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Sources Of Energy

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Physics presentation

  1. 1. PHYSICS PRESENTATION Topic: Sources Of Energy
  2. 2. What is a source of energy ?  A source of energy is one which can provide adequate amount of energy in a conventional form over a long period of time.  Primary energy sources are sources created directly from the actual resource. They can be classified in two groups:  Renewable Energy Sources  Non-Renewable Energy Sources
  3. 3. Renewable Energy Sources • Energy that comes from a source that’s constantly renewed, such as the sun and wind, can be replenished naturally in a short period of time. • Examples include: solar, wind, biomass and hydropower.
  4. 4. Non-Renewable Energy Sources • Energy from the ground that has limited supplies, either in the form of gas, liquid or solid, are called nonrenewable resources. They cannot be replenished, or made again, in a short period of time. • Examples include: oil (petroleum), natural gas, coal and uranium (nuclear). Oil, natural gas and coal are called “fossil fuels”
  5. 5. What is a Good Source of Energy ? • A good source of energy is one : i. Which would do a large amount of work per unit volume or mass. ii. Which is cheap and easily available iii. Which is easy to store and transport iv. Which is safe to handle and use v. Which does not cause environmental pollution
  6. 6. What are Fuels ? • Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used as heat energy. • The amount of heat produced by burning 1 gram of fuel completely is called its calorific value.
  7. 7. What are characteristics of an Ideal Fuel ? 1. It should have a high calorific value. 2. It should burn without giving any smoke or harmful gas. 3. It should have a proper ignition temperature. 4. It should be cheap and easily available. 5. It should be easy to handle, safe to transport, and conventional to store. 6. It should burn smoothly. 7. It should not leave much ash behind after burning.
  8. 8. Conventional Sources Of Energy • The traditional sources of energy which are familiar to most people are called conventional sources of energy.
  9. 9. What are Fossil Fuels? • Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  10. 10. COAL • Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, is also the largest world wide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. Coal-fired electric power generation emits around 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide for every megawatt-hour generated.
  11. 11. PETROLEUM • Petroleum is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. • Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials.
  12. 12. NATURAL GAS • Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. • Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations.
  13. 13. Non-Conventional sources of Energy • Those sources of energy which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms or nuclear fuels, called alternative sources of energy or non – conventional sources of energy.
  14. 14. Hydroelectric Energy • Hydroelectric converts sources of energy like the kinetic energy of flowing water or potential energy of water at a height into electricity. • Since there are very few hilly terrains and falls which could be used as a source of potential energy , hydro power plants are associated with dams.
  15. 15. Wind energy • Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. • Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land • Wind power is very consistent from year to year but has significant variation over shorter time scales.
  16. 16. • Solar energy is basically the heat energy tapped from the Sun with the help of Solar panels consisting of Special grade Silicon cells and then transformed into electrical energy. • The principal advantages associated with solar energy are that the solar cells have no moving parts, require little maintenance and works without the need of any focusing device. • There are certain limitations which include that they are useful only in the day and the outputs are very low. • Under the clear sky , the daily average of solar energy varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2
  17. 17. BIOMASS ENERGY • Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocelluloses biomass. As a renewable energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel.
  18. 18. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY • Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).
  19. 19. NUCLEAR ENERGY • Nuclear energy, is the use of exothermic nuclear processes, to generate useful heat and electricity. The term includes the following heat producing processes, nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion.
  20. 20. CREDITS • Presentation made by : • SAGAR BAHL X-B Roll No. 31 • SARTHAK MISHRA X-B Roll No. 33 Others: ( did not do anything. Please mark accordingly) SAURABH GUPTA X-B Roll No. 34 SHREYA SHARMA X-B Roll No. 35 SANYA ANAND X-B Roll No. 32