Asymmetric warfare for geoworld


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Asymmetric Warfare - Geospatial Requirements to Counter Threats to Internal Security

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Asymmetric warfare for geoworld

  1. 1. 1 Asymmetric Warfare - Geospatial Requirements to Counter Threats to Internal Security Introduction Asymmetric warfare terminology dates back to 1975 article of Andrew J R Mack titled “WHY BIG NATIONS LOSE SMALL WARS”. This is basically a terminology used in military warfare and has gained prominence with 9/11 and other major acts of terror taking center stage in our thought process. Capability of the enemy with hardly any resources to upstage a prominent military power need not be debated. The manifestations of these are guerilla warfare, insurgency, terrorism, counter insurgency and counter terrorism. With terrorism completely changing the rules of human existence, the dynamics of internal and external wars have become completely intertwined. Terrorism has become a perfect example of asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric warfare thus becomes a reality in the internal security scenario of this country which has to face naxalism in at least 200 of its districts, primarily emanating from disparity in social order/failed equal opportunities policy of successive governments, large insurgency groups in far flung areas and imminent danger of terror attacks primarily in cities and urban areas are challenging the very existence of economic growth centers of a booming economy. With conventional inputs not able to provide actionable data to a level
  2. 2. 2 where results can be predicted or dictated, the requirements of geospatial inputs is of critical importance. This input can make the difference between success or failure and also the precision with which the operations is conducted, the concomitant causalities, injuries and damages. Undoubtedly a clarity of requirements, the efforts made for the preparation of such data as it is usually technology based, its analysis and usage for the same requirements would provide law enforcement agencies an edge over the enemies. Complex high quality and precise geospatial data is generally not available to such enemies. Need Who needs Maps? I think everybody does. The Map of today is the Geospatial information as the requirements are much more complex yet precise, the demand for which is dictated by ground realities. Cartography, bathometry, terrain mapping are different tools to meet the objectives. Herein lies the need for Geospatial Information. As per DHS Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Geospatial information includes surveys, maps, charts, remote sensing data and images and aerial photographic services; and technology including global surveillance, GPS, GIS, mapping, geo-coding and remote sensing and time scale analysis of structural aspects viewed for specialist operations.
  3. 3. 3 The Crux of Asymmetric Warfare The crux of asymmetric warfare is that mobility is more important than mass, light weight larger brigades with infantry brigade at 40 km distances, AEW and AEROSTAT balloons at artificial horizons, zone mapping, zone helix structure for techint and elint are critical factors to be considered. Technology is worth little without timely and insightful intelligence & and geospatial data on a useful level of resolution. Weapons must fit targets; we cannot afford to take out hundreds of small targets with extensively expensive high precision munitions. Training of the foot soldiers on digital camouflage is the essence of high tech warfare of today. Geospatial special forces have to be engaged to break the psyche of the opponents by geospatial broadcasts. Broadcast spatial data, such as surface data and terrain roughness is of great help for planning operational plans and operationalising the plan. Time and space are far more available to an enemy than to law enforcement agencies and can be traded for bodies and bullets. We need to manage our time and space on a real time mode by giving functional support, operational equipment and less body bags. An enemy objective is to make us spread ourselves too thin - yet we persist in starting every confrontation that way. Geospatial Information- the need? The urgent needs emanates from the fact that internal and external
  4. 4. 4 wars are getting intertwined. Insurgency groups have been operational for decades in far flung areas. There is marked increase in the prevalence of Naxalites it large number of states. Terror strikes primarily in urban centers in open areas with large human concentration like markets, critical and important infrastructures and mass transit systems. The law enforcement agencies should possess demonstrate capability of precision destructive strikes to take on high value targets, sever lines of communication, pollute and degrade the environment, turn large swathes of land as deserts, make land infertile and make the communication of the opponents subservient. These are certainly not normal law and order issues or situations and has to be tackled differently in strategy and inputs. The geospatial assets are a tactical force and are not an impediment to strategy, they are a complementary infrastructure. Conventional inputs are not able to give actionable data to a level where the results can either be predicted or dictated, the requirements of geospatial inputs is of critical importance. The statistical quality control analysis would render large unpredictable situations as a thing of the past. Methods of analysis shall render geospatial input as an actionable intelligence. Geospatial Assets We are in an age where the lone superpower wields immense influence at the global level. What finally decides the quality of output
  5. 5. 5 it the nature of assets owned by the country. Today we are dependent for most of imagery on other nations. Ground Infrastructure such as Networked Command Centers are to fall in place for operational requirements. Strategic planning on a real time dynamic mode for asset procurement needs vision on the part of the law enforcement agencies. Wrong procurement of assets and services leads to technological disadvantages. GPS data is critical for all operations on the Indian subcontinent and thus the efforts of the policy makers should mark a quantum shift in this direction to acquire data on a real time mode. Clarity on requirements is the beginning of the creation of the true blueprint of geospatial response to those needs making unimaginable difference in the prevention and results of asymmetric wars. US Experience USA has shown the way and without getting into the mode of reinventing the wheel, the ideal approach it to replicate is successfully with least amount of customization. Tweaking high technology issues more often than not leads to non implementation of high end technological solutions and mix of hardware, software, licensing, human resources and loads of other complex issues. Department of Homeland Security Mission Statement According to the National Strategy for Homeland Security and DHS’s
  6. 6. 6 mission statement, homeland security covers prevention, protection, response, and recovery. Homeland security with geospatial assets provides larger policing infrastructure, special resolution of conflict zones, strategic and tactical view of troublesome and hotspots. Geospatial products provide specific geometrical intelligence where command posts can be erected at short notice, disasters well managed, indicate predictability of response time and provide secured support infrastructure. Geospatial products and intelligence play a key role in departments’ preparation for disasters and its response and supports incident management Images
  7. 7. 7 Imagery The functional cargo bus of the geospatial asset is the image deliverance equipment on the asset. The lone superpower has ultra modern optical sensors and image processing softwares which are four dimensional and provide accurate real time .25 to .35 field of merit quality images. NRSA’s vision to obtain real time imagery should compensate for the shortfall in the image processing capabilities. Geospatial Information Stages Geospatial Information Stages
  8. 8. 8 Some applications in Homeland Security Terrain plays a key role in large number of the Geospatial operations and activities and the true mapping of the nature and profile of the terrain is thus the most critical input in both operational and strategic planning. This technology can play a stellar role in security of Critical Infrastructure and Mass Transportation Systems and can literally change the way we manage those. The vast gamut of real information available will play a transformational role in the management of the systems. Geospatial Technology provides enhanced geospatial understanding of a facilities vulnerabilities and speed up detection and response time in the event of a security breach. Rapid access to extensive data, displayed in a geospatial medium helps protect critical assets and infrastructure and ensures public safety. The information about the floor plan and the structure of the building can help in designing the security plan for the same. Our recent past provides for large number of such examples. This itself can transform our confidence level in our day to law enforcement DHS Spatial Data Infrastructure DHS Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI),a subset of Enterprise Architecture, consists of geographic system software and hardware,
  9. 9. 9 geospatial applications, data, standards, policies, programs, and the human resources necessary to acquire, process, analyze, store, maintain, distribute, and otherwise use geospatial data as a strategic asset for the DHS and the nation. The basis for an SDI is to identify and organize core capabilities that have common applications and to ensure the transport of data, via compatible formatting, across DHS. What will it deliver? Completing and maintaining an SDI with integrated applications and systems would provide the level of geospatial preparedness required to protect the nation’s critical infrastructure, strategic assets, economic base and America’s citizens. It is bound to deliver the same objectives in India as well. Geospatial Preparedness The Final Destination Means the level of overall capability and capacity necessary to enable all levels of the Dept to use geospatial data, geographic information systems, software and hardware, and geospatial applications to perform essential functions such as prevention, detection, planning, mitigation, response, and recovery in order to minimize loss of life and property from weapons of mass destruction, terrorist threats, major threats, major man made accidents, and natural disasters.
  10. 10. 10 The power of Processing Geospatial data cannot be used as on off the shelf product and needs layers of processing before it is comprehensible to the end user. There is need to emphasize that the end user also needs a level of competence to make appropriate use of technology. The power of the processing is explained with clarity in the diagrams that follow:
  11. 11. 11 Inter-Agency Geospatial Concept of Operations GeoCONOPS Inter-agency geospatial concept of operation would help in uniformity and standardization of geospatial inputs required for different operations under a prescribed governing structure which would supervise and also ensure the delivery of such inputs to internal security agencies. Undeniably put to professional usage, geospatial support would help counter major threats to internal security. The exact requirement would be a matter of detail depending on large number of operations related inputs. Broad parameters can be a starting point for such an exercise which would be delivered in a phased manner.
  12. 12. 12 Background In recent years, federal mission partners have been operating with minimal formal guidance and little direction on how to conduct geospatial support to the emergency response and homeland security operation regimes, relying instead on ad hoc coordination and best efforts. As a result, previous geospatial effort in support of incident management has frequently been slow to start or have been completely unavailable immediately following a disaster, leaving the “full power” and benefits of geospatial technology unrealized. GeoCONOPS ensures that timely and accurate geospatial data is shared. By defining the mechanisms and authorities, the GeoCONOPS aims to reduce redundancy and confusion and ensure efficient access to geospatial information for incident management. Geospatial technology provides a significant role in incident management. Its uses today include disaster early warning and mitigation, border monitoring, criminal investigations, public health protection and critical infrastructure oversight. Remote Sensing Data Policy Department of Space (DOS) of the Government of India is the nodal agency for all actions under this policy, unless otherwise stated. For operating a remote sensing satellite from India, license and/or permission of the Government, through the nodal agency is
  13. 13. 13 mandatory. As a national commitment and as a “public good”, Government assures a continuous/improving observing/imaging capability from its own Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) program Government guidelines for dissemination of satellite remote sensing data in India All data of resolutions up to 5.8 m shall be distributed on a nondiscriminatory basis and on “as requested basis.” With a view to protect national security interests, all data of 5.8 m and better than 5.8 m resolution images will be screened by the appropriate agency before distribution, so that images of sensitive areas are excluded. NRSA will be competent to enter into agreements with foreign satellite operators for acquisition/distribution of foreign satellite data in India. However, so far the acquisition/distribution of IKONOS data in India is concerned, Antrix Corporation Limited (of DoS) will conclude agreements with Space Imaging Coporation on such terms and conditions as may considered appropriate by it and NRSA will distribute as per the terms agreed with Antrix. Conclusion A paradigm shift in the thought process of the Internal Security
  14. 14. 14 apparatus, to treat geospatial inputs at par with intelligence, easy availability of imagery of the right level of resolution, direct communication between the user and the provider, prescribed standards and uniformity, right governance structures and a software to boast of, run by enviable human resources, is the panacea.