Effect of silviculral system on wildlife and recreation nurendra aryal

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Effect of silviculral system on wildlife and recreation nurendra aryal

  1. 1. Nurendra Aryal M.Sc. Forestry, First Year IoF, Pokhara Roll No. 19 1
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  3. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Silvicultral System Consideration for wildlife and recreation Conclusion Recomendation 3
  4. 4.  Silviculture : the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and quality of forest vegetation for the full range of forest resource objectives.  The term silviculture is also used to manage forests for wildlife, water, recreation, aesthetics, or any combination of these or other forest uses.  There are many silvicultural systems available for managing forests depending on the management objectives.  These systems were developed in central Europe over several centuries 4
  5. 5. Silvicultural system: The processes by which a forest are tended, removed and replaced by new crops, resulting in the production of woods of a distinctive form. Broadly classified into two types; 1. Even-Aged Systems The even-aged system comprises four regeneration methods that represent a continuum of residual stand structures:  Clearcutting: an entire commercially mature stand is removed in one harvest.  Seed tree: mature stand is removed in one cutting, except for a small number of trees that are left to provide seed for regenerating a new stand 5
  6. 6.  Shelterwood: method involves two or more timber harvests Mostly There are 4 phases of cutting in the shelterwood method • Preparatory cutting • Seed cutting • Secondary cutting • Removal cutting  Coppice System: method is a type of cutting in which regeneration of the forest depends mainly on vegetative reproduction from the cut ends of the stumps 6
  7. 7. 2. Uneven-Aged Systems  The uneven-aged system uses the selection method of harvesting forest crops.  There are two basic variations • Single tree selection: removes scattered individual trees or small groups of two or three trees, creating small gaps in the overstory canopy that favor regeneration of shade tolerant tree species • Group selection: creates larger gaps by harvesting all trees in a one-quarter to one-half acre area, which can allow shade midtolerant species 7
  8. 8. An obvious main difference is that none of the main commercial management systems allow very old (veteran) trees to develop, hence denying a significant biodiversity niche for fungi, lichens, insects, hole-nesting birds and bats that all depend upon deadwood.  wildlife needs for habitat and the effect of forest fragmentation ( some species need edge while others need forest interiors, cover)  maintaining or enhancing aesthetic forest values in areas of high public exposure and/or recreational use 8
  9. 9.  Clear-cutting systems:  From the point of views of big wildlife the system may not be suitable  In some ways this can be regarded as an advantage as openground species such as some small mammals, birds and butterflies can also thrive in this environment.  Shelterwood System:  The system may increase the aesthetic value of forest hence recreational value  Intermediate between clear-cutting and selection system  Selection System:  Uneven aged forest is suitable for wildlife management  Different type of habitat can be found 9
  10. 10.  In European countries most of the even aged plantation forest, now being converted with the point of view of wildlife management  Research and intervention is needed with respect to effect of silvilcultural system on wildlife and recreation 10
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