5. our environment

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5. our environment

  1. 1. Used Paper Old polythene bagsOld clothe items Old plastic bottles Dead leaves Broken glass items Dead animals Chemicals, medicineBroken soil items Metallic wasteWooden materials Nylon materials Peels of fruits Electronic parts Spoiled fruits Rubber items
  2. 2. Used Paper Old polythene bagsOld clothe items Old plastic bottles Dead leaves Non-Biodegradable Broken glass items Dead animals Chemicals, medicineBroken soil items Biodegradable Metallic wasteWooden materials Nylon materials Peels of fruits Electronic parts Spoiled fruits Rubber items
  3. 3. Used Paper  Substances that are broken down by biological processesOld clothe items are said to be biodegradable. Dead leaves  These materials are normally Dead animals converted due to the action of bacteria or other saprophytes.Broken soil itemsWooden materials  These does not persist for a long time. Peels of fruits Spoiled fruits
  4. 4. Old polythene bags Substances that are not broken down by biological Old plastic bottles processes are said to be non- biodegradable. Broken glass items Chemicals, medicine These materials will be acted upon by physical processes Metallic waste like heat and pressure, but under the ambient conditions Nylon materials found in our environment. Electronic parts These persist for a long time. Rubber items
  5. 5.  After conversion in to simple form these substances get mixed with the soil and help to increase fertility of soil.
  6. 6.  These substances may be inert and simply persist in the environment for a long time or may harm the various members of the eco-system.
  7. 7.  Types of waste materials Consequences of adding waste to the environment
  8. 8.  Complete exercise NCERT Page No. 257 1. Why are some substances biodegradable and some non- biodegradable? 2. Give any two ways in which biodegradable substances would affect the environment. 3. Give any two ways in which non-biodegradable substances would affect the environment.
  9. 9.  Living things and Physical components within the surrounding area constitute environment.
  10. 10.  Plants, Animals and Micro organisms and their species variety. They are also known as biotic components.
  11. 11.  Air (mixture of different gases like O2, CO2, N2), water, soils, rock particles, minerals and other non- biodegradable products. They are also known as abiotic components.
  12. 12.  All these living organisms interact with each other and their growth, reproduction and other activities are affected by the abiotic components.
  13. 13.  All the interacting organisms in an area together with the non-living constituents of the environment form an ecosystem. Thus, an ecosystem consists of biotic and abiotic components both.
  14. 14.  Plants can make organic compounds like sugar and starch from inorganic substances using the radiant energy of the Sun in the presence of chlorophyll.
  15. 15. Producers HerbivoresPerform photosynthesis, Ex:- Plants Eat plants, Ex- small fish and phytoplankton Carnivores Consumers Eat meat and flesh, Ex- Big Fish Consume others Decomposers OmnivoresSplit Dade bodies, Ex- Bacteria Eat both plants and animals, Ex- Duck
  16. 16.  Decomposers break-down the complex organic substances into simple inorganic substances and replenish nutrients in the soil. Example: Bacteria and fungi
  17. 17.  All the interacting organisms in an area together with the non-living constituents of the environment form an ecosystem. Components of an ecosystem Role of decomposers in an ecosystem
  18. 18.  Read NCERT Page No. 256-257
  19. 19.  All the interacting organisms in an area together with the non-living constituents of the environment form an ecosystem.
  20. 20. Producers Herbivores CarnivoresConsumersDecomposers Omnivores
  21. 21.  Decomposers break-down the complex organic substances into simple inorganic substances and replenish nutrients in the soil. Example: Bacteria and fungi
  22. 22.  A series of organisms feeding on one another. This series of organisms taking part at various biotic levels form a food chain.
  23. 23.  They fix up the solar energy and make it available forDecreasing heterotrophs or the consumers. order of They are maximum in number. biomass  Ex:- Grass, Plants
  24. 24.  The herbivores or the primary consumers come atDecreasing the second level. order of biomass  Ex: - Insects, Frog
  25. 25.  The small carnivores or the secondary consumers comeDecreasing at the third level. order of biomass  Ex:- Frog
  26. 26.  The large carnivores or the tertiary consumers come at the 4th level. They areDecreasing order of minimum in number. biomass  Ex:-Snake and Eagle
  27. 27.  A food web is a graphical description of feeding relationships among species in an ecological community. A food web is a series of related food chains displaying the movement of energy and matter through an ecosystem.
  28. 28.  A series of organisms feeding on one another. This series of organisms taking part at various biotic levels form a food chain. Each step or level of the food chain forms a trophic level. Trophic level of one food chain may interact with trophic level of another food chain and form food web
  29. 29.  Read NCERT Page No. 257-259 What are trophic levels? Give an example of a food chain and state the different trophic levels in it.
  30. 30. Decreasing order of biomass
  31. 31. It can not bereversed back
  32. 32. Decreasing order of biomass
  33. 33. Decreasing order of biomass
  34. 34. Decreasing order of biomass
  35. 35. Decreasing order of biomass
  36. 36.  Flow of energy in each trophic level Loss of energy in each trophic level
  37. 37.  Read NCERT Page No. 259-260
  38. 38. The Maldives government held an underwater cabinet meeting on Saturday 17.09.09 in a bid to focus global attention on rising sea levels.
  39. 39.  Biological magnification, is the increase in concentration of a substance, such as the pesticide DDT, that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of low rate of internal degradation of the substance.
  40. 40. In 1987, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) succeeded in forging an agreement to freeze CFC production at 1986 levels.
  41. 41. We will fall sickHousingComplex
  42. 42.  Some harmful chemicals enter our bodies through the food chain Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) split O3 and UV rays come frequently, result skin cancer The disposal of the waste we generate is causing serious environmental problems.
  43. 43.  1. What is ozone and how does it affect any ecosystem? 2. How can you help in reducing the problem of waste disposal? Give any two methods. Complete exercise NCERT Page No. 264-265 (Q.No 1 to 9)

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