Introduction• Fires can strike any type of workplace at any time, resulting in property damage, injuries, and deaths.• The adverse financial effects can be felt by an organization long after the fire is extinguished.• Fire is a hazard that can potentially strike any workplace.
Introduction• Safety science is a twenty-first-century term for everything that goes into the prevention of accidents, illnesses, fires, explosions, and other events that harm people, property, or the environment (ASSE and BCSP 2000, 3).• Fire losses can be one of the greatest threats to an industrial organization in terms of financial losses, loss of life, loss of property, and property damage.
Fire Prevention vs Fire Protection What is the differences?
Fire Protection and Prevention• Industrial fire protection and prevention involves recognizing those situations that may result in an unwanted fire, evaluating the potential for an unwanted event, and developing control measures that can be used to eliminate or reduce those fire risks to an acceptable level.
Fire Prevention vs Fire Protection• Fire prevention is the elimination of the possibility of a fire being started. In order to start, every hostile fire requires an initial heat source, an initial fuel source, and something to bring them together (NFPA 1997, 1–9).• So, how to describe the term ‘elimination’ in fire safety point of view?
Fire Prevention• Prevention can occur through successful action on the heat source, the fuel source, or the behavior that brings them together (NFPA 1997, 1–9).• Give me an example, anyone?
Fire Prevention• Examples of programs that can be instituted in the workplace to prevent fires include housekeeping programs and inspection programs.• Housekeeping can eliminate unwanted fuel sources and ignition sources.• Inspection programs can effectively identify fire-ignition and fuel hazards, then take appropriate steps to eliminate them.
The answers• Effective fire prevention requires vigilance, action, and cooperation (OSHA 2004, www.osha.gov).• Vigilance involves regular inspection of the workplace to identify fire hazards.• Action is necessary to correct hazardous situations by cleaning up debris, installing effective storage and ventilation systems for hazardous materials that could ignite or fuel a fire, establishing and enforcing work rules and maintenance policies that prevent hazardous situations from arising, shielding or ventilating heat sources, and repairing or replacing faulty equipment or electrical systems.
How to ensure effective fire prevention program?
Fire Protection• Fire-protection strategies are those activities designed to minimize the extent of the fire.• Fire protection includes reducing fire hazards by inspection, layout of facilities and processes, and design of firedetection- and- suppression systems (ASSE and BCSP 2000, 23).• Give me an example?
The answers• Cooperation between employers and employees is necessary to ensure understanding of their common interests in fire prevention and to ensure maximum effort by all concerned to see and correct fire hazards (OSHA 2004, www.osha.gov).
Fire Protection• Fire-protection engineers use the basic tools of engineering and sciences to help protect people, property, and operations from fire and explosions (ASSE and BCSP 2000, 23).• Aspects of fire-engineering-safety jobs include evaluating buildings to determine fire risks, designing fire-detection-and suppression systems, and researching materials and consumer products.
Fire Protection• Fire-extinguishment systems include sprinkler systems, rated fire doors and walls, portable fire extinguishers, and standpipe hose systems.• Evacuation of persons includes means of egress, detection-and-notification systems, and emergency planning and preparedness.
Fire Protection• Therefore, to include in workplace fire-safety planning considerations for fire suppression or extinguishment and for evacuation of persons in the event of a fire emergency.• What are examples of fire protection devices?
Fire Protection• Fire protection requires the development of an integrated system of balanced protection that uses many different design features and systems to reinforce one another and to cover for one another in case of the failure of any one.
Fire Protection• The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) describes fire protection as a series of six opportunities to intervene against a hostile fire, arrayed along a time line of potential growth in fire severity (NFPA 1997, 1–3).
Fire Protection• Prevent the fire entirely.• Slow the initial growth of the fire.• Detect fire early, permitting effective intervention before the fire becomes too severe.• Provide ability for automatic or manual suppression.• Provide ability to confine the fire in a space.• Move the occupants to a safe location.
Fire Protection• Fire protection includes the use of active systems such as automatic detection systems and passive fire-protection systems that stop fire and smoke.
Assignment 1• Case studies on the statistics of fires incidents in Malaysia between 2008 to 2011.• Discuss the pattern of the incidences.• Opinions and recommendations.
Chemistry and Physics of Fire• In order to prevent fires from occurring and to extinguish them successfully after they have started, an understanding of the chemical and physical characteristics of fire is important.• The chemistry of fire involves the ways in which fires can be started and sustained at the molecular level of the fuel source.
Chemistry and Physics of Fire• The physical aspects of fire involve its thermal properties, methods of heat transfer, and method of extinguishment.
Chemistry and Physics of Fire• Because fire is a chemical reaction, it is important to understand not only which hazardous materials pose fire hazards in the workplace but also the by-products of the combustion process, which can often be more hazardous than the hazardous material involved in the fire.
Chemistry and Physics of Fire• Fire Triangle• Fire Tetrahedron