Tvet as a method of facilitating poverty alleviation in third world nations with particular reference to nigeria
TVET AS A METHOD OF FACILITATING POVERTY
ALLEVIATION IN THIRD WORLD NATIONS WITH
PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO NIGERIA
A Seminar Report to be Presented
Sagir Iliyasu Rafukka
Department of technical and vocational education
Islamic university of technology (IUT)
Objectives of the seminar
Concept and significance of Technical and Vocational Education
Scope of and Vocational Education in Nigeria
Definition and causes Poverty
The level of Unemployment Rate in Nigeria
Poverty Alleviation through Technical and Vocational Education
Concept of Entrepreneurial Education
Youth Empowerment through Entrepreneurial skills in TVET
In Nigeria, the conventional academic education seems to have failed to
meet the needs of enormously increased school population. This
inconsistency become very clear when one considers that over 70` percent of
the profitably employed persons require manual skills and technical
knowledge. Nigeria has made considerable progress in the development of
skilled manpower since 1960. But due to rapidly growing demand for
various categories of manpower, national development is still constrained by
marked inadequacy of skilled personnel.
Skills acquisition is an effective means of facilitating economic
development in developing countries. Since the establishment of industries
usually results in the transformation of a traditional society, by inculcating
new values and introducing new habits. It may play a significant role in the
process of development. In Nigeria numerous programmes has been
introduced in the past by both military and civilian administrations and
corporate bodies in the country with the aim at providing skills, job creation,
poverty eradication, food adequacy and youths empowerment. All the effort
went in vain without achieving the set objectives.
OBJECTIVE OF THE SEMINAR
The objective of the seminar is to emphasize the roles the
government and corporate bodies should play in reducing
poverty by empowering youths with entrepreneurial skills
and knowledge in Technical and Vocational
Education, there by becoming creative and
hence, contribute for the social and economic development
of the nation.
CONCEPT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL
In a general term, vocational education is that part of the
total experience of the individual whereby he learns
successfully to carry on a profitable occupation. This is a
comprehensive definition because it covers both vocational
education and Vocational Training.
According Okoro (1993) said vocational education provides
the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for effective
employment in specific occupations. While on the other
hand technical education is a comparatively new phase of
vocational education, it is designed to meet the complex
technological needs of modern industry
It is base on the above definition that the Federal government of Nigeria
in the National policy on Education (1998) expected that vocational and
technical education institutions should provide trained manpower in
applied science, technology and commerce and provide technical
knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agriculture, industrial and
economic development. The policy further expected that these schools
and colleges will provide trainings leading to the production of skilled
SIGNIFICANCE OF TECHNICAL AND
Vocational education plays vital roles in reducing
unemployment, through creating employment in the fields
of pre – vocational specialization.
Vocational education will promote equity by bridging the
gap between urban to rural biased in educations and serve
the needs of relatively poor people.
Vocational education is considered helpful in skilled-
culture and attitude towards manual work, in distinction to
pure academic culture and preference for white collar jobs
SCOPE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN
In Nigeria, there are five types of technical educational
institutions outside the universities they are the pre-
vocational and vocational schools at post-primary level and
the technical colleges, the polytechnics, colleges of
Technical Teacher Education at post-Secondary level
At the tertiary level, vocational and technical education is
available in technical schools, Schools of
agriculture, colleges of education [technical], polytechnics
and Universities. These are institutions available in almost
every state of the federation.
DEFINITION OF POVERTY
Poverty is the state of human beings who are poor. That is,
they have little or no material means of surviving little or no
food, shelter, clothes, healthcare, education, and other
physical means of living and improving one's life.
Adereti (2006), Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-
being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low
incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and
services necessary for survival with dignity. It also includes
low levels of health and education, poor access to clean
water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of
voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better
According to World Bank report (1990) defines poverty as the
“inability to sustain a minimum standard of living”. It draws two poverty
lines. one at US Dollar 275 and the other at US dollar 375 per person per
year. The first is for extremely poor and the second is for the poor.
Recent studies by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
advocates the use of the Human Development Index (HDI). According to
UNDP (2009), HDI combine three components in the measurement of
1. life expectancy at birth
2. Education accomplishment and;
3. Improved standard of living determined by per capita income
COURSES OF POVERTY
Basic causes: these depend on a host factors such as limited
resources, lack of skill, location disadvantage and other
factors that are inherent in the social and political set-up.
Transitional causes: these are mainly due to structural
adjustment reforms and changes in domestic economic
policies that may result in price changes, increased
unemployment and so on. Natural calamities such as wars,
environmental degradation and so on also induce transitory
According to Abu-Bakr (2010) stresses that the causes of poverty includes
Unfocused government policies
Lack of effective skills training
Failure to adjust or re-adjust when situation demands
THE LEVEL OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN
Unemployment can be defined as the difference between the amount of
labour employed at a given wage and working lends and working
conditions as well as the amount of labour not hired at these levels.
The definition given by the International Labour Organisation (ILO,
2004)According to the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN,2003), the national
unemployment rate, raised from 4.3 per cent in 1970 to 6.4 per cent in 1980.
The high rate of unemployment observed in 1980was attributed largely to
depression in the Nigeria economy during the late 1970s.
The incidence of poverty in Nigeria increased from 28.1 percent in
1980 to 50.0 percent in the year 2002. This percentage rate represent in
absolute term 50 million people out of an estimated population of about
116.4 million people.
Ali (2006) outlined’ causes of prevalent poverty in our society to
include: illiteracy, unemployment, youth restiveness, over population,
diseases, massive corruption etc. Below are poverty levels in Nigeria,
from 1980 to 1998 specifically.
Estimated poverty population % of population
1980 65 million 17.7 million 28.1
1985 75 million 3.47 million 36.3
1992 91.5million 39.7 million 42.7
1996 102.3million 47.1million 49.6
1998 110 million 54.4 million 54
POVERTY ALLEVIATION THROUGH TECHNICAL AND
Poverty alleviation implies the reduction or eradication of poverty
level in any society, skill training in TVE leads to acquisition of
competencies to generate wealth.
Below are the guiding principles for the effective implementation strategies
of TVET programmes in Nigeria.
Economic expansion and employment creation: provision of employability
skills is a means for enhancing economic growth and the creation of
employment for all.
Teaching appropriate vocational subjects: the objectives of job creation and
poverty reduction can only be realized through applicable education which
empowers the products of the education system with skills and competencies to
become self employed
Access and fairness: The strategy should not discriminate on the basis of social
status, ethnic or religious affiliation, age, or academic background.
Employability and entrepreneurship: acquisition of employable and
entrepreneurial skills is one of the major objectives of a credible vocational
Sustainability: The strategy must ensure that the training providers will
continue operating and delivering their programmes in a cost-effective manner.
Moral and ethical values: inculcation of moral and ethical values like honesty,
respect for others should be part of the training programme.
Proficiency: The training must measure proficiency, rather than theoretical
Relevance: The training system must respond to the needs of the trainee, the
community and the local industry.
Responsible citizenship: Training must include elements of good governance
and responsible citizenship such as respect for democracy and basic human
CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
According to Omolayo (2006)Entrepreneurship is the act of
starting a company, arranging business deals and taking
risks in order to make a profit through the education skills
acquired. Nwangwu (2007) expressed that entrepreneurship
is a process of bringing together the factors of
production, which include land, labour and capital so as to
provide a product or service for public consumption.
OBJECTIVES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION
To offer functional education for the youth that will enable them to be self-
employed and self-reliant
Provide the youth graduates with adequate training that will
enable them to be creative and innovative in identifying
novel business opportunities.
Offer tertiary institution graduates with adequate training in
risk management, to make certain bearing feasible.
To reduce high rule of poverty.
Create employment generation.
Reduction in rural-urban migration.
YOUTH EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS IN
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
When you help somebody to do something which he/she
would not have been able to do without your help, you have
empowered him/her in relation to his/.her objective.
Skill training in Nigeria Technical Colleges is a proper tool
for empowerment since it leads to the acquisition of
saleable technical talents and productive competencies
useful for employability especially for youths in these days
of kidnapping, pocket-picking, armed robbery, idleness and
other social vices.
The National Policy on Education (2004) explained the purpose
of TVET as:
To enable individuals acquire vocational and technical
To expose the individuals to career awareness by exposing
useable options in the world of work.
To enable youth acquire an intelligent understanding of the
increasing complexity of technology, and
To encourage creativity.
It is apparent that a deliberate effort to develop various skills
and competences needed in diverse aspects of the economy is
necessary. The technological expansion of any nation requires
the relevance and functional skills and competencies in the
world of work.
It is a clear evidence from a various sources reveals that the
biggest drivers of Nigeria’s current youth unemployment crises
- Lack of jobs
- Lack of skills and experience
Mismatch between supply and demand for labour
Numerous barriers to youth entrepreneurship.
Introducing entrepreneurial studies as an explicit goal in the
curriculum will be a clear signal that it is important for every
student. Moreover, it will make it easier for teachers to spend
teaching hours on the subject
The following recommendations are made on how to achieve
entrepreneurial skills education through Technical Vocational
Education and Training.
Entrepreneurial skills and workshop on how to find
business ideas should be integrated in school curriculum to
encourage young people to start their own business.
The education system should provide the skills profiles
required by the labour market to enhance employability of
young people after graduation.
Government should encourage private sector’s participation
in the delivery of Technical Vocational Education and
Due to the socio-cultural diversity inherent in developing
countries like Nigeria, entrepreneurial policies that are
unique and indigenous to the respective states should be