Adaptogens or antistress agents from natural origin
ADAPTOGENS OR ANTISTRESS AGENTS FROM NATURAL ORIGIN BY K.VIDYA SAGAR(Y11MPH 11110) MPHARM 1ST SEMESTER DERARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF DR.CH.NAGA KAVITHA MADAM Mpharm , PhD DERARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY KC.REDDY INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 2012
ADAPTOGENS/ANTISTRESS AGENTS An individual who can adapt easily to any changing situation (physical, mental, microbial, chemical etc..) -Stays Healthy ADAPTOGEN- coined by LAZAREV a Russian scientist- only 50 years ago but the Indian physicians practicing before 5000 years- Rasayanas  It is sold in markets as modern nutraceuticals with different labels. specific characteristics of adaptogen i. Balanced endocrine systemii. Optimal homeostasiso Rasayanas have been used to promote health longevity and revitalizing the body
These drugs increase in non-specific resistance. Adaptogen means adapting or causing adaptive reaction & they appear to increase the general defense power of the organism. To be an adaptogen it should be relatively innocuous & action should be non-specific. Several herbal drugs have been introduced in recent past years for decreasing anxiety and stress in many emotional and physical disorders. They also suggested for treatment of depression, melancholy, gastric ulcers rheumatism.
SOME HERBAL ADAPTOGENIC PLANTSS.no HERBAL PLANT COMMON PARTS USED NAME 1. Withania somnifera Ashwagandha Root 2 Panax ginseng Ginnsuu Root 3 Caesalpinia bonduc Nickernuts Seed 4 Hippophae rhamnoides Sea-buck Berry and leaf thorn 5 Rhodiola imbricata Rose root Root 6 Bacopa monniera Brahmi Leaf 7 Panax quinquefolia Red berry Root 8 Zingiber offcinale Zingiber Rhizome 9 Asparagus recemosus Shatavari Root10 Ocimun sanctum Tulsi Leaves
S.no Herbal plant Common Part used name 11 Schisandra chinensis Bail Plant12 Azdirachta indica Neem Leaves13 Accanthopanax Touch-me-not Plant senticosus14 Curcuma longa Turmeric Rhizome15 Psidium guajava Guava Leaf16 Momordica charantia Bitter melon Plant17 Eugenia caryophyllus Clove Bud18 Tribulus terristiris Ghkshura Plant19 Allium sativum Garlic Rhizome20 Clitoria ternatea Butterfly pea Plant
Stressful situations in human1. Heavy work stress2. Pollution stress3. Environmental stress4. Physical stress5. Mental stress6. Microbial stress7. Chemical stress
TYPES OF STRESSORS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS Noise stress (100db-4hr/day15 days) Forced Swimming stress(20min) Chronic unpredictable stress Immobilization stress(150min) Foot shock stress(2ma for 20 min) Over night solid cage bedding Day-night reversal and fastingo Cold Restraint stress(40 c for 2 hr)
ANTISTRESS GETS WORK Enhance Anti oxidant enzyme (SOD, catalase, glutathione, peroxidase) Free radicals scavenging Generation of reactiveSTRESS oxygen species(ROS) FREE RADICALS SUPER OXIDE and ANIONS,HYDROXYL RADICALS hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress
FREE RADICALS ( increased loss of cell fluidity)cell Ca2+ permeability sympathetic activity Exocytosis local hypoxic(ischemia) Depolarization NT release (NA,DA,5HT,A)
5-HT HPA axis Hypothalamus CRH(from Adeno hypophysis) Pituitary gland(ACTH) Adrenal gland In cortex In medulla NA, and AGluco corticoids(affect metabolism), sexhormones,Mineral corticoids& steroidal hormones
SOME INDIAN ADAPTOGENIC PLANTS FOR ANTISTRESS ACTIVITY1. Azadirachta indica (Neem)•Widely used in Ayurveda, has reported to haveadaptogenic properties.•Studies evaluate its hepatoprotective role.•Juice from leaves 200mg/kg of body weightinhibited lipid peroxidation .2.Eugenia caryophyllus•Commonly called clove•Bud is used•Antistress effect was evaluated on cold restraintinduced gastric ulcer, and sound stress inducedbiochemical changes
3.Zingiber officinale.Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of zingiberofficinale was investigated on anoxia stresstolerance test in Swiss mice.Acute stress(swimming endurance test)Chronic stress (4o c for 2 hour)Results indicate that ethonolic extract ofZ.officinale have significant adaptogenicactivity .4 .Allium sativum• Commonly called Garlic• Rhizome is used• It showed anti stress activity by reducing the monoamine levels changes in noise induced stress.
5.Asparagus racemosus 1. Roots are used for adaptogenic activity2. Commonly called as shatavari.3. The results showed that methonolic extract of roots of AR decreases immobility in forced swim test and increases avoidance responding in learned helplessness test indicating antidepressant activity.
6.Curcuma longa (Turmeric)1. Rhizome is used.2. Ischemia-reperfusion induced lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited by CL.3. The studies say that cardio protective effect of CL like results from suppression of oxidative stress and correlates with the improved ventricular function .
7.Momordica charantia 1. It is commonly called as bitter melon. 2. All plant parts can be used. 3. Aqueous extract of MC anti stress activity was evaluated inducing acute and chronic unpredictable stress in mice. 4. The studies says that extract of MC decreased the changes induced by AS and CUS(chronic unpredictable stress). 4.The studies say that MC increased the swimming time in mice significantly
REFERENCES1. Dr.Ilangovan ramaswamy, High quality herbal extracts, agri info tech.2. Talha Jawaid et al , a review on adaptogenic agents, International Journal of Biomedical research 2285-304.3. P.Padma et al, Anti stress agents from natural origin, Journal of natural remidies,vol.2/1(2002)21-27.4. CH.N.Kavitha.,S.manohar babu, M.E.Bhanoji, Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress- induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats., Indian journal of pharmacology /Aug2011/vol43/isue-4.5. Rathinasamy sheela devi,james Samsung, and manohar senthivelan noise stress-induced brain neurotransmitter changes and the effect of ocimum sanctum(Linn) treatment in albino rats ,Journal of pharmacological sciences/98/2005/354-360.6. Guest Editorial ,Antioxidants in health,. Indian journal of pharmacology /2002/46(1):1-5.7. Yanpallewar.U.S, Sen.S , Tapas.s, Kumar Mohan ,Raju .S.S,and Acharya.B.S, Effect of Azarachta indica on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats, Phytomedicine,Volume 10,Issue 5,2033,pages 391-396.8. Sing Kumar Anad, Dhamanigi.S.Sunil,asad Mohammed, Anti-stress activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Eugenia caryophyllus buds(cloves), Indian journal of pharmacology, 2009,volume 41, issue 1 pages28-339. Lakshmi.S.V.B and Sudhakar.M, attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturb rations in experimental animals by zinziber officinale Roscope, Food and chemical toxicology, volume 48, issue 2, February 2010,pages530-535.10. Ghazanfari tooba, Hassan M.Zuhair, Ebrahimi Marzieh, Immunomodulatory activity of protein isolated from garlic extract on delayed type hypersensitivity, international immunopharmacology, volume 2, issue 11, October 2002, pages 1541-1549.11. singh.K.Gireesh, garabadu debepriya, Murunandam.V.A,joshi.K.Vinod and Krishnamurthy sairam, Antidepressant activity of Asparagus recemosus in rodent models, pharmacology biochemistry and behavior , volume 91, issue 3, January 2009, pages 283-290.12. Mohanty Ipseeta, Dharamvir Singh arya, dinda amit, Joshi Sujata, Talwar Kevel and Kumar gupta Suresh , Protective effects of curcuma longa on ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injuries and their mechanisms, life sciences, volume 75, Issue 14, 20 august 2004, pages 1701-1711.13. Meera Sumanth , chowdary G, Anti stress and immunodialatory activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia, pharmacognasy, magazine , year 2009, volume 5,issue 19 pages69-73.