaalambailu in palvancha. Most of thevillagers had hundreds of Buffalos, cows, sheep and goats. They don’t have proper sourcefor drinking water to their animals. At that time Mr. Cotton (Governor General) was workingas clerk in the court at Aswaraopeta. He thought that he should provide a solution for thedrinking water problem. He came to this agency area which was a deep forest then. Therewere Bandaru trees at place where the present Bandarugudem village is located. Cotton andhis three associates had surveyed the complete forest and found the present TurubakaVaagu. At that time it was like a small stream. It was believed that demons were roamingthere. They surveyed this place by keeping some marks along the way, and they go backusing that marks. There is one big Bandaru tree in the middle of their path, from which theyused to identify their path. Finally they completed the survey and sent the report to thegovernment. The government officials had surveyed 300 acres and allotted to the villagers.As this village is located near the big Bandaru tree, which was used as landmark, the villagename became Bandarugudem.TACKLING THE FLOOD OF AUGUST 2006In August, 2006 there were floods to the River Godavari. VDC and DMC membersimmediately distributed 80 quintals of Rice from the government. We had surveyed the
damage of the crops and properties and informed the government. 25 kgs of Rice and othervegetables were distributed by EFFICOR organization. They provided Rs.3200/- for housesdamaged by River Godavari and Rs.2200/- for the less damaged houses.CASE STUDY 2Gaddam Adaamu, M. KasinagaramI Gaddam Adaamu, am son of Shri. Ramarao living in M. Kasinagaram for the past 24years. In my family, I have my Father, Mother, two sisters and one brother. Ours is a poorfamily. My father is daily wage labor. My one sister studied up to 7th class and another sisterup to 10th class, I had completed M.A and my brother had studied up to 10th class. Ours is ajoint family. We will take decisions by discussing with each other. We are very cooperativeand helpful with our neighbors.We have very friendly environment in our village. Our village is prone to the floods. At thetime of floods, all our villagers take right decisions in right time and migrate to other villages.When we come back to the village, we will rebuild our houses and also take care ofcleanliness in the village. Like this I had migrated four times till now. Under such conditions,the EFFICOR organization has take initiation and enlightened us about Floods, Fireaccidents, accidents and about crops through meetings, trainings, workshops and otherawareness programs.EFFICOR organization came to our village in 2003 and started their activities to enlightenthe people on different hazards by giving technical advices through workshops, meetingsetc.Before March 2003:We are not aware of how to mitigate the floods before 2003. We are only able to protect ourlives. But now under the guidance of EFFICOR, we are now capable of protecting others lifeas well as our Houses and crops. Now we know completely about fire accidents. Really thisorganization is helping us in many ways.Present Life Style:At present we learnt a lot from EFFICOR in different aspects such as, Flood Hazards, FireAccidents, Cultivation of crops etc.EFFICOR prepared all of us in protecting ourselves, if at all there is occurs any hazard. Theyformed us into five groups to mitigate the hazards.My Role in Flood Management 2006:At the time of floods in 2006, I personally involved in vacating the Old people, pregnantladies and the children. I had helped in passing the information about flood movement, whichhelped in taking decisions at the right time.After the floods receded back, I was involved in taking several actions to control thecontaminated diseases by applying bleaching powder etc. And also I was involved infacilitating the aid from the government or NGOs to the affected people.TACKLING THE FLOOD OF AUGUST 20061st August, 2006, Tuesday:On 1st August 2006, I had helped in providing the information about rain and floods to thevillagers. There was continuous heavy rain on that day. The flood level in Godavari hasreached 45 feet and there is potential to raise this level as it was continuously raining. Wedecided to vacate the village and moved all villagers to the safe areas using the boats. Wehad involved in providing the required help for moving the villagers to a new place. We alsohelped the villagers in reestablishing their houses when they came back to village.2nd August 2006, Wednesday:
On the night of 1st August, we didnt sleep whole night. We collected the information fromthe electronic media news and we shifted all the animals to safe areas.On 2nd August, the flood level has increased further to 46 feet. The government officials likeMRO, MDO and AE came to the village and appreciated the efforts of EFFICOR in saving somany lives. They had expressed that the villagers were enlightened by the EFFICOR efforts,and they can now protect themselves from the flood hazards. Afterwards we involved inproviding required aid to the affected.3rd August, 2006 Thursday:As the flood maintained level at 46 feet, we all prepared our villagers to move to othervillage. Our group members have taken measures in getting the food, shelter, and otherneeds from the government.All our crops were devastated by floods. We had informed the MRO about the loss of crops.4th August, 2006 Friday:The flood level in Godavari has come down to 44 feet, so we came back to our village. Wehad cleaned our village and applied bleaching powder. We had enquired about the differentdiseases and distributed the required tablets. Later we had applied for the development ofvillage to the MRO. MRO has responded positively and provided the daily needs (like Rice,Salt, sugar, oil, Dal, Onions, cloths etc) immediately.5th August, 2006 Saturday:On this day, we prepared a record of our needs and submitted to the EFFICOR. Theyresponded immediately and supplied Rice, Vegetables, Oil, Dal, Clothes etc. We maintainedthe discipline in distributing this aid so that all of us would get justice. On the same we hadprepared the record of the affected crops and submitted to the MRO. MRO had sanctionedRs.200/- as compensation per acre immediately.CASE STUDY 3D. Praveen Kumar, M. KasinagaramI D. Praveen Kumar, am from M. Kasinagaram habitation, Dummugudem Mandal,Khammam district, working as a volunteer in EFFICOR, since 2003. They formed a DMC inour village to deal with the welfare of the village during occurrence of disasters. They alsoformed the Taskforce and divided the villagers into 5 groups. They had given training tothese groups about flood management measures like managing the situations before thefloods, at the time of floods and after the floods. Before 2003, nobody has taken initiative inthis aspect. At the time of floods nobody has taken care of the children, old aged people andthe pregnant ladies.EFFICOR has provided a bore well with an elevated platform through which we are gettingthe clean drinking water at time of floods. By discussing with the people, EFFICOR hasopened an account in the bank. They decided to spend this money only at time of naturalhazards. To help the farmers in the village, they had supplied seeds for short term crops.They had also supplied the fertilizers at subsidized cost. They trained the villagers about themeasures to be taken at the time of fire accidents. They trained us to repair the bore welland supplied the required tools. Like this they trained us in various aspects and helped forthe development of the village. They sent us to the training programs conducted by otherNGOs at different places. They had explained the activities of those NGOs.Before 2003, our village was a backward area. People were highly selfish at that time. Nowthere is a sea of change in the village. All the committee members assemble once in amonth and discuss about the happenings and activities in the village. Before 2003, the loss
due to floods was more. Now it is drastically reduced. Even the accidents have reduced.Death rate has come down. Now the people are very happy in the village. Villagers are ableto take care of their animals effectively. We are saving these animals at the time floods bytaking them to elevated places. Taskforce people are taking measures in saving the lives ofchildren, pregnant ladies, old aged and physically handicapped people by moving them tohighest places. They are providing first aid to the injured people. We are prepared for thefloods by taking measures like floating empty bottles, Boat made of thermocoal etc.From 2003 to 2008, the self confidence of the villagers has raised. Now they are confident ofprotecting themselves and also some other needy people. When compared with 2003, thereis reduction in the death rate and loss of property.TACKLING THE FLOOD OF AUGUST 20061st August, 2006 Tuesday:Before 1st August, 2006, there were heavy rains in the district and in the catchment area ofGodavari district. Because of these rains there was a raise in flood level of Godavari River.MRO and other officials came to our village and advised to vacate the village. I had informedthe same to the villagers, committee members and the taskforce members. That night wehad vacated the old aged people, children and pregnant ladies to safe neighbor village. Wehave accommodated them in the school building of that village. Other people came on the2nd august. People had experienced lot of fear on this night.2 August, 2008, Wednesday:I had gone to mandal office on Wednesday morning along with some of the villagers. Onhearing the flood hazard, the officials of MRO office responded positively and supplied Rice,Kerosene, Dal, Tamarind, onions, oil etc. We had distributed this aid to all the requiredvillagers. Using these supplies, they prepared their meal and felt happy. All the animals weremoved to the elevated places. We did fist aid to the injured. Old age people were shiftedusing boats.3rd August, 2008, Thursday:We spread the bleaching powder supplied by the government. We had supplied medicinesto the people who were suffering from fever, vomiting, motions. Due to this effort theybecame soon healthy.4th August, 2008, Friday:Some people had gone to our village to check the flood level. They found that there is adecrease in the flood level and informed to all the villagers. First the taskforce people hasreached the village and removed the fallen trees and cleaned the village. Later we had takenall the villagers.5th August, 2008, Saturday:Persons from EFFICOR organization came to our village to conduct a survey and identifiedthe damaged houses. They had given the economic support to repair the damaged houses.They had also supplied the daily needs like cooking oil, Rice, vegetables etc. Other NGOshave also helped. We had distributed them to all the villagers equally. Even the aid fromgovernment was also distributed equally.We joined the unhealthy people in the hospital and taken care and got them propermedicines. We had removed the dead bodies of animals. We had taken measures formosquito control by spreading some medicines. We had repaired the damaged houses. Weapplied to the government for the financial support to the farmers whose crops got damaged.We had surveyed the fields to assess the damage of crops. Government had sanctioned themoney within one month and farmers felt happy with this support.
10. CONCLUSIONS• DMPP is the most successful intervention of EFICOR, which is unique, the learning’s should be extended to other areas vulnerable to floods and other disasters.• Self-help capacity of communities have been strengthened for improved integrated flood management.• DMC is an innovative initiative for community response to disasters, which is the most important and immediate aspect, during occurrence of disasters.• The DMC’s and DMS should be supported further till formal institutions like government takes up the responsibilities formally as per the Disaster Managemetn Act on a regular basis.• The existing DMC is strengthened to address the vulnerability of the community to disasters. The communities in the 9 habitations formed into DMS .• All the DMS and DMC members understand the purpose, roles, responsibility and management and are able to systematically and efficiently function.• The local partner agency, IEM, has been capacitated, to assist the community in the functioning of the DMCs and the DMS effectively.• The DMS as an active network is able to tap available resources from the Government through convergence.• DMC is also well aware of government resources (training, finance, etc.) related to disaster management.• Villagers have adapted their crops and cropping patterns to reduce the impact of flooding. For example, the village of Bhandarigudem historically harvested chillies from June to September, but because of the flooding has shifted this crop to September to April.• IEM should take up total responsibility immediately for continuity of the initiatives of EFICOR.• Based on this experience EFICOR should conduct trainings for capacitating / replicating similar models else where.• Linkages / convergence is facilitated with number of departments and institutions like, Agriculture, revenue, Indira Kranthi Patham (IKP), ITDA, etc.• There is a demand for formation of similar DMC like community based institutions in the other flood prone areas.• The DMC members are capacitated to the extent that they are seeking funds and support from various departments / programmes through convergence.• The qualitative aspects of agriculture extension and the farmers institutions functioning has improved. EFICOR played an important role in institution building, capacity building and convergence of extension services in the project area. This is clearly visible in the project habitations as compared to the control village.• A strong disciplined and responsible leadership has emerged in the project habitations, in the long run they could become great leaders representing various organization, institutions, etc.POST PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY:INDIAN EVENGELICAL MISSION TO CONTINUE THE SUPPORT TO DMPPIEM is a partner organization of EFICOR working among Koya tribal community atBhadrachalam Khammam, distt of A.P. The concept of Disaster mitigation & preparednessprogram was presented to the working committee (IEM & EFICOR) in November 2002 afterthe approval from the WC the program was inducted. EFICOR implemented the program in9 habitations & part of capacity building they had trained IEM volunteers nearly 40 peoplefrom 40 different Churches.
The following contents were covered in 4 different training programs held at various levels.Programs conducted at Bhadrachalam, pata maerdupaka, burgampad & lankalpali. 1) Biblical basis for responding on Disasters 2) Concept of Development 3) Understanding disaster management 4) Concept of community based disaster preparedness program 5) Role of DMC and Task force in disaster management 6) Network with the Govt. 7) Responding to multi HazardsPresently all the volunteers who had undergone training programs are fully equipped andthey are ready to cope with any disaster occurs in their village. IEM will be continuouslymonitoring the skills and training they acquired to be practiced regularly and we will ensurethey will support DMC, and also wants all these trained volunteers helping DMC and will beworking with Govt when the disasters occur any time in future.
Annexure – 1 The Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness Training program BHADRACHALAM, KHAMMAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESHThe Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness Training program was organized by EFICOR,Bhadrachalam on 7 & 8th February 2006. EFICOR invited AFPRO, Hyderabad for conductingthe training. Dr. Sai Bhaskar Reddy from AFPRO, Hyderabad as resource person hassuccessfully conducted the training, in which 50 trainees participated. In which DisasterManagement Committee members (who have been involved in this work for the last twoyears), Volunteers (who have been helping the DMC in the village level) and Taskforcemember’s one person from each group from 9 habitations participated.The objective of the training was that the communities should know more about DisasterMitigation and preparedness work, disaster and its effectiveness, DMC role in handling thedisaster at the village level.Guidance was provided on the planning to form a Federation as a disaster responding teamfrom selected 9 habitations (Disaster management Federation), on how they can beregistered with the government, the legal implications in this regard, purpose, roles,responsibility and management of the DMF, Networking with others and on how to work withthe government.At the end of program the participants have understood the concept of disaster mitigationand preparedness. Accepted the roles and responsibilities of the DMC as. Aware aboutFederation and its legal implications. Known to network with other like minded groups andabout The Disaster Management Bill, 2005.Annexure 2Expected output from the evaluation:The expected output of this assignment is a report with the following sections: • Executive Summary (no more than four A4 sides) • Introduction / Background • Methodology • Context Analysis • For each Aspect, a section in the form o Findings o Conclusions o Assessment • Annexes (indicative) o Terms of Reference for the Evaluation o Profile of the Evaluation Team o Evaluation Schedule o Protocols for the Evaluation o Documents consulted during the Evaluation o Persons participating in the Evaluation o Field data used during the Evaluation, including baselinesExpected output from the Team Leader/ external evaluator:
Guideline for formulation of questionnaires Finalisation of methodology for data collection Compiling processTools of evaluation:Preparatory : Desk Research, Documentation and Data analysis, QuestionnairesImplementation : Focus Group Discussion, Interview Questionnaires with Community and Case study. : Meeting with the StaffSecondary data to be made available for the Evaluation team: Annual reports Baseline data ( if any) SHG registers DMC records Financial Statement ProposalEvaluation Team members:Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy : Team leader, External Evaluator – CEO, GEOMr. Harshan K.Y : Team Member, Program Coordinator- HIV project EFICORMr. Eshwar Rao : Team Member, Partner organization, IEMMr. Daich K. Madhvi : Team Member, Project Incharge- Koya IDP, EFICOR2 Members : Disaster management Society representing the CommunityMr. Ramesh Babu : Facilitator, Manager- Direct Projects, EFICORRoles of the members:Preparing questionnaires : Team Leader and MembersSelecting sample villages : Facilitator and Project staffCollecting data : Team MembersCompiling data : Team MembersPreparing Final report : Team LeaderDebriefing of the findings : Team LeaderLogistics : FacilitatorEvaluation time frame:13th April 2008 : Arrive at Bahdrachalam and Developing common understanding on evaluation Developing a frame work for the evaluation Study the secondary information14th April 2008(morning): Village visits14th April (afternoon) : Meeting Govt. officials at Block level15th April 2008 : visiting villages and meeting Govt. officials at Block level16th April : Meeting with Partner, govt at BCM level and Debriefing of findings25th April 2008 : Draft report circulate to team members1st may 2008 : Submission of Final reportTotal working days: 6 daysWorking at the field - 4 daysReport writing - 2 days
REFERENCESCabot Venton and Paul Venton, Disaster preparedness programmes in India - A costbenefit analysis, Number 49, Network Paper, The Humanitarian Practice Network at theOverseas Development Institute, 111 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7JD, UnitedKingdom, November 2004, HPN website: www.odihpn.orgwww.eficor.org