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Mental health sagun

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Mental health sagun

  1. 1. MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS MENTAL HEALTH?Mental health refers to an individuals emotional andpsychological well-being. "A state of emotional and psychologicalwell-being in which an individual is able to use his or hercognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, andmeet the ordinary demands of everyday life.“It is the successful performance of mental function, resulting inproductive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, andthe ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity.A mental health problem is a disruption in the interactionsbetween the individual, the group and the environment producinga diminished state of mental health.The branch of medicine that is concerned with study of mentaldisorders is called psychiatry. 2
  3. 3. GLOBAL BURDEN O MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM:  About 450 million people suffer from mental and behavioral disorders worldwide. One person in 4 will develop one or more of these disorders during their lifetime.  Neuropsychiatric conditions account for 13% of the total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost due to all diseases and injuries in the world. unipolar depression alone accounting for 5.7% of DALY. Estimated to increase to 15% by the year 2020. •Five of the ten leading causes of disability and premature death worldwide [WHO’s World Health Report 2001]. 3
  4. 4. SOUTH ASIAN REGIONThe south Asian region accounts for 1/15 th of psychiatrically ill patients inthe world. the total number of mentally ill people in the region turns out to be 150-200 million. IN NEPALAbout 10% of Nepalese people suffers from one or more mental illnessesand an estimated 1-3 % of the population suffers from chronic, severemental illness (WHO, 2001). 4
  5. 5. CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESS: The exact cause of most mental illnesses is not known, it is becoming clear through research that many of these conditions are caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Biological Factors : Some mental illnesses have been linked to an abnormal balance of special chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other. If these chemicals are out of balance or are not working properly, messages may not make it through the brain correctly, leading to symptoms of mental illness. In addition, defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental conditions. 5
  6. 6. CAUSES: Genetics (heredity): Many mental illnesses run in families, suggesting that people who have a family member with a mental illness are more likely to develop a mental illness. Susceptibility is passed on in families through genes. Infections: Certain infections have been linked to brain damage and the development of mental illness or the worsening of its symptoms. Brain defects or injury: Defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain have also been linked to some mental illnesses. Prenatal damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early fetal brain development or trauma that occurs at the time of birth -- for example, loss of oxygen to the brain -- may be a factor in the development of certain conditions, 6
  7. 7. CAUSES: Substance abuse: Long-term substance abuse, in particular, has been linked to anxiety, depression. Other factors: Poor nutrition and exposure to toxins, such as lead, may play a role in the development of mental illnesses.Psychological factors: that may contribute to mental illness include: Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse An important early loss, such as the loss of a parent Neglect Poor ability to relate to others. 7
  8. 8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Certain stressors can trigger an illness in a person who is susceptible to mental illness. These stressors include: Death or divorce A dysfunctional family life Living in poverty Feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, anxiety, anger, or loneliness Changing jobs or schools Social or cultural expectations (For example, a society that associates beauty with thinness can be a factor in the development of eating disorders.) Substance abuse by the person or the persons parents 8
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION:There are many classification of mental illness given by differentorganizations. International classification of psychiatricdisorder ICP-10 [1992] classify the mental health problems infollowing categories: organic disordersMental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substancesSchizophrenia and delusional disorderMood affecting disorderNeurotic, stress related and somatoform disorderBehavioral syndromeDisorder of adult personality and behaviorMental retardation. 9
  10. 10. EXISTING MENTAL HEALTH FACILITIES IN NEPAL : 50 bedded mental hospital in the capital city. 12 beds in psychiatric department of teaching institutes in Kathmandu 14 beds available in National Army Hospital, Kathmandu. 50 beds available in 3 different private hospitals for acute and chronic mentally ill patients in Kathmandu. 30 bedded Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre in Kathmandu 15 bedded community mental health centre in Kathmandu. 10 of 75 districts have psychiatric treatment facilities. The Government spends about 1% of the health budget on mental health. 10
  11. 11. point should be consider in prevention : Effective prevention can reduce the risk of mental disorders. Implementation should be guided by available evidence. Successful programmed and policies should be made widely available. 11
  12. 12. RISK FACTORS IDENTIFICATION IN PREVENTION Academic failure and scholastic  Medical illnessdemoralization  Neurochemical imbalance Attention deficits  Parental mental illness Caring for chronically ill or  Parental substance abusedementia patients  Perinatal complications Child abuse and neglect  Personal loss – bereavement Chronic insomnia  Poor work skills and habits Chronic pain  Reading disabilities Communication deviance  Sensory disabilities or organic Early pregnancies handicaps Elder abuse  Social incompetence Family conflict or family  Stressful life eventsdisorganization  Substance use during Loneliness pregnancy Low birth weight Low social class 12
  13. 13. PREVENTION: Universal prevention is defined as those interventions that are targeted at the general public or to a whole population group that has not been identified on the basis of increased risk. Selective prevention targets individuals or subgroups of the population whose risk of developing a mental disorder is significantly higher than average, as evidenced by biological, psychological or social risk factors. Indicated prevention targets high-risk people who are identified as having minimal but detectable signs or symptoms foreshadowing mental disorder or biological markers indicating predisposition for mental disorder but who do not meet diagnostic criteria for disorder at that time. 13
  14. 14. OTHER INTERVENTIONS: Improving nutrition. Improving housing. Improving access to education. Reducing economic insecurity. Strengthening community networks. Reducing the harm from addictive substances. Promoting a healthy start in life Pre-school educational and parenting interventions. Reducing child abuse and neglect. Early screening and intervention in primary care. 14
  15. 15. REFERENCES:The World Psychiatric Associationwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.govwww.who.int/enhttp://www.webmd.com 15

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