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Existentialism sartre etc.-


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Existentialism sartre etc.-

  1. 1. Existentialism <ul><li>Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Heidegger, Husserl </li></ul>What is radical freedom? What is woman? What is Being?
  2. 2. Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980 <ul><li>French existentialist, philosopher, playright, novelist, social activist </li></ul><ul><li>“Nausea,” “No Exit,” Being and Nothingness </li></ul><ul><li>Atheist </li></ul>
  3. 3. “Existence precedes essence.” <ul><li>Atheism:God doesn’t exist--abandoned! </li></ul><ul><li>No divine conception of human nature; no specific essence </li></ul><ul><li>You are what YOU make of yourself! </li></ul>
  4. 4. No Ultimate Reason why anything happens. <ul><li>Individuals are thrown into existence </li></ul><ul><li>Not like inanimate objects “being-in-themselves” mere existence </li></ul><ul><li>Humans “being-for-itself” self-aware conscious subject </li></ul>
  5. 5. Condemned to be Free <ul><li>Because there is no God and hence no divine plan... </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are free-- “we are alone, without excuses.” </li></ul><ul><li>Big responsibility --existential overtones. </li></ul>
  6. 6. “Bad Faith” <ul><li>Responsibility absolutely inescapable- Anguish! </li></ul><ul><li>Many people do not feel this anguish </li></ul><ul><li>They are hiding, fleeing from big “R”-- self deception </li></ul>
  7. 7. “Authenticity” <ul><li>Understandable why we avoid shouldering responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Absurdity results in revulsion & boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibility: Live in Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental project </li></ul>
  8. 8. Simone de Beauvoir 1908-1986 1908-1986 <ul><li>French author and philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Woman as “other”--Social construct to women’s oppression </li></ul>
  9. 9. “One is not born but becomes a woman.” “ “ <ul><li>The Second Sex </li></ul><ul><li>-she criticized the patriarchial assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>women’s “natural” inferiority justifies patriarchial domination </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sartre and de Beauvoir <ul><li>met at the Sorbonne </li></ul><ul><li>relationship of sixty years </li></ul><ul><li>refused bonds of marriage and fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>freedom triumphed over convention </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phenomenology <ul><li>interests itself in the essential structures </li></ul><ul><li>found within stream of conscious experiences </li></ul><ul><li>independent of assumptions and presumptions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Edmund Husserl <ul><li>investigate phenomena while “bracketing” assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>phenomenological reduction </li></ul><ul><li>investigate phen-omena without making assumptions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Martin Heidegger 1889-1976 1889-1976 <ul><li>What is being? </li></ul><ul><li>We can get lost in superficiality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Everydayness and idle chatter </li></ul><ul><li>Sorge - care - what is most prominent feature of humans </li></ul>
  14. 14. Later Heidegger <ul><li>Shh! Quiet. We must listen to the sound of Being. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Being? the most fundamental question. </li></ul><ul><li>Silence. Poetry. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hannah Arendt 1905-1975 1905-1975 <ul><li>Student of Heidegger </li></ul><ul><li>Banality of Evil </li></ul><ul><li>The Life of the Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher of Bennet </li></ul>