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Climate Change Workshop proceedings


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Climate Change Workshop proceedings

  1. 1. Fostering a better future… WWOORRKKSSHHOOPP OONN CCLLIIMMAATTEE CCHHAANNGGEE FFOORR CCIIVVIILL SSOOCCIIEETTYY OORRGGAANNIISSAATTIIOONNSS IINN AANNDDHHRRAA PPRRAADDEESSHH October 25-26, 2010 St. Ann’s Generalate, Tarnaka Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Workshop Proceedings Organised by: Poverty Learning Foundation Hyderabad Supported by: Commonwealth Foundation, UK
  2. 2. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 2 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Contents 1. Introduction.......................................................................................... 3 2. Proceedings........................................................................................... 3 2.1 Introductory session............................................................................... 3 2.2 Integration of Climate Change Concerns in Watershed Projects......... 5 2.3 The Science of Climate Change............................................................ 8 2.4 National Action Plan on Climate Change and the Role of CSOs........ 9 2.5 Climate Change, Poverty, and Livelihoods........................................... 12 2.6 Climate Change and Natural Resource Management............................ 14 2.7 Capacity-building Interventions for Integrating Climate Change Concerns in Programmes and Policies.................................................. 16 2.8 Vulnerabilities and Adaptations to Climate Change: GEO Initiatives.. 18 2.9 Group Work Presentations..................................................................... 20 2.10 Integration of Climate Change Concerns in CSO Projects.................... 21 3. Participants’ Feedback....................................................................... 25 4. Conclusion............................................................................................ 25 Annex 1: List of Participants and Resource People............................... 27 Annex 2: Workshop Agenda................................................................. 29 Annex 3: Participants’ Feedback........................................................... 30 *Cover photograph: Some of the workshop participants with the organising team.
  3. 3. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 3 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS IN ANDHRA PRADESH 1. INTRODUCTION With a view to increase awareness on climate change concerns and integrate adaptive strategies into existing programmes, Poverty Learning Foundation organised a workshop on climate change on October 25-26, 2010. The workshop was attended by the functionaries of civil society organizations (CSOs); particularly those involved in the implementation of watershed development projects of the National Agricultural and Rural Development Bank (refer to Annex 1 for the list of participants and to Annex 2 for the agenda of the workshop). 2. PROCEEDINGS 2.1 Introductory Session The workshop began with the welcoming of participants by Mr. N.L. Narasimha Reddy (CEO, PLF). This was followed by self-introduction of participants. Ms. Nefa (Team Leader - Watershed Development Fund Programme, PLF) facilitated a session on the participants’ expectations, where they were asked to write their expectations from the workshop on cards. The expectations as outlined by the participants were then grouped into the following categories and broadly shared with the group (the number in parentheses after each expectation refers to the number of people who expressed that expectation): Category Expectations Science of climate change To comprehensively understand nuances of and reasons for climate change. (7) To gain clarity on impact of temperature increase and intensification of hydrological cycle on agriculture, natural resources and livelihoods. (3) To understand the positive impacts of climate change on human society, if any. (1) To understand the relation between climate change and natural resource management (NRM). (3) Mitigation measures To learn strategies for combating/ mitigating climate change. (1) To learn more about possible ways to increase carbon capture (1) Adaptation measures To understand the changes required in NRM and agriculture development projects in view of climate change. (1) To learn how to involve people in villages where watershed activities are not implemented on climate change issues (1) To understand the importance of plantation (biomass on bunds) and soil fertility management in climate change. (5) To explore options for including silt application (from water bodies and conservation structures built under watershed) in poor soils under different NRM programmes. (1) To discuss the relevance of practices like organic farming/NPM, FYM, drought resistant crops, crop rotation, less water-intensive crops, livestock management, water harvesting (methods), reduction of pesticide use, etc., in the context of climate change (9).
  4. 4. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 4 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Capacity- building To understand the needs of human resources in addressing climate change concerns. (1) To have mechanisms for building awareness and sharing information from time to time on climate change with farmers. (3) (continued) To be able to prepare rural people to deal with climate change and to be able to involve and mobilise people’s participation on these issues (4) To be able to prepare and involve youth, and school and college students on climate change issues (2) Rural Energy Rural energy management (2) To better understand the relevance of biogas, bio-diesel plantation (e.g., pongamia and jatropha), etc. (2) Information and knowledge To learn about the importance of climate variability information in watershed villages (3) Participants writing down their expectations from the workshop Ms. Shailey Tucker (Team Leader - Poverty and Migration, PLF) while sharing the workshop objectives, agenda and expected outcomes, explained to the participants that the sessions planned would largely take care of the expectations of their expectations. She further explained that the workshop aimed first to introduce the participants to the basic science of climate change, with a view to better understand various aspects related to mitigation and adaptation. Subsequent sessions would then focus on the emerging rols of CSOs and the need of developing capacity-building interventions, both for CSO functionaries and for the communities they work with. Specifically, the scope of CSO involvement in the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) would be assessed and case studies of past experiences of adaptation to climate change would be discussed.
  5. 5. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 5 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 2.2 Integration of Climate Change Concerns in Watershed Projects Sri G. Chandrashekar Reddy, IFS (CEO1 , Centre for Climate Change and Environmental Advisory Services, Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP, Hyderabad) in his keynote address emphasised the need for integrating climate change concerns in NRM projects, in particular in watershed development programmes, given the relation between climate change and NRM. During the course of address, Mr. Reddy stressed the following points: • All NRM projects already lay an emphasis on ecological restoration; however, these projects now need to examine the same issues with another lens, namely that of climate change and the diverse risks the phenomenon poses. • Although rural communities themselves have played a limited role in bringing about climate change, it is imperative that they act on it accordingly since climate change will negatively impact everyone. • Climate change in the past (i.e., in the pre-industrial era) used to occur due to natural factors over a long period of time and impacts were not observed within people’s lifetimes. We have heard about and witnessed the loss of lives in 19th and 20th centuries due floods and droughts; however, the intensity of such climatic events is going to increase because of human-induced factors (e.g., the accumulation of green house gases, etc.). Mr. G. Chnadrasekhar Reddy delivering the keynote address to inaugurate the workshop • There are two key aspects of climate change directly related to watersheds, namely: (i) the intensification of the hydrological cycle; and (ii) an increase in average temperatures. These two aspects have immense implications on cropping 1 He is also the Joint Director General of Dr. MCR HRD Institute of AP.
  6. 6. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 6 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 patterns and on the availability and use of natural resources; therefore, we need to prepare watershed communities to face any challenges that may come their way in the future. Watershed development projects then become important not only in the context of resource conservation and rural livelihoods, but also in the context of climate change adaptation. • Mr. Reddy then asked participants to trace out the differences between villages with and without watershed interventions. The differences as mapped by the participants are as follows: Parameter With interventions Without interventions Community Well organised/also more aware – hence more involved in decision-making Less organised Wastelands Area reduced as brought into productive use Remain the same Groundwater level Improved Depleted Water management Improved use and sharing of water No sharing of water Backyard/ avenue plantation Area increased - Cropping pattern Alternative cropping systems adopted - Migration Reduced Continued out- migration Agricultural technology Improved access to tools, technology and knowledge Problems persist Livestock Improved cattle health services Improved fodder availability Milk collection centre established Problems exist with health services Livelihoods Diversified – so better-secured than in the past Unviable It is evident from this discussion that watershed villages are in a better position to deal with climate changes due to a number of reasons; well-organised communities (and institutions), an improved status of resources, better management practices, improved infrastructure facilities, an improved capacity of people to access services, and greater ability to make informed decisions all play a significant role in equipping these communities to be better prepared. While all of the above helps in adapting to climate change to some extent, much more remains to be done in order to enhance the adaptive capacities of watershed communities. Preparing and building adaptive capacities of communities involves the provision of technology, information, knowledge, and skills, as well as the strengthening of institutional arrangements and, above all, the sharing of management practices. The following table lists out some of the ways in which integrated watershed management can address climate change issues and prepare communities to face future challenges.
  7. 7. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 7 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Table 1: Integrated Watershed Management as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Parameter Action that can be taken Integrating adaptive strategies into existing activities • Increase agriculture productivity • Green manure (carbon sequestration) – mitigation – ploughing – carbon into soil • Soil amendments • Vegetative barriers • Across slope cultivation • Drought proofing –ownership of farmers Water resources Water scarcity implies that achieving National Water Mission (NWM) goal of 20% water-use efficiency is essential, especially given the changing nature of the hydrological cycle (less number of rainy days and more intense rainfall). • Restoration of structures • SRI (paddy cultivation releases methane due to decomposition due to excess use of water) – technology for optimal use of water • Farm pond/2 ha • Bore well: integration of micro-irrigation • Recharging dried-out wells • Groundwater – installation of capacitors to increase motor efficiency (↓electricity consumption) • Restoration of water bodies • Increase community ownership Livestock • Efficient and enterprising use of fodder (avoid fodder wastage – promote use of chaff cutter) • Increase fodder plots • Reduce scrub cattle and improve breeds (artificial insemination) – Reduce pressure on nature Rural energy (60% green house gases) • Promote wider use of gobar gas – reduce energy needs • Use services of gopalamitra • Agro-forestry • Encourage use of more energy-efficient chulhas • Supply CFL (energy-efficient) lamps • Mini-electrical plants – using biomass Plantation (CO2 is locked into plants) • Plant trees – Horticulture/Pomiculture • Don’t burn biomass (avoid release of CO2) • Foreshore plantation • Bamboo plantation (4 acres in a village) CPRs • Natural regeneration • Seed dibbling CDMs/carbon credits • Raising resources • Income for local communities Migration • Identify the most vulnerable regions and orient recruitment to those hailing from such regions • Target trainings to encourage development of scarce skills, especially for non-farm livelihoods • Ensure more effective implementation and monitoring of NREGS
  8. 8. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 8 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 • Ensure migrants and local peoples have the same rights • Reduce transaction costs on remittances • Reduce barriers to migration (including return migration) • Develop regional labour migration agreements Capacity-building • Communities – social adaptation to be increased • Use of same language at various levels (a challenge due to low literacy levels therefore, simultaneous focus on education is important) • Take up as IGP activities (also a way to increase community ownership) • Raising awareness and building capacity of rural communities on drought, impact on crop/livelihoods: Knowledge adaptation • Learning – Sharing– Application continuum • Information/knowledge management (e.g., weather-related information; location-specific information) • “Open knowledge” – sharing of knowledge on open platforms such as the Internet (avoiding creation/use of patents) 2.3 The Science of Climate Change With a view to introduce participants to the basics of climate change, Mr. N.L. Narasimha Reddy facilitated a session on the scientific and meteorological aspects of climate change. The session also briefly dealt with the impacts of climate change, the global response to climate change, and the associated politics. Box 1: What is climate change and what is the global response? What is climate change? Climate change is the result of changes in the energy received from the sun; changes in the amounts or characteristics of greenhouse gases, particles and clouds; or changes in the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface. The Science of climate change • The sun is the primary source of energy for the Earth’s climate. About 30% of the sun’s energy that reaches the Earth is reflected back to space by clouds, gases and small particles in the atmosphere, and by the Earth’s surface. The remainder is absorbed by the atmosphere and the surface. • To balance the absorption from the Sun, the Earth’s surface and atmosphere must emit the same amount of energy into space; they do so as infrared radiation. • The surface is kept warmer than it otherwise would be because, in addition to the energy it receives from the Sun, it also receives infrared energy emitted by the atmosphere (due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases, or GHGs). The warming that results from this infrared energy is known as the greenhouse effect. • The imbalance between the absorbed and emitted radiation that results from these changes will be referred to here as “climate forcing.” (continued)
  9. 9. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 9 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 • Positive climate forcing will tend to cause a warming, while negative forcing will lead to a cooling. Climate changes act to restore the balance between the energy absorbed from the sun and the infrared energy emitted into space. • There is strong evidence that changes in greenhouse gas concentrations due to human activity are the dominant cause of the global warming that has taken place over the last half century. This warming trend is expected to continue as are changes in precipitation over the long term in many regions, and further and more rapid increases in sea level are likely which will have profound implications for coastal communities and ecosystems. At present, it is not possible to determine exactly how much the Earth will warm or exactly how. Global response to climate change 1992, UNFCCC: Called for stabilisation of atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, but did not set binding targets. 1997, Kyoto Protocol: Created emission reduction targets for developed countries and also proposed measures such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for assisting developed countries in meeting their targets while helping developing countries in their development process • Did not come into effect till 2005 • The biggest polluter – the US – has still not ratified the Protocol • Between 1990 and 2006, the total CO2 emissions of all industrialized countries declined by 1.3 percent. However, this was largely due to reductions in the former Soviet Union countries; if these nations were excluded, the emission of industrialized countries actually increased by 14.5 percent. Mitigation • Changes in lifestyles and behaviour pattern • Waste management • Clean coal technologies • Renewable energy development • Energy efficient products • Emission control in transport sector and industries • Carbon sequestration • Natural resource management Adaptation • Reduce vulnerability • Capacity to adapt depends on socio- economic & environmental circumstances and availability of information & technology • Many communities have developed ways to adapt to weather- and climate- related events • Countries are starting to develop National Adaptation Programme of Action 2.4 National Action Plan on Climate Change and the Role of CSOs Ms. Esther Subhashini, (Project Coordinator, NRM unit, MV Foundation, Hyderabad), shared with the participants the NAPCC prepared by the Government of India in 2008 and its eight National Missions. Ms. Subhashini expressed how we need to change our values and actions in order to respond better to climate change; for example, by becoming more sensitive to forming a carbon-free economy, by becoming cost-effective
  10. 10. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 10 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 and more efficient, and by increasing transparency and accountability. Specifically, she described MVF’s experience relating to these Missions, laying the foundations for an action framework that could be followed by CSOs in order to meet the different tasks outlined in these Missions. The following table lists out these actions for seven of the National Missions (the National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem is excluded, as it is not directly related to work being done in Andhra Pradesh). Table 2: National Action plan on Climate Change and Role of NGOs Mission Focus MVF actions National Solar Mission Promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses. Make solar energy competitive with fossil-based energy options. • Solar energy-related activities: o Solar lamps o Solar dryers (activity for women’s SHGs) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency Energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries • Bio-diesel plantation with involvement of poor women National Mission on Sustainable Habitat Promote energy efficiency in urban planning. Greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, and power production from waste. • Reduce your carbon foot print : o Reduction in use of synthetic cloths (since production results in highest amount of chemical effluents) o Promotion of home-based food instead of processed food (which adds to pollution, consumes energy, etc.) National Water Mission 20% improvement in water-use efficiency. • Watershed activities (yet to think within climate change context) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem Conserve biodiversity and forest cover. Ecological values in the Himalayan region - National Mission for a “Green India” Afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands. Expansion of forest cover from 23% to 33% • Long-term thinking: o Environmental activism in schools o Plantation under watershed – Dry- land Horticulture (DH) and Agro- horticulture (AH) o National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture Support climate adaptation in agriculture. • Development of climate- resilient crops. • Expansion of weather insurance mechanisms. • Agricultural practices. • Livelihoods in response to pollution of Moosi river: o Identification of ground realities and working on them is important o Paddy (as the seed used to break) to para-grass (livestock feed) o Addressing equity issues: improving livelihoods of the poor (lack of options for landless, singles, etc.) o Productive use of assigned land o Programme for involving youth in agriculture. (continued)
  11. 11. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 11 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges. Climate Science Research Fund. Improved climate modelling. Increased international collaboration. Encourages private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds. • Livelihoods in response to pollution of Moosi river • Inculcating value systems in terms of climate change • Transformation in thinking o Work to transform communities (crop and livestock management) o Reduce carbon emissions o Conservation of resources o Well-being and better life based on equity • Become “other-centric” – what can I do for others (trainees agree to train others) o Collective action for crisis management (women’s groups) o Food security (organic and natural) o Fodder security o Health, nutrition and wellness Ms. Esther Subhashini sharing actions taken by MV Foundation on climate change adaptation Ms. Subhashini stressed during her presentation how much more still needs to be done to address all the varied concerns of climate change. Among other things, it is imperative to become self-reliant in terms of finances and to raise local funds; not only would this reduce dependence on external aid and funds, but it would also increase ownership of adaptation programmes among the local communities. In addition, at present there is a gap in the transfer of both knowledge and technology that needs to be addressed; for example, institutions like ICRISAT can play a far-reaching role in sharing information at
  12. 12. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 12 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 the grassroots level about what cultivars can and should be grown in order to adapt cropping patterns more efficiently to ever-increasing seasonal variability. 2.5 Climate Change, Poverty and Livelihoods This session was facilitated by Dr. Pradip Kumar Nath (Associate Professor, Centre for Agrarian Studies and Disaster Management, National Institute for Rural Development, Hyderabad). The highlights of his presentation were as follows: • Climate change makes the poor and disadvantaged groups more vulnerable, no matter what their background: tribal, rural, or urban. About 70% of the world’s poorest are women and they become more vulnerable due to the following reasons: o Restricted access to resources and information o Limited power in decision-making o Tradition gender-based roles and power dynamics o Extreme events may trigger domestic violence • We already observe an increase in the hardship of India’s poorest women, who are generally responsible not only for meeting household food and water needs but also working in the fields. As climate change adversely impacts the availability of water and firewood as well as agricultural production, their workload for meeting the basic needs of the family is also increasing significantly. • The impacts of climate change will be felt across the rural sector as agricultural production is affected, leading to food insecurity and uncertainty for rural livelihoods. In particular, there will be greater stress on rural livelihoods with decreasing availability of crop land, continuing loss of crops, declining crop production and declining bio-diversity. Thus, the poor are likely to be the worst- affected; for instance, a reduction in non-timber forest produce (NTFP) will adversely affect tribal communities. • Similarly, intensification of the hydrological cycle will force change in land use and cropping patterns. This will increase the demand for water conservation, crop insurance, etc., and the worst-affected in this case would be small and marginal farmers. • Another issue that is of concern is the possible displacement of populations (and livelihoods), especially due to the inundation of low-lying coastal areas given rising sea-levels.
  13. 13. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 13 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 • Climate change will also have grave impacts on the health of populations and we can already observe an escalating rate of disease. Again, the poor and marginalised are the most adversely-affected, among whom there is an increased incidence of bacterial infection, vector-borne diseases and severe under-nutrition. • Adaptation to climate change should therefore include crop improvement and research, drought-proofing and flood control, improved health services, risk financing, disaster management, poverty alleviation, and diversification of livelihoods. Dr. P.K. Nath during his session on the dynamics between climate change and poverty • Dr. Nath concluded the session by saying that we all should work towards a “climate-smart world.” For this to happen, “we must act now, we must act together and we must act differently.” • The discussion generated following Dr. Nath’s presentation included clarification on the role that developing countries, such as India, have played in bringing about climate change vis-à-vis that played by developed nations, such as the United States. It was seen that while the US is the leading emitter of carbon from the use of fossil fuels, followed closely by China; India, whose levels of emission are much lower in comparison, still ranks among the top emitters, however. Furthermore, participants discussed whether it was truly possible to revert to a more ethical approach of working to adapt to climate change.
  14. 14. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 14 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Participant sharing his own perspective on climate change and poverty 2.6 Climate Change and Natural Resource Management Ms. Nefa and Mr. Nagabramha Chary facilitated this session highlighting the links between natural resource management and climate change impacts. Vulnerability: As mentioned earlier, the impact of climate change on natural resources will render certain types of livelihoods more uncertain, making sections of the population more vulnerable than others. The level of vulnerability of a household or community can be assessed based on the risks, stress and shocks it faces. Variability in rainfall, for example, creates stress on crops because of low retention of soil moisture and higher possibility of pest attack and low crop yields. Farmers who are not prepared to face these risks are more likely to feel stress with the spread of disease, higher expenditures and lower-quality products. In addition, in extreme cases they are likely to be exposed to shocks such as crop failure. Adaptation: The capacity of a household or community to adapt to climate change depends on several factors such as its socio-economic status, environmental circumstances, and the availability of information and technology, to name a few. Thus, those households possessing the following capital would be able to cope better: Type of Capital Advantage Physical Access to infrastructure, market Financial Credit, bank linkage Human Skills, knowledge, information Natural Better-quality endowments, access to related resources Social Support of institution, network of which one is member
  15. 15. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 15 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Ms. Nefa and Mr. Brahmam, PLF, during their session on climate change and NRM Gaps in current watershed action plans: In the above context, current watershed action plans need to integrate numerous aspects in order to meet gaps in knowledge, information, technology, etc., and equip communities to be better prepared to meet the challenges that climate change poses. The following table describes these gaps: Table 3: Gaps observed in current watershed development action plans Resource Problems Included Gaps Soil erosion - wind and rain Farm bunding Vegetative barriers Water retention capacity of soil Compost units Soil amendments to improve quality Application of farmyard manure (FYM)/green manure/ploughing across slope, etc. Land Technology, information and knowledge - Information on alternative crops Seed preservation Border crop/plantation Drilling of bore wells/ deepening of bore wells - Social regulation of bore wells Water sharing Water harvesting pits Run-off /velocity - Institutions are neither adequately equipped nor effectively involved Repair and maintenance Water management - Low water consumption crops Water conservation technologies – adoption of SRI paddy, drip and sprinklers Water Post- project management - Empowerment of institutions and community
  16. 16. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 16 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 2.7 Capacity-building Interventions for Integrating Climate Change Concerns in Programmes and Policies Dr. V.K. Reddy (Ex-Director, NRM unit, MANAGE) focused on the needs for capacity- building, citing examples from project interventions made at the national-level in collaboration with MSSRF. The process to be followed in assessing CB needs includes: consultations with different stakeholders and the identification of emerging needs in the context of climate change; of target groups; of gaps in thematic areas; and of the strategies and approaches to be adopted. Table 4: Capacity Development Process and Interventions Identification of needs • Conscious effort to sensitize and build capacities of various stakeholders so that they are able play their respective roles • Proactive action to address ill-effects of Green Revolution as well as issues related to climate change, such as: o Decrease in agriculture productivity o Increased stress on livestock o Effects on bio-diversity o Increase in vector-borne diseases • Community level issues: much more needs to be done o Defunct institutions and changes in the nature of local cooperation. o Empowerment – capacity to manage with transparency, accountability, equity, etc. o Change in mind-set– lack of required focus on building awareness, on developing and strengthening institutions o Missing link: necessary knowledge and skills at local level o Sensitisation of officials Thematic areas to be focused on • Alternative, and less water-intensive, crops • Need for technologies – Participatory Technology Development (PTD) – to fit into local area (beyond research station) • Information too generic – must be location-specific • Climate change concerns are not taken into account while designing programs Capacity- building • More time and resources to be allocated for capacity-building, in particular focusing on: o Institution building is one step in CB (but not end in itself) o Inadequate sources of information o Adaptation – pilot, document (Indigenous Technical Knowledge, ITK), sharing and scaling up (agriculture. Water and energy) – community participation mode o Modify practices and programmes according to the needs of climate change issues o Understand specific local possibilities and plan CB – vulnerability assessment Knowledge management • Village knowledge centre (Weather centres by training local people to manage) • Documenting, sharing available experiences and successful practices Strategies • Sensitisation • Sharing of success stories and best practices • Screening of films • Exposure visits • Upgrading and providing tools and techniques • Encouraging community action
  17. 17. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 17 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Dr. V.K. Reddy discussing capacity-building initiatives in Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh Mr. Reddy’s presentation was followed by a discussion on what actions could be taken by the participants at the field-level and what would be the requirements in order to carry them out. Even within existing NRM programmes, including watershed development projects, resources are allocated for capacity-building; however, they are not fully- utilised due to a lack of trained people and training materials. Since climate change is a new topic, Dr. V.K. Reddy was asked whether the study suggested any ways to deal with this particular issue. Dr. Reddy conceded that this is a challenge that must be faced, by effectively using the materials that are available; there is a need for all the government departments to include climate change in their training programmes. Participants also stated how the government is not systematically targeting communities/villages at present for on-going activities; several people who should be included as beneficiaries of schemes are currently missing out. Therefore, concern was raised as to whether or not adaptive strategies to climate change would be properly targeted. It was also expressed how education or capacity-building of communities on its own is not sufficient to bring about change unless they are also complemented by policies at a larger level at the same time. For instance, the example of creating awareness about the ill-effects of using plastic, especially plastic bags was cited, which needs to be simultaneously addressed by a policy angle also.
  18. 18. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 18 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 2.8 Vulnerabilities and Adaptation to Climate Change: GEO Initiatives Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy (CEO, GEO Initiatives), next presented some practical aspects of dealing with climate change in the field, citing various examples of initiatives already under way around the state of Andhra Pradesh. Vulnerability and adaptation: The presentation started with Dr. Reddy asking participants to translate the term “vulnerability” into Telugu. Vulnerability to climate change refers to “the risk of adverse things happening” and is a factor of three things: exposure; sensitivity; and adaptive capacity. According to Dr. Reddy, exposure to risk is heightened when communities become more aware of or more sensitive to problem issues. In contrast, however, greater sensitivity to or better awareness of an issue then permits them to be better-equipped to handle challenges that may come their way. In the context of Andhra Pradesh and watersheds, the concerns are related to saturated watershed areas and there is a need to work on alternative and clean energy issues. Adaptation, according to the Third Assessment Report of Working Group II of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is “adjustment in national or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.” It is of note that the above definition refers to adaptation to both “actual” (realised) and “expected” (future) changes in climate. It is also logical to assume that the chances of survival are greater the more developed is a household or community’s adaptive capacity. There are two types of adaptation to climate change: autonomous or anticipatory. While the former is reactive in nature, responding to changes already being observed or felt, the latter is proactive, preparing households and communities to be able to face the potential risks of any future changes. In order to devise efficient adaptation strategies to build resilience and reduce vulnerabilities, it is important to understand the linkages between the various stakeholders involved in the decision-making process. There exist several different stakeholders at a number of levels, from the farmers in the field to policy-makers at the district-, state-, national- and international-levels. Any policies that facilitate action to be taken on the ground must be informed by an in-depth vulnerability assessment taken at the beginning of any project. The task at hand is huge and therefore, all institutions involved must act on any one (or more) of the following areas: activities, facilitation, research, and capacity-building; for example, the strength of grassroots NGOs lies in the process of facilitation. GEO initiatives: The organisation GEO engages with climate change issues in four different ways: action on the ground, capacity-building, facilitation, and research. According to Dr. Reddy, capacity-building, which he considers the most important, involves creating awareness and sensitivity, training and exposure with the stakeholders, especially at the community level, in order to enable people to decrease potential risks of
  19. 19. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 19 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 both present and future challenges. Recognising that field-level experience and knowledge is essential to meet face these challenges, community-based action research is thus something that the organisation concentrates upon significantly. One of the initiatives that GEO has taken is to promote the use of biochar as an alternative source of energy and fuel. Sources of biomass for biochar include the following: crop residue, rice hust and other types of biomass, as well as prosopis juliflora, a wild plant that is widely used as firewood and for making barriers. Since prosopis juliflora is abundantly available in semi-arid environments, it can be easily grown for use in charcoal production, enhancing soil microbes and application in the fields at the same time. The biochar produced can itself be put to a variety of uses, such as for creating biochar urinals (which tap nitrogen from the urine of animals using biochar) and biochar compost (green mulching). Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy sharing examples of energy-efficient technologies Climate variability in a semi-arid environment is largely observed in the form of a decrease in rainfall and higher average temperatures. The increasing frequency of climate shocks calls for a greater effort to become energy efficient. One of GEO’s initiatives involves a series of biochar-producing stoves, the Magh series, which helps in not only using energy more efficiently, but also reduces the ill-effects of smoke released from other fuels on its users. Dr. Reddy concluded by stating that it is important to make people aware of the choices before them, to actually increase the choices available to them, and to share knowledge freely, be it of participatory technical development (PTD) or of innovations for
  20. 20. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 20 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 alternative energy use. A participant also asked Dr. Reddy to clarify the concept of clean development mechanisms (CDM), to which he responded by explaining that a CDM is a funding mechanism, through which Annex I countries (developed countries listed in the Kyoto Protocol) provide funds to non-Annex countries in order to achieve sustainable development by implementing climate change mitigation measures. Furthermore, participants expressed their wish to have a more practical exposure to climate change mitigation and adaptation practices currently being tried out. 2.9 Group Work Presentations At this point in the workshop, participants shared the group work they had been assigned the night before. Divided into two groups, the participants had to outline national and field-level activities that they felt could be taken to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Group 1 presented the national level activities, basically summarising for the group the details of the eight National Missions of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). Group 2 presented the village-level activities that are on-going as part of the watershed projects as well as new initiatives that could be taken, such as the provision of smokeless chulhas and solar lamps. Group work on national-level action to mitigate and adapt to climate change
  21. 21. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 21 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Group presentation on the National Missions of the NAPCC Group presentation on village-level action for adaptation to climate change 2.10 Integration of Climate Change Concerns in CSO Projects Mr. Sanjay Gupta, IFS, Irrigation and Command Area Development, Government of Andhra Pradesh, led the final session of the workshop on how to integrate climate change concerns in CSO projects. Starting off with a general discussion on climate variability and climate change in Andhra Pradesh, Mr. Gupta clarified that the average annual rainfall in the state has, in fact, increased over the last thirty years, not decreased, as was widely assumed by the participants; this level has increase by approximately 3% (30mm)
  22. 22. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 22 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 to the current average of 940mm per year. The main points of the Mr. Gupta’s session were as follows: • As part of the eight National Missions (of the NAPCC), each state has been linked with a research station to better understand the impacts of climate change. In particular, Andhra Pradesh has been linked with the Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, which classifies climate events according to the probability of occurrence, and thus helps inform policies and action to be taken. • The NAPCC itself, however, is quite vague and does not list specific goals, with clear timelines, etc. Mr. Gupta stressed that the successful implementation of the NAPCC requires that the goals outlined be specific, measurable and time-bound, with clear quantifiable indicators and targets. Mr. Sanjay Gupta interacting with participants and outlining the framework for future action of CSOs on climate change adaptation • These goals of the National Missions (seven of which directly concern AP) can be divided into two broad categories: 1. Creating awareness, disseminating information (of correct data) and enhancing capacities; and 2. Implementing real action. o While the former does not require many funds, the latter requires a significant amount. o The implementation of real action is possible either in on-going activities or in new ones. Among on-going activities, organisations create their own programmes and can also have government linkages. Thus, it is possible to integrate action addressing the Missions into existing programmes, with existing funds. o New programmes, however, require more funds; this is a job for RSOs like PLF, who identify sources of new funds/raise funds through projects, etc. o However, it is imperative to keep on-going activities sustainable, whether or not we are able to raise new funds to implement new action. • Based on the above, an agenda was proposed for PLF and the CSOs: o 25-30 NGOs/CSOs have already been identified by PLF to work on the issues of climate change and they are being oriented and trained on how to integrate adaptive strategies into their programmes.
  23. 23. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 23 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 o Since each CSO works with 80-100 villages approximately, each should identify 5 villages in which to implement these strategies. o Selection criteria for villages must be decided upon, keeping in mind the NAPCC; for this purpose, mapping of villages/watershed can be undertaken to help decide the criteria. o Moreover, there is much scope for establishing linkages with government departments and bodies, such as NEDCAP (Non-conventional Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Ltd.), which can be asked to subsidise the provision of solar lamps to communities, and the Irrigation Department, which can assist in providing resources for the promotion of SRI paddy. • The role for PLF (and other RSOs) is thus threefold: o Form a coordinating group, whose main functions would be to: 1. Create knowledge and disseminate it (by undertaking research, creating pamphlets/posters, etc.). 2. Coordinate the NGOs, create platforms for their interaction; and also build partnerships with the government, with other RSOs and resource people 3. Scout for funds through the identification of needs and the preparation of proposals via a consultative process.4 • Several examples of innovative strategies and alternative energies, as well as existing areas where efficiency can be increased were also stated: o Gujarat: Pre-paid electricity metres have been set up in a number of areas, which promotes efficient use of electricity, limiting wastage. o Agricultural pumps: Since electricity is given free of cost for a large proportion of farmers in AP, energy efficiency is not a concern for farmers; however, there is a need to sensitise them to the overall benefits to the community/state by being more efficient. o SRI paddy: The adoption of SRI paddy should be encouraged as it will aid in meeting the 20% water-use efficiency action point of the National Water Mission. o Green cover: The widespread planting of trees and other plants should be encouraged in order to increase existing green cover. • Mr. Gupta thus ended the session with an outline for the way forward, highlighting the need for taking small, achievable and measurable, steps to tackle climate change. The following table lists some of the ways that CSOs can actively incorporate strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change:
  24. 24. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 24 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Table 5: Opportunities for CSOs to actively work on climate change agenda OpportunitiesThematic Area Grassroots action Support services Research Poor and vulnerable groups Pilot initiatives that address vulnerabilities of the poor due to climate variability. Form a CSO network and initiate action. Training to CSOs. Preparation of resource/communication material. Mapping of vulnerable areas and groups in the context of climate change in AP. Documentation of adaptations by communities Forestry Strengthen Vana Samrakshana Samithis with sustainable forest development practices. Networking of NGOs to facilitate joint programs of afforestation, reforestation and agro- forestry practices Study of alternate sustainable land-use patterns for forest habitats. Low carbon economy Consumer education on green initiatives. Identification and diffusion of suitable technologies. Networking with technology providers. Piloting testing technology with community participation. CDM Awareness and motivation to communities on solar, biogas, wind energies and energy efficient models, etc. Interaction with agencies developing appropriate CDM technologies for adoption in rural areas. Study on CDM options for the poor and vulnerable communities, and its impact on local environments. National Action Plans on Climate Change Sensitisation to panchayats on climate change missions Creation of linkages with various government line departments to implement local, people- oriented climate change interventions. Identification of suitable action plans for local geographical areas. Sectoral & thematic assessments Community-based interactions on livestock activities and various ecosystems like dry-land, flood-affected, coastal, forest, and other vulnerable areas. Gathering information from nodal agencies for creating strategies with a people-oriented approach. Projects in collaboration with NATCOM.
  25. 25. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 25 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 3. PARTICIPANTS’ FEEDBACK Overall, the participants’ were largely satisfied with the course of the workshop, with 12 participants finding it “good” or “excellent” (see tables1-5 in Annex 3). Six participants felt that the workshop inputs were highly useful for their work. The sessions that were most liked by the participants were those on integrating climate change concerns in watershed programmes by Mr. G. Chandrasekhar Reddy; the case study on climate change vulnerability and adaptation by Dr. Sai Bhaskar Reddy; and the session on the scope of CSO participation in the implementation of the NAPCC by Mr. Sanjay Gupta. At the same time, however, it was observed that certain participants had difficulty in understanding fully those sessions not conducted in Telugu; some participants expressed that the workshop would have been more beneficial for them had all the sessions and resource materials provided been in Telugu. Care will thus be taken to ensure that there are no communication barriers in subsequent workshops. That having been said, however, 13 participants felt that the knowledge they had gained could be used to train, educate, and change attitudes of local bodies, villagers, and various livelihoods groups in a village. In addition, 12 participants felt that the material could be used to train Village Watershed Development Committee (VWDC) members and other villagers, especially on aspects related to rural energy management, as shared in the case studies session. Furthermore, four participants felt that the material was useful to share with the Gram Sabha. Participants also gave suggestions on how to improve the workshop, with 13 participants expressing a wish for a workshop of a longer duration; some participants also suggested increasing the time devoted to the session on case studies. A need for sessions sharing technical knowledge, such as on weather- information systems, clean development mechanisms, and specific adaptation measures, was also expressed. Eight people suggested that an exposure visit be made a part of the workshop itself to gain better understanding of the issues. Six people stated that the development of a pool of resource persons to create awareness and conduct trainings at the grassroots level would prove useful. 4. CONCLUSION The workshop effectively introduced the participants to the issues arising from climate change and to the manner in which climate change is already impacting rural livelihoods in semi-arid regions such as Andhra Pradesh. Insight was gained on basic fundamentals related to meteorological science, leading to further discussions on the ways in which natural resource management practices, specifically within watershed development projects, can be altered to incorporate adaptive strategies and reduce poverty at the same time. While keeping in mind the National Action Plan on Climate Change, several examples of work already being conducted to this end were shared, such as the activities being implemented by M.V. Foundation and the alternative energy initiatives being taken by GEO. The need for capacity development of both organisations and communities was
  26. 26. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 26 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 also highlighted, whereby vulnerabilities at the ground-level can be identified and effective action can be taken to reduce potential risks and face any challenges that may arise. Furthermore, the framework for future action was laid down, which will be discussed in greater depth at a follow-up consultation meeting with the participants in the coming weeks. In addition, sincere efforts were made to include a greater number of women not only as participants but also as resource people; while 17% of the participants were women, the proportion was 33% for female resource people, and thus we aim to ensure greater participation of women in the future workshops. Finally, the constructive feedback given by the participants also points to the manner in which subsequent workshops can be improved upon, and care will be taken to incorporate as many suggestions as possible in order to ensure that all participants’ expectations are met. Participant singing a Telugu song on the environment at the end of the workshop
  27. 27. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 27 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Annex 1: List of Participants and Resource People S. No. Participant’s Name Organisation Gender 1 Md. Imtiyaz Ahamed HELP, Marupally, R.R. District Male 2 M. Raju HELP, Marupally, R.R. District Male 3 S. Rukmoddin HELP, Marupally, R.R.District Male 4 G. Prasad SEED, Sankarpalli, R.R. District Male 5 C.H. Ashok SEED, Sankarpalli, R.R. District Male 6 H. Krishnaiah SEED, Kesavpalli, R.R. District Male 7 P. Prakasam SEED, Navabpeta, R.R. District Male 8 Renuka Jaiswal BIRD, Secunderabad , R.R. District Female 9 K. Shalini BIRD, Kharmanghat, R.R. District Female 10 V. Krishna kishore BIRD, Gandeedu, R.R. District Male 11 K. Ashanna BIRD, Gandeedu, R.R. District Male 12 R.V. Bhaskar MCHS,Gandeedu, R.R. District Male 13 A. Meenakshi M.V.F, Vanasthalipuram, Hyd. Female 14 P.V. Srinivas M.V.F, Vanasthalipuram, Hyd. Male 15 M. Venkatesh M.V.F, Vanasthalipuram, Hyd. Male 16 M. Gopal Reddy VIKASAM, Parigi, R.R. District Male 17 Gopi David VIKASAM, Parigi, R.R. District Male 18 Kishan Babu VIKASAM, Parigi, R.R. District Male 19 H.N. Moorthi VIKASAM, Parigi, R.R. District Male 20 Ch. Uma PEACE, Bhongir, Nalgonda (Dist) Female 21 M. Madhu PEACE, Bhongir, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 22 K. Srinivas Gram vikas, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 23 B. Venkatesh Gram vikas, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 24 K. Saraswathi PARDS, Narayanpur, Nalgonda (Dist Female 25 K. Raju PARDS Narayanapur,Nalgonda (Dist) Male 26 J. Madhukar PARDS, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 27 M. Raju READ, R.R. District Male 28 M. Padma Reddy PILUPU, Bhongir, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 29 M. Janardhan PILUPU, Bhongir, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 30 MD. Fathima PILUPU, Bhongir, Nalgonda (Dist) Female 31 Ch. Bhaskar Reddy SISS, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 32 B. Chandraiah SISS, Nalgonda (Dist) Male 33 Nandeswar PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male 34 Vidyasagar PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male 35 P. Sudhakar Reddy PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male
  28. 28. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 28 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Resource Persons Ms. Nefa PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Female Mr. N. Brahmam PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male Mr. G. Chandrasekhar Reddy CEO, Climate Change and Environmental Advisory Services, MCR HRD, Hyderabad Male Ms. Esther Subhashini Project Coordinator, MVF, Hyderabad Female Dr. P.K. Nath Associate Professor, NIRD, Hyderabad Male Dr. V.K. Reddy Ex-Director, NRM Unit MANAGE,Hyderabad Male Dr. Sai Bhaskar Reddy CEO, GEO, Hyderabad Male Mr. Sanjay Gupta Irrigation and Command Area Development, Government of India Male Organising Team N.L. Narasimha Reddy PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male Shailey Tucker PLF Tarnaka, Secunderabad Female Jayachandra PLF Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male N. Saidulu PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male M. Manohar PLF, Tarnaka, Secunderabad Male List of Abbreviations Organisation Name BIRD Bharath Institute of Rural Development GEO Geo-ecology Energy Organisation MANAGE National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management M.C.H.S Mono Chaitanya Human Services MCR HRD Dr. Marri Channa Reddy Human Resource Development Institute of AP M.V.F M. Venkatarangaiya Foundation PARDS People Action for Rural Development Society PEACE People Action for Creative Education PLF Poverty Learning Foundation READ Rural Education and Agriculture Development SEED Society for Environment protection and Education Development SISS Society for Integrated Social Services
  29. 29. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 29 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Annex 2: Workshop Agenda Day 1: Introduction to Climate Change Time Session Plan 9:30-10:00 am Registration 10:00-12:00 am Opening Session • Welcome to the participants – Mr. N. L. N. Reddy, CEO, PLF • Introduction of participants – Mr. Brahmam, PLF • Keynote address – Sri G. Chandrashekar Reddy, IFS, MCHRD 12:00-12:15 am Break 12:15– 1:00pm • Experience sharing by participants • Expectations of participants • Introduction to workshop Ms. Nefa and Ms. Shailey 1:00-1:30pm The Science of Climate Change – Mr. N.L. Narasimha Reddy, CEO, PLF 1:30 – 2:30 pm Lunch 2:30 – 3:30 pm National Action Plan on Climate Change: Proposed Actions by MVF – Ms. Esther Subhashini, Project Coordinator, NRM unit, MVF 3:30– 4:30 pm Climate change, Poverty and Livelihoods – Dr. P. K. Nath, Associate professor, Centre for Agrarian studies and Disaster Management, NIRD 4:30– 4:45 pm Break 4:45 – 5:30 pm Climate Change and Natural Resource Management – Mr. Bramham & Ms. Nefa, Watershed Development Fund Programme, PLF Group-work assigned for presentation on Day 2: 1. National Action Plan on Climate Change 2. Scope for Integration of Climate Change Concerns in Watershed Programmes (grassroots action) Day 2: Adaptation to Climate Change Time Session Plan 10:00 – 1:30 pm Case Studies on Adaptation • Capacity-building Interventions for Integrating Climate Change Concerns in Development Programmes and Policies – Dr. V.K. Reddy, ex-Director, MANAGE • V&A Project, GEO Interventions and Energy-Efficient Technologies - Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy, CEO, GEO 1:30– 2:30 pm Lunch 2:30 – 3:30 pm Presentations from groups 3:30 – 4:30 pm Integration of climate change concerns in CSO projects – Sri. Sanjay Gupta, IFS, I&CAD 4:30 – 5:15pm Feedback from participants 5:15 – 5.30 pm Closing
  30. 30. Workshop on Climate Change for CSOs in Andhra Pradesh 30 Poverty Learning Foundation October 2010 Annex 3: Participants’ Feedback Table1: Opinion on the way training was conducted2 Not satisfactory (as sessions lack depth) 1 Very much focused 2 Good/Excellent 12 Inputs are useful to use it in our work 6 Understood only 50% of what was said in the training 3 Table 2: Sessions that were most liked by the participants Integration of climate change concerns in watershed programme 9 Case studies on climate change mitigation and adaptation 8 Scope for CSOs in implementation of NPCC 3 Table 3: Application value of training material to field situation Can be used to train, educate and change attitudes of local bodies, villagers and different livelihood groups in a village 13 Can be used to train VWDC members and villagers, in particular aspects related to session on case studies on rural energy management 12 Useful to share with Gram Sabha 4 Table 4: Participants’ suggestions for improving training Contents - Excellent 7 Need to include sessions for comprehensive understanding of climate change. 5 Required trainings on different aspects related to CC : Technical aspects (e.g., Weather Information system, CDM), adaptation measures, etc. 6 More time to be allocated for sessions such as cases studies on climate change mitigation and adaptation 7 Resource material to be provided in local language 3 All sessions should be in Telugu 3 Training days needs to be increased; and imparted in 3-4 modules in phased manner 13 Trainings are needed for primary stakeholders (e.g., members of watershed development committee, school children, youth, farmers, etc) 2 Development of pool of resource persons for carrying out training sat grassroots level (and for creating awareness at village/habitation level) 6 Required exposure visits and demonstrations as part of the training 8 Improvement in tools and training methodologies 2 Table 5: Food and other facilities provided at the place of training Excellent 11 Good 8 Satisfactory 12 Not satisfactory 1 2 The figures in each table refer to the number of participants who indicated each particular opinion.