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Biofertilizers-importance and uses
Sustainable agriculture is the act of farming
using principles of ecology, the study of
relationships between organisms and their
environment.
Biofertilizer are microorganisms that help
plants to grow by increasing the quantity of
nutrients.
Biofertilizer are defined as preparations
containing living cells or latent cells of
efficient strains of microorganisms that help
crop plants for the uptake of nutrients by their
interactions in the rhizosphere.
Introduction
Importance of Biofertilizer
Increasing Harvest Yields
Average increase crop yields by 20 to 30 percent.
Algae-based fertilizers have improved yields in rice at rates ranging between
10 and 45 %.
 Improving Soil structure:
Use of microbial bio fertilizers improves the soil structure by influencing the
aggregation of the soil particles
Better water relation
Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization induces drought tolerance in plants by :
improving leaf water and turgor potential,
maintaining stomatal functioning and transpiration
increasing root length and development.
Importance….Contd
Lowering Production Costs
Made from easily obtained organic materials such as rice husks, soil, bamboo,
and vegetables etc.
Reduce the input expenses by replacing the cost of chemical fertilizers.
Fortifying the soil
Aquatic cyanobacteria provide natural growth hormone, protein, vitamins and
minerals to the soil.
Azotobacter infuse the soil with antibiotic pesticide and inhibit the spread of
soil-borne diseases like pythium and phytophthora.
Improving Sustainability
Biofertilizer strengthen the soil profile,
 leave water sources untainted and
 Edify plant growth without detrimental side-effects.
How does Biofertilizer work?
Fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and root nodules of legume
crop and make it available to the plants.
Solubilise the insoluble forms of phosphates like tricalcium, iron
and aluminum phosphate into available forms.
Produce hormones and anti metabolites which promote root growth.
They scavenge phosphate from soil layers
Decompose organic matter and help in soil mineralization.
S.N Groups examples
A N2 fixing Biofertilizer
1. Free-living Azotobacter, Clostridium,Anabaena, Nostoc,
Symbiotic Rhizobium, Anabaena azollae
3. Associative Symbiotic Azospirillum
B P Solubilizing Biofertilizer
1. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas striata
2. Fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergillus awamori
C P Mobilizing Biofertilizers
1. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Glomus sp. , Scutellospora sp..
2. Ectomycorrhiza Laccaria sp., Pisolithus sp., Boletus sp., Amanita sp.
3. Ericoid Mycorrhiza Pezizella ericae
D Biofertilizer for Micro nutrients
1. Silicate and Zinc solubilizers Bacillus sp.
E Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
1. Pseudomonas Pseudomonas fluorescence
Classification of Biofertilizers
A.Nitrogen fixing Biofertilizers
Rhizobium
A soil habitat bacterium able to colonize the
legume roots
Fixes atmospheric elemental nitrogen
symbiotically into plant usable form.
Fixes 50-100 kg/ha/year of nitrogen, most
useful in concern with amount of N2 fixed.
It is especially important for legumes and
oilseeds.
The major microorganisms used as Biofertilizer are:
Cyanobacteria
Both free-living as well as symbiotic cyanobacteria (blue green algae) have been
harnessed in rice cultivation.
The benefits due to algalization could be to the extent of 20-30 kg/ha.
Add growth-promoting substances & vitamin B12
Improve the soil’s aeration, water holding capacity and add to bio mass when
decomposed after life cycle
 Azospirillium
 Proliferates under both anaerobic and aerobic condition.
 Nitrogen fixing ability of 20-40 kg/ha
PGRs production (IAA), disease resistance and drought tolerance are some of the
additional benefits
Azolla
A free-floating water fern used as Biofertilizer for wetland rice
Fixes atmospheric nitrogen in association with nitrogen fixing blue green algae
Anabaena azollae
Known to contribute 40-60 kg N/ha per rice crop
Azotobacter
A free living bacteria mostly found in neutral to alkaline soils.
 Fixes the atmospheric nitrogen by converting into ammonia
Produces abundant slime which helps in soil aggregation.
Fix biologically active PGRs like IAA and gibberellins.
Phosphate solubilizing Biofertilizer:
Group of beneficial bacteria capable of hydrolyzing organic and inorganic
phosphorus from insoluble compounds
Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhizobium are among the most powerful
Seed inoculation of PSB- 30 kg P2O5 /ha
Phosphate mobilizing Biofertilizer (Mycorrhiza)
A symbiotic generally mutualistic association between a fungus and the roots of
a vascular plant.
The fungus colonizes the host plant's roots, either intracellularly or
extracellularly.
This association provides the fungus with access to carbohydrates
In return, the plant gains the benefits of the mycelium's higher absorptive
capacity for water and mineral
Plant roots alone may be incapable of taking
up phosphate ions that are demineralized in
soils with a basic pH
The mycelium of the mycorrhizal fungus can
make them available to the plants they
colonize.
Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal barley
plants after colonization with
Cochliobolus sativus (Kogel, Giessen)
nutrients
carbohydrates
Stress resistance
Benefit for both partners
Silicate and Zinc solubilizing Biofertilizer
Microorganisms are capable of degrading silicates and aluminum silicates
Bacillus sp can be used as bio-fertilizer for zinc or aluminum silicates
because these organisms solubilize the zinc present in the soil and make it
available to the plants.
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus can produce phytohormones or growth
promoters.
They produce include indole-acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and
inhibitors of ethylene production
Biofertilizer have great role in increasing the crop production
They improve the soil health status and provide different growth promoting
hormones and phytohormones to the plant
Also do not leave the residual effects like that of the chemical fertilizers.
Hence the use of Biofertilizer could be the proper option for sustainable
agriculture.
Conclusion
Biofertilizers-importance and uses

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Biofertilizers-importance and uses

  • 2. Sustainable agriculture is the act of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. Biofertilizer are microorganisms that help plants to grow by increasing the quantity of nutrients. Biofertilizer are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants for the uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere. Introduction
  • 3. Importance of Biofertilizer Increasing Harvest Yields Average increase crop yields by 20 to 30 percent. Algae-based fertilizers have improved yields in rice at rates ranging between 10 and 45 %.  Improving Soil structure: Use of microbial bio fertilizers improves the soil structure by influencing the aggregation of the soil particles Better water relation Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization induces drought tolerance in plants by : improving leaf water and turgor potential, maintaining stomatal functioning and transpiration increasing root length and development.
  • 4. Importance….Contd Lowering Production Costs Made from easily obtained organic materials such as rice husks, soil, bamboo, and vegetables etc. Reduce the input expenses by replacing the cost of chemical fertilizers. Fortifying the soil Aquatic cyanobacteria provide natural growth hormone, protein, vitamins and minerals to the soil. Azotobacter infuse the soil with antibiotic pesticide and inhibit the spread of soil-borne diseases like pythium and phytophthora. Improving Sustainability Biofertilizer strengthen the soil profile,  leave water sources untainted and  Edify plant growth without detrimental side-effects.
  • 5. How does Biofertilizer work? Fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and root nodules of legume crop and make it available to the plants. Solubilise the insoluble forms of phosphates like tricalcium, iron and aluminum phosphate into available forms. Produce hormones and anti metabolites which promote root growth. They scavenge phosphate from soil layers Decompose organic matter and help in soil mineralization.
  • 6. S.N Groups examples A N2 fixing Biofertilizer 1. Free-living Azotobacter, Clostridium,Anabaena, Nostoc, Symbiotic Rhizobium, Anabaena azollae 3. Associative Symbiotic Azospirillum B P Solubilizing Biofertilizer 1. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas striata 2. Fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergillus awamori C P Mobilizing Biofertilizers 1. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Glomus sp. , Scutellospora sp.. 2. Ectomycorrhiza Laccaria sp., Pisolithus sp., Boletus sp., Amanita sp. 3. Ericoid Mycorrhiza Pezizella ericae D Biofertilizer for Micro nutrients 1. Silicate and Zinc solubilizers Bacillus sp. E Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria 1. Pseudomonas Pseudomonas fluorescence Classification of Biofertilizers
  • 7. A.Nitrogen fixing Biofertilizers Rhizobium A soil habitat bacterium able to colonize the legume roots Fixes atmospheric elemental nitrogen symbiotically into plant usable form. Fixes 50-100 kg/ha/year of nitrogen, most useful in concern with amount of N2 fixed. It is especially important for legumes and oilseeds. The major microorganisms used as Biofertilizer are:
  • 8. Cyanobacteria Both free-living as well as symbiotic cyanobacteria (blue green algae) have been harnessed in rice cultivation. The benefits due to algalization could be to the extent of 20-30 kg/ha. Add growth-promoting substances & vitamin B12 Improve the soil’s aeration, water holding capacity and add to bio mass when decomposed after life cycle  Azospirillium  Proliferates under both anaerobic and aerobic condition.  Nitrogen fixing ability of 20-40 kg/ha PGRs production (IAA), disease resistance and drought tolerance are some of the additional benefits
  • 9. Azolla A free-floating water fern used as Biofertilizer for wetland rice Fixes atmospheric nitrogen in association with nitrogen fixing blue green algae Anabaena azollae Known to contribute 40-60 kg N/ha per rice crop Azotobacter A free living bacteria mostly found in neutral to alkaline soils.  Fixes the atmospheric nitrogen by converting into ammonia Produces abundant slime which helps in soil aggregation. Fix biologically active PGRs like IAA and gibberellins.
  • 10. Phosphate solubilizing Biofertilizer: Group of beneficial bacteria capable of hydrolyzing organic and inorganic phosphorus from insoluble compounds Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhizobium are among the most powerful Seed inoculation of PSB- 30 kg P2O5 /ha
  • 11. Phosphate mobilizing Biofertilizer (Mycorrhiza) A symbiotic generally mutualistic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plant. The fungus colonizes the host plant's roots, either intracellularly or extracellularly. This association provides the fungus with access to carbohydrates In return, the plant gains the benefits of the mycelium's higher absorptive capacity for water and mineral
  • 12. Plant roots alone may be incapable of taking up phosphate ions that are demineralized in soils with a basic pH The mycelium of the mycorrhizal fungus can make them available to the plants they colonize. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal barley plants after colonization with Cochliobolus sativus (Kogel, Giessen) nutrients carbohydrates Stress resistance Benefit for both partners
  • 13. Silicate and Zinc solubilizing Biofertilizer Microorganisms are capable of degrading silicates and aluminum silicates Bacillus sp can be used as bio-fertilizer for zinc or aluminum silicates because these organisms solubilize the zinc present in the soil and make it available to the plants. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus can produce phytohormones or growth promoters. They produce include indole-acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and inhibitors of ethylene production
  • 14. Biofertilizer have great role in increasing the crop production They improve the soil health status and provide different growth promoting hormones and phytohormones to the plant Also do not leave the residual effects like that of the chemical fertilizers. Hence the use of Biofertilizer could be the proper option for sustainable agriculture. Conclusion