TVET AS A METHOD OF FACILITATING POVERTY
ALLEVIATION IN THIRD WORLD NATIONS WITH
PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO NIGERIA
A Seminar...
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Objectives of the seminar
 Concept and significance of Technical and Vocational Education
 Sco...
INTRODUCTION
In Nigeria, the conventional academic education seems to have failed to
meet the needs of enormously increase...
Contd….
 Skills acquisition is an effective means of facilitating economic
development in developing countries. Since the...
OBJECTIVE OF THE SEMINAR
 The objective of the seminar is to emphasize the roles the
government and corporate bodies shou...
CONCEPT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION
 In a general term, vocational education is that part of the
total experien...
Contd…
 According Okoro (1993) said vocational education provides
the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for effec...
Contd……
 It is base on the above definition that the Federal government of Nigeria
in the National policy on Education (1...
SIGNIFICANCE OF TECHNICAL AND
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
 Vocational education plays vital roles in reducing
unemployment, thro...
SCOPE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN
NIGERIA
 In Nigeria, there are five types of technical educational
institutions outside ...
DEFINITION OF POVERTY
 Poverty is the state of human beings who are poor. That is,
they have little or no material means ...
Contd…
 According to World Bank report (1990) defines poverty as the
“inability to sustain a minimum standard of living”....
COURSES OF POVERTY
 Basic causes: these depend on a host factors such as limited
resources, lack of skill, location disad...
Contd…
According to Abu-Bakr (2010) stresses that the causes of poverty includes
among others:
 Corruption
 Bad governan...
THE LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN
NIGERIA
 Unemployment can be defined as the difference between the amount of
labour emp...
contd
 Ali (2006) outlined’ causes of prevalent poverty in our society to
include: illiteracy, unemployment, youth restiv...
POVERTY ALLEVIATION THROUGH TECHNICAL AND
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Poverty alleviation implies the reduction or eradication of...
Contd…
 Employability and entrepreneurship: acquisition of employable and
entrepreneurial skills is one of the major obje...
CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
 According to Omolayo (2006)Entrepreneurship is the act of
starting a company, arra...
Contd……..
 Provide the youth graduates with adequate training that will
enable them to be creative and innovative in iden...
YOUTH EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS IN
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
 When you help somebody...
Contd…
The National Policy on Education (2004) explained the purpose
of TVET as:
 To enable individuals acquire vocationa...
SUMMARY
It is apparent that a deliberate effort to develop various skills
and competences needed in diverse aspects of the...
Contd…….
 Numerous barriers to youth entrepreneurship.
Introducing entrepreneurial studies as an explicit goal in the
cur...
RECOMMENDATION
The following recommendations are made on how to achieve
entrepreneurial skills education through Technical...
Contd..
 Government should encourage private sector’s participation
in the delivery of Technical Vocational Education and...
ANY QUESTION
THANKS
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Tvet as a method of facilitating poverty alleviation in third world nations with particular reference to nigeria

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TVET is a key solution to poverty eradication,job creation,economic expansion, reducing unemployment and improve social and economic well-being of a nation.

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Tvet as a method of facilitating poverty alleviation in third world nations with particular reference to nigeria

  1. 1. TVET AS A METHOD OF FACILITATING POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN THIRD WORLD NATIONS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO NIGERIA A Seminar Report to be Presented By Sagir Iliyasu Rafukka At Department of technical and vocational education Islamic university of technology (IUT) Dhaka-Bangladesh JULY, 2013
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Objectives of the seminar  Concept and significance of Technical and Vocational Education  Scope of and Vocational Education in Nigeria  Definition and causes Poverty  The level of Unemployment Rate in Nigeria  Poverty Alleviation through Technical and Vocational Education  Concept of Entrepreneurial Education  Youth Empowerment through Entrepreneurial skills in TVET  Summary  Recommendations
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION In Nigeria, the conventional academic education seems to have failed to meet the needs of enormously increased school population. This inconsistency become very clear when one considers that over 70` percent of the profitably employed persons require manual skills and technical knowledge. Nigeria has made considerable progress in the development of skilled manpower since 1960. But due to rapidly growing demand for various categories of manpower, national development is still constrained by marked inadequacy of skilled personnel.
  4. 4. Contd….  Skills acquisition is an effective means of facilitating economic development in developing countries. Since the establishment of industries usually results in the transformation of a traditional society, by inculcating new values and introducing new habits. It may play a significant role in the process of development. In Nigeria numerous programmes has been introduced in the past by both military and civilian administrations and corporate bodies in the country with the aim at providing skills, job creation, poverty eradication, food adequacy and youths empowerment. All the effort went in vain without achieving the set objectives.
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE OF THE SEMINAR  The objective of the seminar is to emphasize the roles the government and corporate bodies should play in reducing poverty by empowering youths with entrepreneurial skills and knowledge in Technical and Vocational Education, there by becoming creative and hence, contribute for the social and economic development of the nation.
  6. 6. CONCEPT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION  In a general term, vocational education is that part of the total experience of the individual whereby he learns successfully to carry on a profitable occupation. This is a comprehensive definition because it covers both vocational education and Vocational Training.
  7. 7. Contd…  According Okoro (1993) said vocational education provides the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for effective employment in specific occupations. While on the other hand technical education is a comparatively new phase of vocational education, it is designed to meet the complex technological needs of modern industry
  8. 8. Contd……  It is base on the above definition that the Federal government of Nigeria in the National policy on Education (1998) expected that vocational and technical education institutions should provide trained manpower in applied science, technology and commerce and provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agriculture, industrial and economic development. The policy further expected that these schools and colleges will provide trainings leading to the production of skilled manpower.
  9. 9. SIGNIFICANCE OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION  Vocational education plays vital roles in reducing unemployment, through creating employment in the fields of pre – vocational specialization.  Vocational education will promote equity by bridging the gap between urban to rural biased in educations and serve the needs of relatively poor people.  Vocational education is considered helpful in skilled- culture and attitude towards manual work, in distinction to pure academic culture and preference for white collar jobs
  10. 10. SCOPE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA  In Nigeria, there are five types of technical educational institutions outside the universities they are the pre- vocational and vocational schools at post-primary level and the technical colleges, the polytechnics, colleges of Technical Teacher Education at post-Secondary level  At the tertiary level, vocational and technical education is available in technical schools, Schools of agriculture, colleges of education [technical], polytechnics and Universities. These are institutions available in almost every state of the federation.
  11. 11. DEFINITION OF POVERTY  Poverty is the state of human beings who are poor. That is, they have little or no material means of surviving little or no food, shelter, clothes, healthcare, education, and other physical means of living and improving one's life.  Adereti (2006), Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well- being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. It also includes low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life.
  12. 12. Contd…  According to World Bank report (1990) defines poverty as the “inability to sustain a minimum standard of living”. It draws two poverty lines. one at US Dollar 275 and the other at US dollar 375 per person per year. The first is for extremely poor and the second is for the poor.  Recent studies by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) advocates the use of the Human Development Index (HDI). According to UNDP (2009), HDI combine three components in the measurement of poverty: 1. life expectancy at birth 2. Education accomplishment and; 3. Improved standard of living determined by per capita income
  13. 13. COURSES OF POVERTY  Basic causes: these depend on a host factors such as limited resources, lack of skill, location disadvantage and other factors that are inherent in the social and political set-up.  Transitional causes: these are mainly due to structural adjustment reforms and changes in domestic economic policies that may result in price changes, increased unemployment and so on. Natural calamities such as wars, environmental degradation and so on also induce transitory poverty.
  14. 14. Contd… According to Abu-Bakr (2010) stresses that the causes of poverty includes among others:  Corruption  Bad governance  Unemployment  Low productivity  Unfocused government policies  Lack of effective skills training  Failure to adjust or re-adjust when situation demands
  15. 15. THE LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN NIGERIA  Unemployment can be defined as the difference between the amount of labour employed at a given wage and working lends and working conditions as well as the amount of labour not hired at these levels.  The definition given by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, 2004)According to the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN,2003), the national unemployment rate, raised from 4.3 per cent in 1970 to 6.4 per cent in 1980. The high rate of unemployment observed in 1980was attributed largely to depression in the Nigeria economy during the late 1970s.  The incidence of poverty in Nigeria increased from 28.1 percent in 1980 to 50.0 percent in the year 2002. This percentage rate represent in absolute term 50 million people out of an estimated population of about 116.4 million people.
  16. 16. contd  Ali (2006) outlined’ causes of prevalent poverty in our society to include: illiteracy, unemployment, youth restiveness, over population, diseases, massive corruption etc. Below are poverty levels in Nigeria, from 1980 to 1998 specifically. Year Estimated total population Estimated poverty population % of population 1980 65 million 17.7 million 28.1 1985 75 million 3.47 million 36.3 1992 91.5million 39.7 million 42.7 1996 102.3million 47.1million 49.6 1998 110 million 54.4 million 54 Rate of growth 4.1% 53%
  17. 17. POVERTY ALLEVIATION THROUGH TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Poverty alleviation implies the reduction or eradication of poverty level in any society, skill training in TVE leads to acquisition of competencies to generate wealth. Below are the guiding principles for the effective implementation strategies of TVET programmes in Nigeria.  Economic expansion and employment creation: provision of employability skills is a means for enhancing economic growth and the creation of employment for all.  Teaching appropriate vocational subjects: the objectives of job creation and poverty reduction can only be realized through applicable education which empowers the products of the education system with skills and competencies to become self employed  Access and fairness: The strategy should not discriminate on the basis of social status, ethnic or religious affiliation, age, or academic background.
  18. 18. Contd…  Employability and entrepreneurship: acquisition of employable and entrepreneurial skills is one of the major objectives of a credible vocational training system.  Sustainability: The strategy must ensure that the training providers will continue operating and delivering their programmes in a cost-effective manner.  Moral and ethical values: inculcation of moral and ethical values like honesty, respect for others should be part of the training programme.  Proficiency: The training must measure proficiency, rather than theoretical knowledge.  Relevance: The training system must respond to the needs of the trainee, the community and the local industry.  Responsible citizenship: Training must include elements of good governance and responsible citizenship such as respect for democracy and basic human rights
  19. 19. CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION  According to Omolayo (2006)Entrepreneurship is the act of starting a company, arranging business deals and taking risks in order to make a profit through the education skills acquired. Nwangwu (2007) expressed that entrepreneurship is a process of bringing together the factors of production, which include land, labour and capital so as to provide a product or service for public consumption. OBJECTIVES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION  To offer functional education for the youth that will enable them to be self- employed and self-reliant
  20. 20. Contd……..  Provide the youth graduates with adequate training that will enable them to be creative and innovative in identifying novel business opportunities.  Offer tertiary institution graduates with adequate training in risk management, to make certain bearing feasible.  To reduce high rule of poverty.  Create employment generation.  Reduction in rural-urban migration.
  21. 21. YOUTH EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA  When you help somebody to do something which he/she would not have been able to do without your help, you have empowered him/her in relation to his/.her objective.  Skill training in Nigeria Technical Colleges is a proper tool for empowerment since it leads to the acquisition of saleable technical talents and productive competencies useful for employability especially for youths in these days of kidnapping, pocket-picking, armed robbery, idleness and other social vices.
  22. 22. Contd… The National Policy on Education (2004) explained the purpose of TVET as:  To enable individuals acquire vocational and technical skills.  To expose the individuals to career awareness by exposing useable options in the world of work.  To enable youth acquire an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology, and  To encourage creativity.
  23. 23. SUMMARY It is apparent that a deliberate effort to develop various skills and competences needed in diverse aspects of the economy is necessary. The technological expansion of any nation requires the relevance and functional skills and competencies in the world of work. It is a clear evidence from a various sources reveals that the biggest drivers of Nigeria’s current youth unemployment crises are:  - Lack of jobs  - Lack of skills and experience  Mismatch between supply and demand for labour
  24. 24. Contd…….  Numerous barriers to youth entrepreneurship. Introducing entrepreneurial studies as an explicit goal in the curriculum will be a clear signal that it is important for every student. Moreover, it will make it easier for teachers to spend teaching hours on the subject
  25. 25. RECOMMENDATION The following recommendations are made on how to achieve entrepreneurial skills education through Technical Vocational Education and Training.  Entrepreneurial skills and workshop on how to find business ideas should be integrated in school curriculum to encourage young people to start their own business.  The education system should provide the skills profiles required by the labour market to enhance employability of young people after graduation.
  26. 26. Contd..  Government should encourage private sector’s participation in the delivery of Technical Vocational Education and Training.  Due to the socio-cultural diversity inherent in developing countries like Nigeria, entrepreneurial policies that are unique and indigenous to the respective states should be willingly followed.
  27. 27. ANY QUESTION THANKS

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