CONTENTS1. DEFINITIONS2. THEORIES OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Psychodynamic theories Psychosexual theory-Freud Psycho social theory-Eric Erickson Cognitive theory-piaget Behavioral Theories Hierarchy of needs-Maslow Social learning theory-Bandura Classical conditioning-Pavlov Operant conditioning-Skinner
DEFINITIONSPSYCHOLOGY: is the science dealing with human nature, function andphenomenon of his soul in the main.CHILD PSYCHOLOGY: is the science that deals with the mental power oran interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in achild.BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT: The means by which dental health teameffectively and efficiently performs treatment for a child andsimultaneously instills a positive dental attitude in the child. THEORIES OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY It is classified into two groupsPsychodynamic theories: Psychosexual theory-Freud Psycho social theory-Eric Erickson Cognitive theory-piagetBehavioral Theories: Hierarchy of needs-Maslow Social learning theory-Bandura Classical conditioning-Pavlov Operant conditioning-Skinner
Psychoanalytical theory (Sigmond Freud) :He described the five psychosexual stages.Psychic structure proposed by freud in psycho dynamic theorycomposed of three parts 1. Id: It is the basic structure of personality, which serves as a reservoir of instincts or their mental representative. It is present at birth , impulse ridden and strives for immediate pleasure and gratification(pleasure principle) 2. Ego: It develops out of Id in the second to sixth month of life when the infant begins to distinguish between itself and the outside world. It is the mediation between Id and super Ego. Unlike Id, Ego is governed by the reality principle. It is concerned with memory and judgment. It is developed after birth, expands with age and it delays ,modifies and controls Id impulses on a realistic level 3. Super Ego: it is the prohibition learned from environment. It acts as a censor of acceptability of thoughts, feelings and behaviour.It is determined by regulations imposed upon the child by parents society, and culture. It is the internalized control which produces the feeling of shame and guilt.
Freud’s stages of development: • Birth • Oral stage • Anal stage • Uretheral stage • Phallic stage • Latency stage • Genital stage Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)The more frequent pairing of the conditioned and unconditionedstimulus, the stronger is the conditioning.The principles involved in the process are: 1. Generalization where in the process of conditioning is evoked by a band of stimuli centered around a specific conditioned stimulus e.g., a child who has had a painful experience with a doctor in white coat always associates any doctor in white coat with pain. 2. Extinction of the conditioned behavior results if the association between the conditioned and the unconditioned response is not reinforced.
3. Discrimination is the opposite of generalization Skinner described four basic types of operant conditioning1. Positive reinforcement: occurs if a pleasant consequence follows the response e.g., a child rewarded for good behavior following dental treatment2. Negative Reinforcement: involves removal of unpleasant stimuli following a response e.g., if the parent gives into the temper tantrums thrown by the child , he reinforces this behavior3. Omission: refers to removal of the pleasant response of a particular response e.g., if the child misbehaves during the dental procedure, his favorite toy is taken away for a short time resulting in the omission of the undesirable behavior4. Punishment: involves introduction of on aversive stimulus into a situation to decrease the undesirable behavior e.g., use of palatal rake in correction of tongue thrusting habit.
Cognitive theory (Piaget) Piaget formulated his theory on how children and adolescents thinkand acquire knowledge. The process of adaptation is made up of 3functional variants-1. Assimilation2. Accommodation3. EquilibrationThe sequence of development has been categorized into 4major stages1. Sensory motor stage (0 to 2 years): Every child is born with certainstrategies for interacting with environment2. Pre-operational stage (2 to 6 years): Primitive strategies change as achild assimilates new experiences and accommodates originalstrategies3. Concrete operation stage (6 to 12 years): The thinking processbecome logical4. Formal operation stage (11 to 15 years): The child now a teenager isable to think still more abstractly
Hierarchy of Needs (Masler)Masler believed in the self-actualization theory, i.e., the need tounderstand the totality of a person.
Psychosocial theory (Eric Erickson)Erickson concentrated on child’s development covering the entire spanof life cycle from infancy to childhood through old age. Erickson’s psychological stages:- Basic trust versus mistrust (0 to 1 yr) Autonomy versus shame ,doubt (2 to 3 yrs) Initiative versus guilt (4 to 5 yr) Industry versus inferiority (6 to 12 yrs) Identity versus role confusion (13 to 18 yrs) Intimacy versus isolation (19 to 25 yrs) Generativity versus stagnation (26 to 50 yrs) Ego integrity versus despair (50 +yrs)
Social learning theory (Bandura) It is the most complete, clinically useful and theoretically asophisticated form of behavior therapy. As compared to operant andclassical conditioning this theory is • Less reductionistic • Provides more explanatory concepts • Encompasses a broader range of phenomena The learning of behavior is affected by four principle elements 1. Antecedent determinants 2. Consequent determinants 3. Modeling It involves four processes which are • Attention process • Retention process • Reproduction process • Motivation 4. Self-regulation