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Section 3 – Networked Storage
Introduction
Section Objectives
Upon completion of this section, you will be able to:
 Describe the elements, connectivity, and manage...
In this Section …
This section contains the following modules:
1. Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
2. Networked Attached Stor...
Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
Module 3.1
Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
After completing this module you will be able to:
 Discuss the benefits of DAS based storag...
DAS Benefits
 Ideal for local data provisioning
 Quick deployment for small environments
 Simple to deploy in simple co...
Physical Elements of DAS
CPU
 Motherboard
 Clustered group of processors
 Processor cards
 Complete system
 Internal
...
DAS Management: Internal
 Host provides:
– Disk partitioning (Volume management)
– File system layout
– Data addressing
...
DAS Management: External
 Array based management
 Availability – multi-path I/O
 Lower TCO for managing data and storag...
DAS Performance Considerations
Factors to be considered for DAS performance:
• Hard disks
• Memory cache
• Virtual memory ...
Internal DAS Application Example
Hard Drive
40 Pin Ribbon Cable
Motherboard
External DAS Application Example
ESCON HBA
Cable for
external DAS
connectivity
DAS Challenges
 Hosts must be directly connected
 Data availability issues
– Many single points of failure
Bus, multipl...
DAS Challenges
 Hosts must be directly connected
 Data availability
 Data slowdowns possible
– CPU congestion, caching,...
Module Summary
Key points covered in this module:
 DAS can be:
– An integrated part of the host computer
– Directly conne...
Check Your Knowledge
 What are the physical elements of DAS?
 Give an example of when DAS is a good solution.
 Describe...
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
Module 3.2
NAS – Network Attached Storage
After completing this module, you will be able to:
 Discuss the benefits of NAS based stor...
In this Module …
This module contains the following lessons:
 What is NAS?
 Managing a NAS Environment
 NAS Application...
Lesson: What is NAS?
Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:
 Define NAS and describe its key attributes
...
NAS Evolution
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
Stand Alone PC
Networked File SharingNetworked PCsPortable Media
for File Sha...
What is NAS?
NAS is shared storage on a network
infrastructure. Clients
Application
Server
Print
Server NAS Device
NAS Hea...
General Purpose Servers vs. NAS Devices
Network
Operating System
I/O
File System
Print Drivers
Applications
General Purpos...
Why NAS?
 Supports global information access
 Improves efficiency
 Provides flexibility
 Centralizes storage
 Simplif...
NAS Device Components
NAS Device
CIFSNFS
Network Interface
Storage Interface
NAS Device OS
SCSI, FC, or ATA
IP Network
NAS File Services Protocols: NFS and CIFS
NAS Device
Network Interface
Storage Interface
NAS Device OS
SCSI, FC, or ATA
CI...
Network File System (NFS)
 Client/server application
 Uses RPC mechanisms over TCP protocol
 Mount points grant access ...
Common Internet File System (CIFS)
 Public version of the Server Message Block (SMB)
protocol
 Client applications acces...
NAS Physical Elements
 Data movers/filers
 Management interface
– Configure network interfaces
– Create, mount, or expor...
Integrated vs. Gateway NAS
Integrated NAS
NAS Gateway
IP Network
IP Network
FC Fabric
NAS Head
NAS Head
Integrated NAS System
Integrated NAS System
NAS Head
Storage
Direct Attach
IP Network
Gateway NAS System
Clients
Application Servers
Storage
NAS Gateway
FC Switch
IP Network
Lesson Summary
 A NAS server is an appliance optimized for file serving
functions.
 Generally it has a specialized opera...
Fibre Channel
Storage Area Networks (SAN)
Module 3.3
Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:
 Describe the features and...
In this module …
This module contains the following lessons:
 Fibre Channel SAN Overview.
 The Components of a SAN.
 FC...
Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Overview
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Define a FC SAN.
 Describe the ...
Business Needs and Technology Challenges
 Information when and where the business user needs it
 Integrate technology in...
What is a SAN?
 Dedicated storage network
 Organized connections
among:
 Storage
 Communication devices
 Systems
 Se...
Evolution of Fibre Channel SAN
SAN Islands
FC
Arbitrated Loop
Interconnected
SANs
FC
Switched Fabric
Enterprise SANs
FC Sw...
Benefits of a SAN
 High bandwidth
– Fibre Channel
 SCSI extension
– Block I/O
 Resource Consolidation
– Centralized sto...
Lesson Summary
Topics in this lesson included:
 Definition of a SAN
 Features and Benefits of SANs
Lesson: The Components of a SAN
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe the elements of a SAN.
– H...
Components of a Storage Area Network
 Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
 Fiber Cabling
 Fibre Channel Switch /Hub
 Storage Array
...
Nodes, Ports, & Links
Node
HBA
Port 0Port 0
Port 1Port 1
Port nPort n
Link
Port 0Port 0 Rx
Tx
HBA
Host Bus Adapters
 HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically
to minimize the impact on host processor ...
Connectivity
Single Mode
Fiber
Storage
Multimode
Fiber
Host
Connectivity Devices
 Basis for SAN communication
– Hubs, Switches and Directors
HBA
Storage Resources
 Extension of the basic disk drive to an
array.
– Provides storage consolidation and
centralization
 F...
SAN Management Software
 A suite of tools for managing
SAN including access of host
to storage arrays.
 Provides integra...
Lesson: Summary
Topics in this lesson included:
 The elements of a SAN:
– Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
– Fiber Cabling
– Fibre ...
Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe the Fibre Channel S...
Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity
 Core networking principles
applied to storage
 Servers are attached to 2
distinct networ...
What is Fibre Channel?
 SAN Transport Protocol
– Integrated set of standards (ANSI)
– Encapsulates SCSI
 A High Speed Se...
World Wide Names
 Unique 64 bit identifier.
 Static to the port.
– Used to physically identify a port or node within the...
World Wide Names: Example
World Wide Name - HBA
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 9 2 0 d c 4 0
Reserved
12 bits
Company OUI
24 bits
Compa...
Fibre Channel Addressing
 Fibre Channel addresses are used for transporting
frames from source ports to destination ports...
What is a Fabric?
 Virtual space used by nodes to
communicate with each other
once they are joined.
 Component identifie...
Fibre Channel Topologies
 Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
– Devices attached to a shared
“loop”
– Analogous to Token Ring
 Switc...
Switch versus Hub Comparison
 Switches (FC-SW)
– FC-SW architecture scalable to
millions of connections.
– Bandwidth per ...
Topology: Mesh Fabric
 Can be either partial or full mesh
 All switches are connected to each other
 Host and Storage c...
Full Mesh Benefits and Tradeoffs
 Benefits
– All storage/servers are maximum of one ISL hop away.
– Hosts and storage may...
Topology: Simple Core-Edge Fabric
 Can be two or three tiers
– Single Core Tier
– One or two Edge Tiers
 In a two tier t...
Core-Edge Benefits
 Simplifies propagation of fabric data.
– One ISL hop access to all storage in the fabric.
 Efficient...
Lesson: Summary
 Topics in this lesson included:
 The Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and
topologies
 Fibre Chan...
Lesson: SAN Management
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe SAN management functions
– Infrastr...
SAN Management Overview
 Infrastructure protection
 Fabric Management
 Storage Allocation
 Capacity Tracking
 Perform...
Infrastructure Security
 Physical security
– Locked data center
 Centralized server and storage
infrastructure
– Control...
Switch/Fabric Management Tools
 Vendor supplied management software
– Embedded within the switch
– Graphical User Interfa...
Fabric Management: Zoning
Zoning Components
Zone Zone Zone
Zones
(Library)
Zone SetZones Sets
(Library)
Members
(WWN’s) Member Member Member MemberM...
Provisioning: LUN Masking
 Restricts volume access to
specific hosts and/or
host clusters.
 Servers can only access the
...
Capacity Management
 Tracking and managing assets
– Number of ports assigned
– Storage allocated
 Utilization profile
– ...
Performance Management
 What is it?
– Capturing metrics and monitoring trends
– Proactively or Reactively responding
– Pl...
Lesson: Summary
 Topics in this lesson included:
– Infrastructure protection
– Provisioning
– Capacity Management
– Perfo...
Internet Protocol
Storage Area Networks (IP SAN)
Module 3.4
IP Storage Area Networks
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:
 Describe the benefits of IP SAN.
 Describ...
In this module …
This module contains the following lessons:
 IP SAN Overview.
 IP SAN Protocols.
 Applications of IP S...
Lesson: IP SAN Overview
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe the benefits of IP SAN.
 Describe...
Introduction
 Traditional SAN technology is built around Fibre Channel.
 IP technology is emerging as an alternative or
...
FCFC IPIP IPIP FCFCIP
FC/
IP
FC/
IP
FC/
IP
FC/
IP
IP
IP/
FC
IP/
FC
IP/
FC
IP/
FC
Block Storage over IP – Protocol options
...
IP Storage Approaches
iSCSI
FCFC
FC
FC
FC
IP
Network
IP
Network
IP
Network
IP
Network
iFCPFCIP
iFCP Switch
iFCPSwitch
FCIP...
Market Drivers for SAN Internetworking
 Fibre Channel SAN challenges.
 IP SAN enablers.
 Easy to leverage IP equipment ...
Benefits of IP SAN
 Cost Effective
 Extend the reach of a SAN
IP is Cost Effective
 Most organizations already have IP networks and
familiarity with traditional network management.
 ...
Extend the Reach of Your SAN
 Standard Fibre Channel Distances.
 IP Extends Fibre Channel applications over
regional/glo...
Lesson Summary
Topics in this lesson included:
 Describe the benefits of IP SAN.
 Describe the IP convergence in the SAN...
Lesson: IP SAN Protocols
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe and discuss the basic architectur...
Fibre Channel over IP - FCIP
 Encapsulates FC frames in IP packets.
 Creates virtual FC links that connect devices and f...
FCIP Benefits
 FCIP
– Best of both technologies
– Support for existing applications
– Cost effective
– Multi-point networ...
Internet Fibre Channel Protocol - iFCP
 Gateway-to-gateway protocol
– IP switches & routers replace FC switches
– Transpa...
iFCP Benefits
 Works with wide range of devices.
 Flexible.
 Less potential bottlenecking vs. FCIP.
iSCSI
 A method to transfer blocks of data using the TCP/IP
network.
 Serialized service delivery subsystem.
 SCSI prot...
iSCSI Model Layers
IP
Header
TCP
Header
iSCSI
Header
IP PayloadIP Payload
SCSI DataSCSI Command Descriptor
SCSI CDB encaps...
Lesson Summary
Topics in this lesson included:
 The basic architecture of FCIP.
 The basic architecture of iFCP.
 The b...
Content Addressed Storage (CAS)
Module 3.5
Content Addressed Storage (CAS)
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:
 Describe the features and benefits ...
In this Module …
This module contains the following lessons:
 CAS Description and Benefits
 Elements of CAS
 Data Objec...
Lesson: CAS Description and Benefits
Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:
 Define CAS.
 Describe the key attr...
What is Content Addressed Storage (CAS)?
 Object-oriented, location-independent approach to data
storage.
 Repository fo...
What Is Fixed Content?
Electronic Documents
• Contracts, claims, etc.
• E-mail and attachments
• Financial spread sheets
•...
Challenges of Storing Fixed Content
 Most new digital content is fixed content.
 Fixed content is growing at more than 9...
Shortcomings of Traditional Storage Options
 Tape is slow, and standards are always changing.
 Optical is expensive, and...
Benefits of CAS
 Immutability and authentication
 Location independence
 Single instance storage
 Faster record retrie...
Drawbacks of CAS
There are some drawbacks with CAS:
 Can be slower than SAN, NAS, or DAS.
 Application integration.
 In...
Lesson: Summary
Key points covered in this lesson:
 CAS Definition
 CAS Description
 Benefits and Drawbacks
Lesson: Elements of CAS
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe the Physical Elements of CAS.
 De...
 Storage devices (CAS Based)
 Servers (to which storage devices get connected)
 Client
Physical Elements of CAS
API
Ser...
Logical Elements of CAS
 The Logical Elements of CAS include the Object-Level
Access Protocols.
CAS
API
API
Metadata
39HL...
Lesson Summary
Key points covered in this lesson:
 Physical Elements of CAS
 Logical Elements of CAS
Lesson: Data Object Storage and Retrieval
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
 Describe how data gets st...
How CAS Stores a Data Object
API
Application Server
Client
CAS
Object ID
Client presents data
to API to be archived
1
Uniq...
How CAS Retrieves a Data Object
Application Server
Client
CAS
Object is needed by
an application
1 CAS authenticates
the r...
Lesson: Summary
Key points covered in this lesson:
 How data gets stored in a CAS environment.
 How data is retrieved fr...
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Understanding nas (network attached storage)

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Understanding nas (network attached storage)

  1. 1. Section 3 – Networked Storage Introduction
  2. 2. Section Objectives Upon completion of this section, you will be able to:  Describe the elements, connectivity, and management of: Direct Attached Storage (DAS), Network Attached Storage (NAS), FC and IP Storage Area Networks (SAN), Content Addressed Storage (CAS)  Compare the benefits and challenges of each of the storage models
  3. 3. In this Section … This section contains the following modules: 1. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) 2. Networked Attached Storage (NAS) 3. Storage Area Networks (SAN) 4. IP Storage Area Networks (IP SAN) 5. Content Addressed Storage (CAS)
  4. 4. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) Module 3.1
  5. 5. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) After completing this module you will be able to:  Discuss the benefits of DAS based storage strategy  Describe the elements of DAS  Describe the connectivity options for DAS  Discuss DAS management considerations  Identify the best environments for DAS solutions
  6. 6. DAS Benefits  Ideal for local data provisioning  Quick deployment for small environments  Simple to deploy in simple configurations  Reliability  Low capital expense  Low complexity
  7. 7. Physical Elements of DAS CPU  Motherboard  Clustered group of processors  Processor cards  Complete system  Internal  External  Hard disk(s)  CD-ROM drive  Optical drive  Removable media  Tape devices/tape library  RAID/intelligent array(s)  Portable media drives Connectivity Storage
  8. 8. DAS Management: Internal  Host provides: – Disk partitioning (Volume management) – File system layout – Data addressing  Direct Attached Storage managed individually through the server and the OS
  9. 9. DAS Management: External  Array based management  Availability – multi-path I/O  Lower TCO for managing data and storage Infrastructure
  10. 10. DAS Performance Considerations Factors to be considered for DAS performance: • Hard disks • Memory cache • Virtual memory (paging) • Storage controllers • Protocol supported (e.g. SCSI, FireWire, USB, etc.) • RAID level • Bus
  11. 11. Internal DAS Application Example Hard Drive 40 Pin Ribbon Cable Motherboard
  12. 12. External DAS Application Example ESCON HBA Cable for external DAS connectivity
  13. 13. DAS Challenges  Hosts must be directly connected  Data availability issues – Many single points of failure Bus, multiple path software, host, application  Data slowdowns possible – CPU congestion, caching, multi-pathing  Volumes are not globally available to all hosts  Scalability concerns
  14. 14. DAS Challenges  Hosts must be directly connected  Data availability  Data slowdowns possible – CPU congestion, caching, multi-pathing  Scalability is limited – Number of connectivity ports to hosts – Number of addressable disks – Distance limitations  Downtime required for maintenance
  15. 15. Module Summary Key points covered in this module:  DAS can be: – An integrated part of the host computer – Directly connected to a single server  DAS is made up of a CPU, connectivity, and storage devices – There are several options within each of these categories  DAS connectivity uses block-level access protocols
  16. 16. Check Your Knowledge  What are the physical elements of DAS?  Give an example of when DAS is a good solution.  Describe internal DAS connectivity.  Describe external DAS connectivity.  What are some areas that you need to consider as part of DAS management? 
  17. 17. Network Attached Storage (NAS) Module 3.2
  18. 18. NAS – Network Attached Storage After completing this module, you will be able to:  Discuss the benefits of NAS based storage strategy  Describe the elements of NAS  Discuss connectivity options for NAS  Discuss NAS management considerations by environment  Identify the best environments for NAS solutions
  19. 19. In this Module … This module contains the following lessons:  What is NAS?  Managing a NAS Environment  NAS Application Examples
  20. 20. Lesson: What is NAS? Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:  Define NAS and describe its key attributes  List the benefits of NAS  Describe NAS connectivity
  21. 21. NAS Evolution Network Attached Storage (NAS) Stand Alone PC Networked File SharingNetworked PCsPortable Media for File Sharing
  22. 22. What is NAS? NAS is shared storage on a network infrastructure. Clients Application Server Print Server NAS Device NAS Head Storage
  23. 23. General Purpose Servers vs. NAS Devices Network Operating System I/O File System Print Drivers Applications General Purpose Server (NT or Unix Server) Network Operating System File System Single Function Device (NAS Server)
  24. 24. Why NAS?  Supports global information access  Improves efficiency  Provides flexibility  Centralizes storage  Simplifies management  Scalability  High availability – through native clustering  Provides security integration to environment (user authentication and authorization)
  25. 25. NAS Device Components NAS Device CIFSNFS Network Interface Storage Interface NAS Device OS SCSI, FC, or ATA IP Network
  26. 26. NAS File Services Protocols: NFS and CIFS NAS Device Network Interface Storage Interface NAS Device OS SCSI, FC, or ATA CIFSNFS IP Network Windows Unix NFS CIFS
  27. 27. Network File System (NFS)  Client/server application  Uses RPC mechanisms over TCP protocol  Mount points grant access to remote hierarchical file structures for local file system structures  Access to the mount can be controlled by permissions
  28. 28. Common Internet File System (CIFS)  Public version of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol  Client applications access files on a computer running server applications that accept the SMB protocol  Better control of files than FTP  Potentially better access than Web browsers and HTTP
  29. 29. NAS Physical Elements  Data movers/filers  Management interface – Configure network interfaces – Create, mount, or export file system – Install, configure and manage all data movers/filers – Can be accessed locally or remotely  Connectivity – NAS head to storage – NAS head to network  Storage
  30. 30. Integrated vs. Gateway NAS Integrated NAS NAS Gateway IP Network IP Network FC Fabric NAS Head NAS Head
  31. 31. Integrated NAS System Integrated NAS System NAS Head Storage Direct Attach IP Network
  32. 32. Gateway NAS System Clients Application Servers Storage NAS Gateway FC Switch IP Network
  33. 33. Lesson Summary  A NAS server is an appliance optimized for file serving functions.  Generally it has a specialized operating system  NAS supports multiple protocols  NAS can be implemented as an integrated system or as a gateway
  34. 34. Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN) Module 3.3
  35. 35. Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN) Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the features and benefits of SAN.  Describe the physical and logical elements of SAN.  List common SAN topologies.  Compare and contrast connectivity devices.  Describe connectivity options of SAN.  Describe the I/O flow in the SAN environment.  List SAN management considerations.  Describe applications of a SAN strategy.
  36. 36. In this module … This module contains the following lessons:  Fibre Channel SAN Overview.  The Components of a SAN.  FC SAN Connectivity.  SAN Management.  SAN Deployment Examples.  Case Study and Applications of FC SAN.
  37. 37. Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Overview Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Define a FC SAN.  Describe the features of FC SAN based storage.  Describe the benefits of an FC SAN based storage strategy.
  38. 38. Business Needs and Technology Challenges  Information when and where the business user needs it  Integrate technology infrastructure with business processes  Flexible, resilient architecture
  39. 39. What is a SAN?  Dedicated storage network  Organized connections among:  Storage  Communication devices  Systems  Secure  Robust.
  40. 40. Evolution of Fibre Channel SAN SAN Islands FC Arbitrated Loop Interconnected SANs FC Switched Fabric Enterprise SANs FC Switched Fabric HUB
  41. 41. Benefits of a SAN  High bandwidth – Fibre Channel  SCSI extension – Block I/O  Resource Consolidation – Centralized storage and management  Scalability – Up to 16 million devices  Secure Access – Isolation and filtering
  42. 42. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  Definition of a SAN  Features and Benefits of SANs
  43. 43. Lesson: The Components of a SAN Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the elements of a SAN. – Host Bus Adapter (HBA) – Fiber Cabling – Fibre Channel Switch /Hub – Storage Array – Management System
  44. 44. Components of a Storage Area Network  Host Bus Adapter (HBA)  Fiber Cabling  Fibre Channel Switch /Hub  Storage Array  Management System HBAHBA SAN-attached Server SAN
  45. 45. Nodes, Ports, & Links Node HBA Port 0Port 0 Port 1Port 1 Port nPort n Link Port 0Port 0 Rx Tx
  46. 46. HBA Host Bus Adapters  HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize the impact on host processor performance HBA
  47. 47. Connectivity Single Mode Fiber Storage Multimode Fiber Host
  48. 48. Connectivity Devices  Basis for SAN communication – Hubs, Switches and Directors HBA
  49. 49. Storage Resources  Extension of the basic disk drive to an array. – Provides storage consolidation and centralization  Features of an array – High Availability/Redundancy – Performance – Business Continuity – Multiple host connect HBA
  50. 50. SAN Management Software  A suite of tools for managing SAN including access of host to storage arrays.  Provides integrated management of SAN environment.  Web based GUI or CLI
  51. 51. Lesson: Summary Topics in this lesson included:  The elements of a SAN: – Host Bus Adapter (HBA) – Fiber Cabling – Fibre Channel Switch /Hub – Storage Array – Management System
  52. 52. Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the Fibre Channel SAN connectivity method and topologies  Describe Fibre Channel devices  Describe Fibre Channel communication protocols  Describe Fibre Channel login procedures
  53. 53. Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity  Core networking principles applied to storage  Servers are attached to 2 distinct networks – Back-end – Front-end Users & Application Clients Storage & Application Data Servers & Applications SAN switches directors IP network
  54. 54. What is Fibre Channel?  SAN Transport Protocol – Integrated set of standards (ANSI) – Encapsulates SCSI  A High Speed Serial Interface – Allows SCSI commands to be transferred over a storage network.  Standard allows for multiple protocols over a single interface.
  55. 55. World Wide Names  Unique 64 bit identifier.  Static to the port. – Used to physically identify a port or node within the SAN. – Similar to NIC MAC address  Additionally, each node is assigned a unique port ID (address) within the SAN – Used to communicate between nodes within the SAN – Similar in functionality to an IP address on a NIC.
  56. 56. World Wide Names: Example World Wide Name - HBA 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 9 2 0 d c 4 0 Reserved 12 bits Company OUI 24 bits Company Specific 24 bits World Wide Name – Array 5 0 0 6 0 1 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 B 2 0101 0000 0000 0110 0000 0001 0110 0000 0000 0000 0110 0000 0000 0001 1011 0010 Company ID 24 bits Port Model seed 32 bits
  57. 57. Fibre Channel Addressing  Fibre Channel addresses are used for transporting frames from source ports to destination ports.  Address assignment method varies with the associated topology (loop vs switch) – Loop – self assigning – Switch – centralized authority  Certain addresses are reserved – FFFFFC is Name Server – FFFFFE is Fabric Login
  58. 58. What is a Fabric?  Virtual space used by nodes to communicate with each other once they are joined.  Component identifiers: – Domain ID – Worldwide Name (WWN) Fabric
  59. 59. Fibre Channel Topologies  Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) – Devices attached to a shared “loop” – Analogous to Token Ring  Switched Fabric (FC-SW) – All devices connected to a “Fabric Switch” – Analogous to an IP switch – Initiators have unique dedicated I/O paths to Targets Switch HUB
  60. 60. Switch versus Hub Comparison  Switches (FC-SW) – FC-SW architecture scalable to millions of connections. – Bandwidth per device stays constant with increased connectivity. – Bandwidth is scalable due to dedicated connections. – Higher availability than hubs.  Hubs (FC-AL) – FC-AL is limited to 127 connections (substantially fewer connections can be implemented for ideal system performance). – Bandwidth per device diminishes with increased connectivity due to sharing of connections. – Low cost connection.
  61. 61. Topology: Mesh Fabric  Can be either partial or full mesh  All switches are connected to each other  Host and Storage can be located anywhere in the fabric  Host and Storage can be localized to a single switch Partial Mesh Full Mesh
  62. 62. Full Mesh Benefits and Tradeoffs  Benefits – All storage/servers are maximum of one ISL hop away. – Hosts and storage may be located anywhere in the fabric. – Multiple paths for data using the Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPS) algorithm. – Fabric management made simpler.
  63. 63. Topology: Simple Core-Edge Fabric  Can be two or three tiers – Single Core Tier – One or two Edge Tiers  In a two tier topology, storage is usually connected to the Core  Benefits – High Availability – Medium Scalability – Medium to maximum Connectivity Storage Tier Host Tier
  64. 64. Core-Edge Benefits  Simplifies propagation of fabric data. – One ISL hop access to all storage in the fabric.  Efficient design based on node type. – Traffic management and predictability.  Easier calculation of ISL loading and traffic patterns.
  65. 65. Lesson: Summary  Topics in this lesson included:  The Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies  Fibre Channel devices  Fibre Channel communication protocols  Fibre Channel login procedures
  66. 66. Lesson: SAN Management Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe SAN management functions – Infrastructure protection – Provisioning – Capacity Management – Performance Management
  67. 67. SAN Management Overview  Infrastructure protection  Fabric Management  Storage Allocation  Capacity Tracking  Performance Management
  68. 68. Infrastructure Security  Physical security – Locked data center  Centralized server and storage infrastructure – Controlled administrator access Storage Arrays Switch Switch Secure VPN or Firewall Servers Control Station Corporate LAN Management LAN (Private) In-band (FC) Out-band (IP)
  69. 69. Switch/Fabric Management Tools  Vendor supplied management software – Embedded within the switch – Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI)  Functionality – Common functions Performance monitoring Discovery Access Management (Zoning) – Different “look and feel” between vendors  Additional third party software add-ons – Enhanced functionality, such as automation
  70. 70. Fabric Management: Zoning
  71. 71. Zoning Components Zone Zone Zone Zones (Library) Zone SetZones Sets (Library) Members (WWN’s) Member Member Member MemberMember Member
  72. 72. Provisioning: LUN Masking  Restricts volume access to specific hosts and/or host clusters.  Servers can only access the volumes that they are assigned.  Access controlled in the storage and not in the fabric – Makes distributed administration secure  Tools to manage masking – GUI – Command Line
  73. 73. Capacity Management  Tracking and managing assets – Number of ports assigned – Storage allocated  Utilization profile – Indicates the percent usage of a given resource over time – Allows for forecasting  SAN management software provides the tools – Inventory databases – Report writers
  74. 74. Performance Management  What is it? – Capturing metrics and monitoring trends – Proactively or Reactively responding – Planning for future growth  Areas and functions – Host, Fabric and Storage Performance – Building baselines for the environment
  75. 75. Lesson: Summary  Topics in this lesson included: – Infrastructure protection – Provisioning – Capacity Management – Performance Management
  76. 76. Internet Protocol Storage Area Networks (IP SAN) Module 3.4
  77. 77. IP Storage Area Networks Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  Describe and discuss the basic architecture of – FCIP – iFCP – iSCSI  Explain potential applications of IP SAN technology.
  78. 78. In this module … This module contains the following lessons:  IP SAN Overview.  IP SAN Protocols.  Applications of IP SAN.
  79. 79. Lesson: IP SAN Overview Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe the IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  List the three common IP SAN approaches.  List the three deployment models (topologies) for IP SAN.
  80. 80. Introduction  Traditional SAN technology is built around Fibre Channel.  IP technology is emerging as an alternative or supplemental transport for storage traffic. = IP = FC
  81. 81. FCFC IPIP IPIP FCFCIP FC/ IP FC/ IP FC/ IP FC/ IP IP IP/ FC IP/ FC IP/ FC IP/ FC Block Storage over IP – Protocol options  iSCSI – SCSI over IP  IP encapsulation done on host / HBA(host bus adapter)  Hardware-based gateway to Fibre Channel storage  FCIP – Fibre Channel-to-IP bridge / tunnel (point to point)  Fibre Channel end points  iFCP – IP as the inter-switch fabric  Fibre Channel end points IPIPIP IPIP FCFC
  82. 82. IP Storage Approaches iSCSI FCFC FC FC FC IP Network IP Network IP Network IP Network iFCPFCIP iFCP Switch iFCPSwitch FCIP Router FCIP Router iSCSI/FC Gateway
  83. 83. Market Drivers for SAN Internetworking  Fibre Channel SAN challenges.  IP SAN enablers.  Easy to leverage IP equipment and expertise to help manage data in conjunction with Fibre Channel SANs.
  84. 84. Benefits of IP SAN  Cost Effective  Extend the reach of a SAN
  85. 85. IP is Cost Effective  Most organizations already have IP networks and familiarity with traditional network management.  Leverages existing Fibre Channel applications.
  86. 86. Extend the Reach of Your SAN  Standard Fibre Channel Distances.  IP Extends Fibre Channel applications over regional/global distances.  At higher link speeds, IP can handle synchronous applications.
  87. 87. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  Describe the benefits of IP SAN.  Describe the IP convergence in the SAN and its implications.  List the three common IP SAN approaches.  List the three deployment models (topologies) for IP SAN.
  88. 88. Lesson: IP SAN Protocols Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe and discuss the basic architecture of – FCIP – iFCP – iSCSI
  89. 89. Fibre Channel over IP - FCIP  Encapsulates FC frames in IP packets.  Creates virtual FC links that connect devices and fabric elements.  Includes security, data integrity, congestion and performance specifications. IP Datagram IP Header TCP Header FCIP Header IP PayloadIP Payload Fibre Channel Frame SOF FC Header CRC EOF SCSI DataSCSI Data FCIP EncapsulationFCIP Encapsulation
  90. 90. FCIP Benefits  FCIP – Best of both technologies – Support for existing applications – Cost effective – Multi-point networking Fibre Channel • Widely available • Low latency • High reliability • Off-the-shelf solutions • Mature standards IP • Widely available • Accepted technology • Trained user base • Affordable • Mature standards
  91. 91. Internet Fibre Channel Protocol - iFCP  Gateway-to-gateway protocol – IP switches & routers replace FC switches – Transparent to FC drivers  FC transport uses TCP connections – Point-to-multipoint networking possible IP Header TCP Header iFCP Header IP PayloadIP Payload Fibre Channel Frame SOF FC Header CRC EOF SCSI DataSCSI Data iFCP Address Translation & Encapsulation iFCP Address Translation & Encapsulation
  92. 92. iFCP Benefits  Works with wide range of devices.  Flexible.  Less potential bottlenecking vs. FCIP.
  93. 93. iSCSI  A method to transfer blocks of data using the TCP/IP network.  Serialized service delivery subsystem.  SCSI protocol over IP.
  94. 94. iSCSI Model Layers IP Header TCP Header iSCSI Header IP PayloadIP Payload SCSI DataSCSI Command Descriptor SCSI CDB encapsulation IP Datagram Storage
  95. 95. Lesson Summary Topics in this lesson included:  The basic architecture of FCIP.  The basic architecture of iFCP.  The basic architecture of iSCSI.
  96. 96. Content Addressed Storage (CAS) Module 3.5
  97. 97. Content Addressed Storage (CAS) Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:  Describe the features and benefits of a CAS based storage strategy.  List the physical and logical elements of CAS.  Describe the storage and retrieval process for CAS data objects.  Describe the best environments for CAS solutions.
  98. 98. In this Module … This module contains the following lessons:  CAS Description and Benefits  Elements of CAS  Data Object Storage and Retrieval  CAS Applications and Case Scenarios
  99. 99. Lesson: CAS Description and Benefits Upon completion of this lesson, you be able to:  Define CAS.  Describe the key attributes of CAS.  List the features, benefits and drawbacks of CAS.
  100. 100. What is Content Addressed Storage (CAS)?  Object-oriented, location-independent approach to data storage.  Repository for the “Objects”.  Access mechanism to interface with repository.  Globally unique identifiers provide access to objects.  Extensible metadata that enables automated data management practices and applications.
  101. 101. What Is Fixed Content? Electronic Documents • Contracts, claims, etc. • E-mail and attachments • Financial spread sheets • CAD/CAM designs • Presentations Digital Records • Documents – Checks, securities trades – Historical preservation • Photographs – Personal / professional • Geophysical – Seismic, astronomic, geographic Digital Assets Retained For Active Reference And Value Leverage Historical Value Improve Service Levels Generate New Revenues Rich Media • Medical – X-rays, MRIs, CTI • Video – News / media, movies – Security serveillance • Audio – Voicemail – Radio
  102. 102. Challenges of Storing Fixed Content  Most new digital content is fixed content.  Fixed content is growing at more than 90% annually.  Long-term preservation is required (years- decades).  Simultaneous multi-user access.  Need for faster access to records for business and legal reasons.  Need for location independent data, enabling technology refresh and migration.  Emerging regulations require retention. 
  103. 103. Shortcomings of Traditional Storage Options  Tape is slow, and standards are always changing.  Optical is expensive, and requires vast amounts of media in order to store data of any size.  Many times companies retire tape products without warning.  Many times recovering files from tape and optical is time consuming.  Data on tape and optical is subject to media degradation.
  104. 104. Benefits of CAS  Immutability and authentication  Location independence  Single instance storage  Faster record retrieval  Record-level retention, protection and disposition  Technology independence  Online (like Disk)  Optimized TCO  Scalability
  105. 105. Drawbacks of CAS There are some drawbacks with CAS:  Can be slower than SAN, NAS, or DAS.  Application integration.  Initial cost of ownership is higher even though TCO is significantly lower.
  106. 106. Lesson: Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  CAS Definition  CAS Description  Benefits and Drawbacks
  107. 107. Lesson: Elements of CAS Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe the Physical Elements of CAS.  Describe the Logical Elements of CAS.
  108. 108.  Storage devices (CAS Based)  Servers (to which storage devices get connected)  Client Physical Elements of CAS API ServerClient CAS-based Storage
  109. 109. Logical Elements of CAS  The Logical Elements of CAS include the Object-Level Access Protocols. CAS API API Metadata 39HLTTT2H0404EU6M4A9MUR7TE4 Content Address
  110. 110. Lesson Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  Physical Elements of CAS  Logical Elements of CAS
  111. 111. Lesson: Data Object Storage and Retrieval Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:  Describe how data gets stored in a CAS environment.  Describe how data is retrieved from a CAS environment.
  112. 112. How CAS Stores a Data Object API Application Server Client CAS Object ID Client presents data to API to be archived 1 Unique Content Address is calculated 2 Object is sent to CAS via CAS API over IP 3 CAS authenticates the Content Address and stores the object 4 Acknowledgement returned to application 5 Object-ID is retained and stored for future use 6
  113. 113. How CAS Retrieves a Data Object Application Server Client CAS Object is needed by an application 1 CAS authenticates the request and delivers the object 4 Application finds Content Address of object to be retrieved 2 Retrieval request is sent to the CAS via CAS API over IP 3 API Object ID
  114. 114. Lesson: Summary Key points covered in this lesson:  How data gets stored in a CAS environment.  How data is retrieved from a CAS environment.

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