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In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for Solid Dosage From

IPQC is concerned with providing accurate, specific, & definite descriptions of the procedures to be employed, from, the receipt of raw materials to the release of the finished dosage forms.

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In Process Quality Control Tests
(IPQC) for solid dosage from
IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale
In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for solid dosage from
Mr. Sagar Kishor Savale
M. Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale
In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC)
IPQC is concerned with providing accurate, specific, & definite descriptions of the
procedures to be employed, from, the receipt of raw materials to the release of the finished
dosage forms.
 In process Quality Control, IPQC tests are mostly performed within the production
area.
 They should not carry any risk for the quality of product.
 In process testing enables easier identification of problems. It sometime identifies
a defective product batch that can be corrected by rework, whereas once that batch
has been completed, this may not be possible.
 Failure to meet in process control specification indicates either that procedure were
not followed or some factor (S) out of control.
IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale
Instrument used in IPQC department
 Disintegration apparatus
 Dissolution apparatus
 Analytical balance Muffle furnace
 Friability testing apparatus
 Bulk density apparatus
 Tablet hardness tester
 Infra-red moisture content measuring apparatus
 U.V Spectroscopy
 Abbe Refractometer
 T.L.C. kit
 Karl fisher Titrimeter
IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale
Official and Unofficial Tests for Evaluation of Tablets
Official Tests
[1] Weight variation
[2] Disintegration
[3] Dissolution
[4] Drug content
Non-Official Tests
[1] Hardness
[2] Friability
IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale
1. Weight variation test (uniformity of weight)
Weigh 20 tablet selected at random, each one individually. X1, X2, X3… Xz
Determine the average weight. X= (X1+X2 +X3+…+ Xz)/20
Limit:
 Upper limit = average weight + (average weight * % error)
 Lower limit = average weight - (average weight * % error)
 The individual weights are compared with the upper and lower limits.
 Not more than two of the tablets differ from the average weight by more than the
% error listed, and no tablet differs by more than double that percentage.
Weight Variation Tolerances for Uncoated Tablets
USP XX-NF STANDARDS
IP STANDARDS
Sr. No Average wt. of tablet(mg) Max. % difference allowed
1 84 or Less 10%
2 84-250 7.5%
3 More than 250 5%
Sr. No Average wt. of tablet(mg) Max. % difference allowed
1 130 or Less 10%
2 130-324 7.5%
3 More than 324 5%
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In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for Solid Dosage From

  • 1. In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for solid dosage from
  • 2. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) for solid dosage from Mr. Sagar Kishor Savale M. Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
  • 3. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale In Process Quality Control Tests (IPQC) IPQC is concerned with providing accurate, specific, & definite descriptions of the procedures to be employed, from, the receipt of raw materials to the release of the finished dosage forms.  In process Quality Control, IPQC tests are mostly performed within the production area.  They should not carry any risk for the quality of product.  In process testing enables easier identification of problems. It sometime identifies a defective product batch that can be corrected by rework, whereas once that batch has been completed, this may not be possible.  Failure to meet in process control specification indicates either that procedure were not followed or some factor (S) out of control.
  • 4. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Instrument used in IPQC department  Disintegration apparatus  Dissolution apparatus  Analytical balance Muffle furnace  Friability testing apparatus  Bulk density apparatus  Tablet hardness tester  Infra-red moisture content measuring apparatus  U.V Spectroscopy  Abbe Refractometer  T.L.C. kit  Karl fisher Titrimeter
  • 5. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Official and Unofficial Tests for Evaluation of Tablets Official Tests [1] Weight variation [2] Disintegration [3] Dissolution [4] Drug content Non-Official Tests [1] Hardness [2] Friability
  • 6. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale 1. Weight variation test (uniformity of weight) Weigh 20 tablet selected at random, each one individually. X1, X2, X3… Xz Determine the average weight. X= (X1+X2 +X3+…+ Xz)/20 Limit:  Upper limit = average weight + (average weight * % error)  Lower limit = average weight - (average weight * % error)  The individual weights are compared with the upper and lower limits.  Not more than two of the tablets differ from the average weight by more than the % error listed, and no tablet differs by more than double that percentage. Weight Variation Tolerances for Uncoated Tablets USP XX-NF STANDARDS IP STANDARDS Sr. No Average wt. of tablet(mg) Max. % difference allowed 1 84 or Less 10% 2 84-250 7.5% 3 More than 250 5% Sr. No Average wt. of tablet(mg) Max. % difference allowed 1 130 or Less 10% 2 130-324 7.5% 3 More than 324 5%
  • 7. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale 2. Content Uniformity Test Randomly select 30 tablets. 10 of these assayed individually. The Tablet pass the test if 9 of the 10 tablets must contain not less than 85 % and not more than 115 % of the labeled drug content and the 10th tablet may not contain less than 75 % and more than125 % of the labeled content. If these conditions are not met, remaining 20 tablet assayed individually and none may fall outside of the 85 to 115 % range. 3. Disintegration test (U.S.P.)  It is the time required for the tablet to break into particles, the disintegration test is a measure only of the time required under a given set of conditions for a group of tablets to disintegrate into particles.  It is performed to identify the disintegration of tablet in particular time period.  Disintegration test is not performed for controlled & sustained release tablets.  According to the test the tablet must disintegrate and all particles must pass through the 10 mesh screen in the time specified. If any residue remains, it must have a soft mass. Disintegration test apparatus
  • 8. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Disintegration Media  Water,  Simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2 HCl), or Simulated intestinal fluid (pH = 7.5, KH2PO4 (phosphate buffer) + pancreatic enzyme + NaOH) Disintegration Testing Conditions and Interpretation Sr. no. Type of tablets Medium Temperature limit 1 Compressed uncoated 37 ± 2 0 C 15 minutes or as per individual monograph 2 Sugar coated If 1 or 2 tablets fail Water 0.1 N HCL 37 ± 2 0 C 60 minutes or as per individual monograph 3 Film coated water 37 ± 2 0 C 30 minutes or as per individual monograph 4 Enteric coated 0.1 N HCL & Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 37 ± 2 0 C 1 hr or as per individual monograph 5 Dispersible/ Effervescent water 37 ± 2 0 C LST < 3 minutes or as per individual monograph 6 Buccal 37 ± 2 0 C 4 hr or as per individual monograph
  • 9. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale U.S.P. method for uncoated tablets  Start the disintegration test on 6 tablets.  If one or two tablets from the 6 tablets fail disintegrate completely within 30 min repeat the same test on another 12 tablet. (i.e. the whole test will consume 18 tablets).  Not less then 16 tablets disintegrate completely within the time  If more than two tablets (from the 18) fail to disintegrate, the batch must be rejected. For Coated tablets  To remove or dissolve the coat, immerse the tablet in distilled water for 5min.  Put the tablet in the apparatus in water or HCL for 30 min at 37o C (according to the U.S.P). If not disintegrated, put in intestinal fluid.  If one or two tablets fail to disintegrate, repeat on 12 tablets. So 16 tablets from the 18 must completely disintegrate within the time, if two or more not disintegrated the batch is rejected. U.S.P. and B.P Method for Enteric coated tablets  Put in distilled water for five minutes to dissolve the coat.  Then put in simulated gastric fluid (0.1M HCL) for one hour.  Then put in simulated intestinal fluid for two hours.  If one or two tablets fail to disintegrate, repeat this test on another 12 tablets. So 16 tablets from 18 should completely disintegrate. If more than two fail to disintegrate the Batch must be rejected.
  • 10. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale 4. Dissolution Test  Dissolution is performed to check the percentage release from the dosage forms. i.e. Tablet.  Tablet breaks down into small particles which offers a greater surface area to the dissolving media.  Disintegration test does not give assurance that particles will release drug in solution at an appropriate rate, that’s why dissolution tests & its specifications developed for all tablet products.  Dissolution is mass transfer process.  Dissolution is mainly depend on aqueous solubility of drug.  It is process in which solid mass transfer in liquid medium.  Dissolution based on four process – 1. wetting 2. Solubility 3. Swelling 4. Diffusion.  Particle size, shape, surface area is important factor can affect the rate of dissolution of drug.  The aqueous solubility is increases, increases rate of dissolution drug.
  • 11. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale  Dissolution- solid mass transfer process in to liquid medium.  Diffusion- diffusion is mass transfer process of individual molecules of atoms having continuous random molecular motion contain in concentration gradient is known has Diffusion.  Dialysis- separation of easily diffusible particle from poorly diffusible particle through semipermeable Membrane.  Ultrafiltration- separation of colloidal particle from sub colloidal particle through semipermeable membrane.  Osmosis- The passage of solvent molecule into solution through semipermeable membrane.  Semipermeable membrane – Thin layer that can separate two phases.  Steady sate- Mass transfer process is remains constant per unit time.  Non steady state- Mass transfer process is not remains constant per unit time.  Osmotic pressure- The pressure is exerted in walls of semipermeable membrane through concentration gradient.  Diffusant (penetrant) - the amount of material transport in semipermeable membrane.  Con. Gradient- concentration of material transport in region of high con. To region of low con. Mechanism of Dissolution  Dissolution is a mass transfer process.  Sink condition – The concentration of receptor compartment is maintain lower level as compared to Donor compartment is known as sink condition.  Non sink condition – The concentration of receptor compartment is not maintain at lower level as compared to donor compartment.
  • 12. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Theories of Drug Dissolution  Diffusion layer model/Film Theory  Danckwert’s model/Penetration or surface renewal Theory  Interfacial barrier model/Double barrier or Limited solvation theory
  • 13. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Factor affecting dissolution rate  Physicochemical Properties of Drug  Drug Product Formulation Factors  Processing Factors  Factors Relating Dissolution Apparatus  Factors Relating Dissolution Test Parameters Dissolution test apparatus IP apparatus [1] First is Paddle apparatus (IP) [2] Second is Basket apparatus (IP) USP apparatus 1. Apparatus 1 (rotating basket) 2. Apparatus 2 (paddle assembly) 3. Apparatus 3 (reciprocating cylinder) 4. Apparatus 4 (flow-through cell) 5. Apparatus 5 (paddle over disk) 6. Apparatus 6 (cylinder) 7. Apparatus 7 (reciprocating holder)
  • 14. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale USP Dissolution apparatus I (Basket method) A single tablet is placed in a small wire mesh basket attached to the bottom of the shaft connected to a variable speed motor. The basket is immersed in a dissolution medium (as specified in monograph) contained in a 1000 ml flask. The flask is cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom. The flask is maintained at 37 ± 0.50 C by a constant temperature bath. The motor is adjusted to turn at the specified speed and sample of the fluid are withdrawn at intervals to determine the amount of drug in solutions.
  • 15. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale USP Dissolution apparatus II (Paddle method) It is same as apparatus-1, except the basket is replaced by a paddle. The dosage form is allowed to sink to the bottom of the flask before stirring. For dissolution test U.S.P. specifies the dissolution test medium and volume, type of apparatus to be used, rpm of the shaft, time limit of the test and assay procedure for. The test tolerance is expressed as a % of the labeled amount of drug dissolved in the time limit.
  • 16. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Dissolution Testing and Interpretation IP Standards Sr.no. Quantity Stage/level Number of tablets tested Acceptance criteria 1 S1 6 Each unit is < D* + 5 percent** 2 S2 6 Average of 12 units (S1 +S2) is equal to or greater than (> )D, and no unit is less than D - 15 percent** 3 S3 12 Average of 24 units (S1+S2+S3) is equal to or greater than (> )D, not more than 2 units are less than d-15 percent** and no unit is less than d-25 percent** *D is the amount of dissolved active ingredient specified in the individual monograph, expressed as a percentage of the labelled content. ** Percentages of the labelled content. Dosage from conducted dissolution study Immediate release tablet (conventional tablet) 1. Dissolution apparatus – Type 1 and Type 2 (USP) 2. Temperature - 37±0.5˚C 3. Time – 30 min 4. Time of interval – 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30. 5. Media – PH 1.2 Acidic Buffer, PH 4.5 Acetate buffer, PH 5.8 Phosphate buffer. (depending upon tablet) 6. Rpm – 75 -100 rpm 7. Volume – 900 ml Procedure: The tablet was added into cylindrical vessel containing 1000 ml dissolution media having rpm 75 and tem.37±0.5˚C. Dissolution of tablet was conducted 30 min, in 5 min. of interval, after 5 min 5 mL sample was removed and appropriate quantity of sample take absorbance by using U.V. spectroscopy technique and determine rate of dissolution of tablet.
  • 17. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Sustained release tablet 1. Dissolution apparatus – Type 2 (USP) 2. Temperature - 37±0.5˚C 3. Time – 7 hrs 4. Media – PH 1.2 Acidic Buffer, PH 6.8 Phosphate buffer. 5. Rpm – 75 – 100. 6. Volume – 900 ml. Procedure - The tablet was added into cylindrical vessel containing 1000 ml PH 1.2 Acidic media having rpm 75 for next two hours and tem. 37±0.5˚C. Dissolution media was changes tablet was added in to PH 6.8 Phosphate buffer for next five hour for 1 hr. of interval. After 1 hr. 5 mL sample was removed and appropriate quantity of sample take absorbance by using U.V. spectroscopy technique and determine rate of dissolution of tablet. Capsule 1. Dissolution apparatus – Type 2 (USP) 2. Temperature - 37±0.5˚C 3. Time – 5 hrs. 4. Media – PH 1.2 Acidic Buffer, PH 6.8 Phosphate buffer. 5. Rpm – 75 – 100. 6. Volume – 900 ml. Procedure - The Capsule was added into cylindrical vessel containing 1000 ml PH 1.2 Acidic media having rpm 75 for next two hours and tem. 37±0.5˚C. Dissolution media was changes Capsule was added in to PH 6.8 Phosphate buffer for next three hour for 1 hr. of interval. After 1 hr. 5 mL sample was removed and appropriate quantity of sample take absorbance by using U.V. spectroscopy technique and determine rate of dissolution of Capsule.
  • 18. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Suppositories 1. Dissolution apparatus – Type 1 (USP) 2. Temperature - 37±0.5˚C 3. Time – 60 min 4. Time of interval – 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60. 5. Media – PH 7.4 Phosphate buffer. 6. Rpm – 50 – 75 rpm 7. Volume – 900 ml. Procedure – The Suppository was added into cylindrical vessel containing 1000 ml dissolution media (PH 7.4 Phosphate buffer) having rpm 75 and tem.37±0.5˚C. Dissolution of Suppository was conducted 60 min, in 10 min. of interval, after 10 min 5 ml sample was removed and appropriate quantity of sample take absorbance by using U.V. spectroscopy technique and determine rate of dissolution of Suppositories. 5. Hardness Tablet requires a certain amount of strength or hardness and resistance to friability to withstand mechanical shocks of handling in manufacture, packaging and shipping. Hardness generally measures the tablet crushing strength. Importance  To determine the need for pressure adjustments on the tableting machine.  Hardness can affect the disintegration.  So if the tablet is too hard, it may not disintegrate in the required period of time. And if the tablet is too soft, it will not withstand the handling during subsequent processing such as coating or packaging.  In general, if the tablet hardness is too high, we first check its disintegration before rejecting the batch.  If the disintegration is within limit, we accept the batch.
  • 19. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale  If Hardness is high + disintegration is within a time accept the batch. Factors Affecting the Hardness [1] Compression of the tablet and compressive force. [2] Amount of binder. (More binder à more hardness) [3] Method of granulation in preparing the tablet (wet method gives more hardness than direct method, Slugging method gives the best hardness). Limits 5 kilograms minimum and 8 kilograms maximum. Make hardness test on 5 tablets and then take the average hardness.
  • 20. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale 6. Friability Friability of a tablet can determine in laboratory by Roche friabilator. This consist of a plastic chamber that revolves at 25 rpm, dropping the tablets through a Distance of six inches in the friabilator, which is then operate for 100 revolutions. The tablets are reweighed. Compress tablet that lose less than 0.5 to 1.0 % of the Tablet weigh are consider acceptable. Friability apparatus Evaluation of Precompressional Characteristics of tablets or Rheological Characteristics of granules Particle Size & Shape Determination  Size affects the average weight of tablet, Disintegration Time, weight variation, friability, flow ability & drying rate.  The size & shape depends upon processing requirements & during granulation.  The methods for determining size & shape are 1. Sieving 2. Sedimentation rate. 3. Microscopy (SEM) 4. Light Scattering
  • 21. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Surface area  It is not commonly used for granules but generally used for drug substances.  If required particle size is measured & from this surface area is measured.  Most method used is gas absorption & air permeability.  In gas absorption, gas is absorbed as monolayer on particles this is in term of calculated & converted to surface area.  In air permeability method the rate of air permeates a bed of powder, is used to calculate surface area of powder sample. Density  Density may influence compressibility, tablet porosity & dissolution.  Dense hard granules may require higher load to produce cohesive compact to reduce free granules seen on the surface of tablets.  ↑ Compressibility ↑ DT, Dissolution, if DT is slower dissolution is indirectly hampered.  Dense granules have less friability but cause a problem in releasing the drug.  Three Methods to determine density Bulk Density Bulk density is given by equation, ρb = M / Vb Where, ρb- bulk density of granules, M is mass of granules in gm, Vb – volume of granules in measuring cylinder in ml. More compressible bed of particulate - less flowable powder or granules. If less dense/compressible - more flowable powder or granules. True/tapped density Tapped/true density is given by equation, ρt = M / Vb Where,
  • 22. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale ρt- bulk density of granules, M is mass of granules in gm, Vt – volume of granules in measuring cylinder after tapping in ml. Granular density It is determined by Pycnometer method.  Two methods are used to determined granular density.  In one intrusion fluid used-Mercury, and other Any solvent of low surface tension e.g. Benzene  The accuracy of these method depends upon ability of intrusion fluid to penetrate the pores of granules.  Liquids should not masks granules solubilies in it, & having property to penetrate the pores.  Density is then determine from volume of intrusion fluid displaced in pycnometer by giving mass of granulation. It is calculated by using equation, Granular Density (D) = M / Vp -Vi Where, Vp-Total volume of Pycnometer, Vi- Volume of intrusion fluid (ml) containing Mass (gm) (M) of granules required to fill pycnometer. Angle of repose – It is measured by two methods  Static angle of repose  Dynamic angle of repose Equation is, tan θ = h/r. Where, θ - angle of repose, h – height of pile, r – radius of pile.
  • 23. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Acceptance limits of angle of repose Sr. no. Angle of repose (o) Type of flow 1 < 25 Excellent 2 25-30 Good 3 30-40 passable 4 > 40 Poor Hausner's Ratio  Hausner’s ratio was related to interparticulate friction and as such could be used to predict powder flow characteristics.  It showed that powder with low particular friction such as coarse sphere had ratio of approximately 1.2, whereas more as cohesiveness- less free flowing powders such as flaks have Hausner’s ratio greater than 1.6. Formula Hausner’s ratio = Tapped density / Bulk density
  • 24. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Moisture content  The amount of moisture present in the granule is called moisture content.  Generally the granules contain 2 % moisture. It is required for the binding of the powder or granules during compression in die cavity.  Percentage of moisture is calculated by using “moisture Balance” or “IR Balance”.  IR Balance consist of simple balance which is placed I to the casing in which the IR bulb is attached which produce heat inside the chamber.  The small amount of sample taken from oven to measure moisture content & place in the moisture balance.  Initial reading should be note down after that we are initiated the IR Bulb as IR bulb is initiated the moisture is removed from the granules via heating after that note down the reading. % of moisture is calculated by, % moisture content = Initial wt. - Final wt./ initial weight X 100 Compressibility Index  It is directly related to the relative flow rate cohesiveness & particle size.  It is simple fast & popular method of presiding powder flow characters. It can be obtained from bulk density measurements is the % Compressibility index (C). % Compressibility index = Tapped density - Bulk density / Tapped density X 100. OR I = (1 – V/ Vo) x 100 Where, I – % Compressibility index, V – Volume occupied by powder/ granules after tapping, Vo - volume of powder/granules before tapping
  • 25. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Acceptance limit Compressibility index Sr. no. % Compressibility index Type of flow 1 5-15 Excellent 2 12-16 Very good 3 18-21 Good 4 23-25 Passable 5 33-38 Poor 6 > 40 Very poor
  • 26. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Process control by means of in-process controls
  • 27. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Example of an IPQC structure
  • 28. IPQC Sagar Kishor Savale Example of Approval for Tablet Production Contact Savalesagar484@gmail.com +91 9960885333