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  1. 1. Peranan Guru Cemerlang dalam Era Globalisasi. Cabaran dan Strategi Menangani Perubahan Rusmini Ku Ahmad PhD Institut Aminuddin Baki
  2. 2. Globalisasi <ul><li>KAMUS DEWAN </li></ul><ul><li>Fenomena yang menjadikan dunia mengecil dari segi perhubungan </li></ul><ul><li>manusia kerana kepantasan perkembangan teknologi maklumat. </li></ul><ul><li>Satu proses kehidupan yang serba luas dan infiniti merangkumi segala aspek kehidupan dari segi politik, sosial, dan ekonomi yang boleh dirasai oleh seluruh umat manusia di dunia ini. (dunia tanpa sempadan) </li></ul><ul><li>Gelombang yg menguasai dunia. Lodge (1993) mendefinisikan globalisasi sebagai: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;... a process forced by global flows of people, information, trade and </li></ul><ul><li>capital. It is accelerated by technology, which is driven by only a few </li></ul><ul><li>hundred multinational corporations and may be harmful to the </li></ul><ul><li>environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. John Smith started the day early having set his alarm clock ( MADE IN JAPAN ) for 6am. While his coffeepot ( MADE IN CHINA ) was perking, he shaved with his electric razor ( MADE IN HONG KONG .) He put on a shirt ( MADE IN  SRI LANKA ), designer jeans ( MADE IN SINGAPORE ) and tennis shoes ( MADE IN KOREA ).    After  cooking his breakfast in his new electric skillet ( MADE IN INDIA ) he sat down  with his calculator ( MADE IN MEXICO ) to see how much he could spend today. After setting his watch ( MADE IN TAIWAN ) to the radio ( MADE IN INDIA ) he got in his car (MADE IN GERMANY ) filled it with GAS ( from SAUDI ARABIA ) and continued his search for a good paying AMERICAN JOB.    Hoping for an American Job…..
  4. 4.   At the end of yet another discouraging and fruitless day checking his Computer ( MADE IN MALAYSIA), John decided to relax for a  while. He put on his sandals ( MADE IN  BRAZIL ) poured himself  a glass of wine ( MADE IN  FRANCE ) and turned on his TV  ( MADE IN  INDONESIA ), and then wondered why he can't find a good paying job in AMERICA .   AND LASTLY HE'S HOPING HE CAN GET HELP FROM THE PRESIDENT ( MADE IN  KENYA ) Hoping for an American Job…..
  5. 5. Jobs and 21 st Century Work Trilling, B. and Fadel, C. (2009) Type of Task Task Description Example Routine Rules-based Repetitive Procedural Book keepers Assembly line workers Manual Environmental adaptability Interpersonal adaptability Truck drivers Security guards Waiters Maids and janitors Complex Thinking Abstract problem solving Mental flexibility Scientist Attorneys Managers Doctors Designers Software programmers
  6. 6. Jobs and 21 st Century Work
  7. 7. Jobs and 21 st Century Work
  8. 8. Average Spending on Public Education in Relation to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Company Logo
  9. 9. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Score 2003-2007 survey (TIMSS) <ul><li>And yet, according to a Trends in International Mathematics and Science Score 2003-2007 survey (TIMSS), Malaysian secondary students’ maths score had deteriorated (from 508 to 474 points) while Japan, South Korea and Singapore were able to maintain or improve on their performance (ranging from 570 to 605 points) </li></ul><ul><li>(Teoh Kok Lin, 2010: The Star). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenges <ul><li>Research by the Ministry of Education shows that one factor that contributes to drop-out rates is the inability of students to cope with the syllabus being taught. In 2008 almost 32,000 students dropped out of school at various stages. </li></ul><ul><li>(Karen Chapmen, Tan Shiow Chin and Tan Ee Loo, 2010). </li></ul>Company Logo
  11. 11. Challenges <ul><li>Key to New Economic Model’s success and becoming a high income country is ready availability of quality human resources. Human capital lies at the core of innovation . Raising productivity requires a labour force of high calibre – committed, motivated and skilled enough to drive transformational change based on excellence over the long term (Tan Sri Dr Lin See-Yan, 2011) </li></ul>Company Logo
  12. 12. Innovation Company Logo Innovation is a new way of doing things that results in positive change. Big I Small i: Continuous improvements Gallo, C,. (2010)
  13. 13. Company Logo Generation Characteristics Baby boomers 1946 and 1964, <ul><li>Extremely hardworking </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by position, perks and prestige. </li></ul><ul><li>Confident, independent and self-reliant. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement-oriented, dedicated and career-focused. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome exciting, challenging projects and strive to make a difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Equate work and position with self-worth, competitive in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in hierarchal structure </li></ul><ul><li>May have a hard time adjusting to workplace flexibility trends. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Company Logo Generation Characteristics Generation X 1965 and 1980 <ul><li>Often characterized by high levels of skepticism, “what’s in it for me” attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Independent, resourceful and self-sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Values freedom and responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The Generation X mentality reflects a shift from a manufacturing economy to a service economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The first generation to grow up with computers, technology is woven into their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious and eager to learn new skills but want to accomplish things on their own terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike previous generations , members of Generation X work to live rather than live to work. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Company Logo Generation Characteristics Generation Y ( 1981-2000) <ul><li>Sophisticated, technology wise </li></ul><ul><li>Much more racially and ethnically diverse and they are much more segmented as an audience aided by the rapid expansion in Cable TV channels, satellite radio, the Internet, e-zines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Less brand loyal and the speed of the Internet has led the cohort to be similarly flexible and changing in its fashion, style consciousness and where and how it is communicated with. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong-willed, passionate, and optimistic youth. They have great expectations and are known for expecting (and demanding) to get what they want. </li></ul><ul><li>Caring about the world and its problems, forming a large part of the worldwide Green movement. </li></ul><ul><li>More tolerant of differences than their parents' and grandparents' generations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Company Logo Generation Characteristics Generation Z 2001-2010 <ul><li>Grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy and expert than their Gen Y forerunners. </li></ul>Generation Characteristics Generation Alpha 2010 and above Gen A - will be the most formally educated generation in history. Gen A members were also expected to be more materialistic and technology-focused.
  17. 17. Internet Penetration Rate in Malaysia Company Logo Malaysia was ranked 25 th top 30 countries of the Internet penetration rate.
  18. 18. Number of Friends on Social Networking Websites Company Logo Survey conducted by International Firm TNS
  19. 19. Kajian Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) - 2007 - 2008 <ul><li>Dapatan kajian antarabangsa menunjukkan pemimpin sekolah di Malaysia cenderung ke arah pentadbiran dan bukan ke arah kepimpinan instruksional. </li></ul><ul><li>Kepimpinan instruksional dilaporkan (pengawasan Arahan, menyokong pembangunan profesionalisme guru, menetapkan hala tuju sekolah) adalah kurang di Malaysia berbanding dengan kebanyakan negara lain Talis [Jadual 6.3]. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Company Logo Table 6.3. Management leadership styles (2007-08) Indices of leadership styles adopted by principals in lower secondary education   Instructional leadership 1 Administrative leadership 2 Mean SE Mean SE Australia -0.22 (0.09) -0.73 (0.08) Austria -0.59 (0.05) -0.07 (0.06) Belgium (Fl.) -0.40 (0.08) -0.50 (0.05) Brazil 1.16 (0.07) 0.50 (0.06) Bulgaria 0.43 (0.07) 1.22 (0.10) Denmark -0.34 (0.09) -1.69 (0.06) Estonia -0.76 (0.06) -0.90 (0.05) Hungary 0.59 (0.07) 0.23 (0.09) Iceland -0.51 (0.07) -0.82 (0.07) Ireland -0.56 (0.08) 0.21 (0.07) Italy 0.26 (0.08) 0.40 (0.05) Korea -0.04 (0.07) -0.47 (0.08) Lithuania 3 -0.05 (0.06) -0.18 (0.07) Malaysia -0.37 (0.09) 1.08 (0.06) Malta 0.37 (0.09) -0.21 (0.09) Mexico 0.26 (0.08) 0.56 (0.08) Norway -0.39 (0.05) 0.61 (0.05) Poland 0.91 (0.07) -0.23 (0.05) Portugal -0.48 (0.06) 0.00 (0.07) Slovak Republic 0.05 (0.09) 0.02 (0.05) Slovenia 0.97 (0.05) 0.01 (0.04) Spain -0.85 (0.09) -0.63 (0.08) Turkey 0.20 (0.15) 0.92 (0.11) TALIS average 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.01)
  21. 21. Kajian Wagner (2008) <ul><li>Kajian kualitatif yang dijalankan oleh Wagner di Amerika Syarikat terhadap pandangan majikan mengenai bakal pekerja serta aktiviti yang berlaku di sekolah. Beliau mendapati majikan memerlukan pekerja yang mempunyai tujuh kemahiran bagi menghadapi cabaran abad ke 21 ini iaitu: </li></ul><ul><li>Pemikiran kritikal dan penyelesaian masalah </li></ul><ul><li>Kolaborasi serta memimpin melalui pengaruh </li></ul><ul><li>Boleh mengubahsuai </li></ul><ul><li>Mempunyai inisiatif </li></ul><ul><li>Kobolehan berkomunikasi: percakapan dan tulisan </li></ul><ul><li>Menilai dan menganalisis maklumat </li></ul><ul><li>Sifat ingin tahu dan imaginasi </li></ul>
  22. 22. Soft Skills <ul><li>Learning agility </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Driving change and performance </li></ul><ul><li>ESH(environmental, safety and health) &Social orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Composure (tenang) </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Yayasan Sime Darby </li></ul>
  23. 23. Soft Skills <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Forward thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Work smart </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Khazanah Nasional </li></ul>
  24. 24. Definition <ul><li>Soft skill is a term relating to a student’s or a person’s skill in critical thinking, problem solving, communication (articulating ideas through writing and verbally), working in a team, leading and social skills. </li></ul><ul><li>(Rusmini, 2011) </li></ul>Company Logo
  25. 25. Model of Developing Soft Skills Among Malaysian Secondary School Students (Rusmini, 2011) <ul><li>Causal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impetus for change :Market demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>School principal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4. School culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core category </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies – attitude, skills and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharing of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different styles of Teaching and Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involve Students in co curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with various learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Create a learning environment (Providing informative material around the school e.g touch screen): </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ ability, preferences, attitude and different ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents’ background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students’ Soft Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Working in a team </li></ul><ul><li>Leading </li></ul><ul><li>Social skill </li></ul>
  26. 26. Company Logo Remember Why We Teach Reflect on What We Teach Reconsider How We Teach Teach Less Learn More Thinking School Learning Nation Source: Ministry of Education Singapore More… Less… For the Learner   To Rush through the Syllabus   To Excite Passion   Out of Fear of Failure   For Understanding   To Dispense Information Only   For the Test of Life   For a Life of Tests   More… Less… The Whole Child The Subject Values-centric Grades-centric Process Product Searching Questions Textbook Answers More… Less… Engaged Learning Drill and Practice Differentiated Teaching ‘ One-size-fits-all’ Instruction Guiding, Facilitating, Modelling Telling Formative and Qualitative Assessing Summative and Quantitative Testing Spirit of innovation and enterprise Set Formulae, Standard Answers  
  27. 27. Ciri Guru Abad 21 <ul><li>Sentiasa belajar </li></ul><ul><li>Pemikiran kritikal dan penyelesaian masalah </li></ul><ul><li>Kolaborasi serta memimpin melalui pengaruh </li></ul><ul><li>Boleh mengubahsuai </li></ul><ul><li>Mempunyai inisiatif </li></ul><ul><li>Kobolehan berkomunikasi: percakapan dan tulisan </li></ul><ul><li>Menilai dan menganalisis maklumat </li></ul><ul><li>Sifat ingin tahu dan imaginasi </li></ul>
  28. 28. Flow Control Relaxation Boredom Apathy Worry Anxiety Arousal High Low High SKILLS C H A L L E N G E S Csikszentmihalyi (1990)
  29. 29. Strategi Guru Abad 21 <ul><li>Meningkatkan kemahiran pengajaran dan pembelajaran </li></ul><ul><li>- Komuniti pembelajaran profesional: membaca, refleksi, kajian tindakan, kajian kes, ‘coaching and mentoring, penyeliaan dll. </li></ul><ul><li>Mewujudkan kerjasama dengan pelbagai pihak </li></ul><ul><li>Menjana kreativiti dan inovasi </li></ul>
  30. 30. Know your Customer!!! <ul><li>A disappointed salesman of Coca Cola returns from his Middle East assignment. A friend asked, &quot;Why weren't you successful with the Arabs?&quot; The salesman explained, &quot;When I got posted in the Middle East , I was very confident that I would make a good sales pitch as Cola is virtually unknown there. But, I had a problem I didn't know to speak Arabic. So, I planned to convey the message through three posters... </li></ul>Company Logo
  31. 31. First poster - A man lying in the hot desert sand...totally exhausted and fainting.   Second poster - The man is drinking our Cola.         Third poster - The man is now totally refreshed , and up and running. Then these posters were pasted all over the place   &quot;That should have worked,&quot; said the friend.  
  32. 32. <ul><li>The salesman replied &quot; Yes, BUT I didn't realize that Arabs read from right to left&quot;   </li></ul>
  33. 33. Terima Kasih