Sagar alone edible vaccine


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Edible Vaccine by Sagar Alone

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Sagar alone edible vaccine

  1. 1. EDIBLE VACCINES Guided By- Dr. S. L. Deore Presented BY Mr. Sagar S. Alone
  2. 2. SUMMARY 1. What it means ? 2. Difference Between Conventional & Edible Vaccines. 3. Methods for Transformation of DNA/Gene into Plants. 4. Production of Edible vaccine. 5. Mechanism of Action. 6. Advantages of Edible Vaccines. 7. Disadvantages of Edible Vaccine. 8. Clinical Trials. 9. Application. 10. References.
  3. 3. What It Means ?  Introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins [1].  Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato).  Humans eat the plant.  The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein.  Human are “immunized” against the pathogen.  Edible Vaccines Stimulates Both [2] 1) Mucosal Immunity 2) Circulating Immunity  Examples:  Diarrhoea  Hepatitis B  Rabies
  4. 4. DifferenceBetween Conventional & EdibleVaccines [3]  Conventional Vaccine  Edible vaccine  Expensive technology  Need purification  Require refrigeration  Poor mucosal response  Required cold chained  Required trained medical personnel  Enhance compliance in children(Oral)  Eliminate trained medical personnel  Good genetic stability  Heat stable  Not required cold chained  Stored near the side of use  Eliminate long distance transportation  syringe & needles not required  No fear of contamination of animal virus
  5. 5. Methods forTransformationof DNA/Gene into Plants [4] A. Vector mediated- Agrobacterium tumefaciens. B. Vectorless or Direct gene transfer- It has variety of techniques, 1) Gene gun ( Biolistic method/Particle gun) 2) Electroporation(pulse of high voltage) 3) Microinjection[using fine tipped (0.5 - 1.0 micrometer diameter)] 4) Chemical mediated gene transfer (polyethylene glycol (PEG) , dextran sulphate & Calcium phosphate) 5) Lipofection 6) Conjuction (natural microbial recombination )
  6. 6. Production of Edible vaccine
  7. 7. Mechanism of action [6] Antigens in transgenic plants are delivered through bio-encapsulation (tough outer wall of plant cells) protects them from gastric secretions. Break up in the intestines. Taken up by M cells in the intestinal lining. Passed on to macrophages, other antigen- presenting cells; and local lymphocyte populations. Generating serum IgG, IgE responses, local IgA response and memory cells. Which neutralize the attack by the real infectious agent.
  8. 8. Advantages of Edible Vaccines [5]  Edible means of administration.  Reduced need for medical personnel and sterile injection conditions.  Storage near the site of use.  Possible production of vaccines with low costs.  Economical in mass production and transportation.  Easy for separation and purification of vaccines from plant materials.  Heat stable, eliminating the need for refrigeration.  Antigen protection through bioencapsulation.  Enhansed compliance (especially in children).  Effective prevention of pathogenic contamination from animal cells.
  9. 9. DISADVANTAGES OFEDIBLE VACCINE [5]  Development of immunotolerance to vaccine peptide or protein.  Consistency of dosage form fruit to fruit, plant-to-plant, and generation-to- generation is not similar.  Stability of vaccine in fruit is not known.  Dosage of vaccines would be variable.  Selection of best plant is difficult.  Certain foods like potato are not eaten raw, and cooking the food might weakens the medicine present in it.  Not convenient for infants.
  10. 10. Clinical trials [7]  Rabies- Tomato plants expressing rabies antigens could induce antibodies in mice [14]  Cholera-Transgenic potato with CT-B gene of Vibrio cholerae was shown to be efficacious in mice [8].  Norwalk virus- transgenic potato expressing norwalk virus antigen showed seroconversion [13]  Hepatitis B- First human trials of a potato-based vaccine against hepatitis B have reported encouraging results [12]  Malaria [9,10]  HIV (Ongoing Project- Development of edible vaccine using transgenic plants (HIV antigen into Tomatoes) funded by Agriculture research service of the U.S department of Agriculture which is ISTC partner project #2176)[11]
  11. 11. APPLICATION [5] 1) Preventing infectious disease, Autoimmune disease, cancer therapy. 2) Administration of edible vaccine to mothers might be successful in immunizing fetus in utero by transplacental transfer antibodies 3) The edible vaccine used in following disease  Malaria.  Measles.  Hepatitis B.  Cholera.  Diabetes.
  12. 12. REFERENCES 1) Biotechnology expanding horizon by- B.D. Singh ,pp515-517. 2) Indian journal of biotechnology vol-7, july 2008,pp283-294. 3) P Lal et al, edible vaccines: current status and future, Indian journal of medical microbiology, (2007) 25 (2):93-102. 4) I. Potrykus, Annu. Rev. Plant Phvsiol. Plant Mol. Bioi.1991. 42:205-225 5) Neeraj Mishra et al, Edible vaccine:A new approach to oral immunization, Indian journal of biotechnology,Vol 7, july 2008, pp 283-294. 6) Ma, S.-W., Zhao, D. L., Yin, Z. Q., Mukherjee, R., Singh, B., Quin, H. Y., Stiller, C. R. and Jevnikar, A. M., Nature Med., 1997, 3, 793–796 7) V. M.Waghulkar, Fruit Derived Edible Vaccines: Natural Way For The Vaccination, International Journal of PharmTech Research Vol.2, No.3,julu-sep. 2010, pp 2124- 2127 8) Arakawa T, Chong DK, Langridge WH. Efficacy of a food Plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. Nat Biotechnology 1998;16(3):292–7. 05.Giddings G, Allison G, Brooks D, Carter A. Transgenic plants as factories for biopharmaceuticals. Nat Biotechnol 2000; 18(11):1151–5.
  13. 13. Cont. 9) Mason HS, et al. (2002). Edible plant vaccines: applications for prophylactic and therapeutic molecular medicine. Trends Mol. Med. 8:324-329. 10) Ruf S, et al. (2001). Stable genetic transformation of tomato plastids and expression of a foreign protein in fruit. Nat. Biotechnol. 19:870-875. 11) Ongoing Project- Development of edible vaccine using transgenic plants (HIV antigen into Tomatoes) funded by Agriculture research service of the U.S department of Agriculture which is ISTC partner project #2176 12) Mason H. S. et al. (1992). Expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants, Proct Natl Acad Sci USA, pp- 11745-11749 13) Mason H. S. et al. (1996). Expression of Norwalk virus capsid protein in transgenic potato and tomato plants and its oral immunogenisity in mice, Proct Natl Acad Sci USA, pp- 5335-5340 14) Yusibev V. et al.(2002) Expression implants and immunogenisity of plant virus based experimental rabies vaccine, vaccine, 20, pp-3155-3164