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Presented by: SUSHIL LAMBA (10406EN008)
UPPU HARISH (10406EN015)
Timeline of the Bicycle
1791
•Toy-like machine which was simply a wooden beam on two wheels and propelled by the rider him...
Hobby Horse (1791)
 A wooden beam on two wheels, one behind
the other
 Rider sat on the beam and drove the
machine by pu...
Draisienne (1817)
 The first notable improvement in the hobby
horse was introduced by Baron von Drais
when the front whee...
The Treadle and Crank (1830)
 First true bicycle which could be ridden with
both feet entirely off the ground (out of mud...
Bone-shaker (1863)
 First commercially successful bicycle
 Developed by Pierre Michaux
 It had a pair of pedals connect...
The Penny Farthing (1870)
 For a bone shaker to move at speeds of
modern bicycles, one would have to pedal
at very high R...
The Safety Machine (1879)
 These were low machines in which the
rider sat between two wheels and
paddled a low crank whic...
A video presentation
DESIGN OF BICYCLE
Bicycle
Frame Seat Wheels
Rim
Spokes
Tire
Brakes Gears
1. WHEEL
• In the early days of bicycle development, the wheels were made of wooden spokes as used
in carts. These wooden ...
• When a torque was applied to the hub of such a wheel through its sprocket, the wire-spokes
were tensioned, driving the r...
2. BEARINGS
• The typical design of a bicycle bearing consists of a row of balls rolling between an outer
cup and an inner...
3. CHAIN
 The modern bush-roller chain was designed in 1880. It has high efficiency,
low weight and long life.
4. Free Wh...
• It engages the wheel to the sprocket
when the sprocket rotates in the
forward direction, but lets the wheel roll
forward...
The stirrup brakes operate
on the underside of the rim.
The friction pressure is build
up using lever mechanisms
that tran...
6. Frame
• The classical diamond frame is
well triangulated and quite
efficient. It has been the standard
frame since last...
7. Derailleur Gears
 A transmission system consisting of a
chain, multiple sprockets, and a
mechanism (derailleur) to shi...
Chainless Bicycles
 These have Shaft Drives
which use precisely cut gears
and shaft rod to smoothly
and efficiently trans...
When the bicycle was invented, people never thought that
this “machine” will be closely related to culture and society.
We...
Helping the Environment
•Cycling is not only important to the health of the
people riding, but also those of the surroundi...
Helping our health
•A lot of diseases, like obesity or cardiovascular
diseases are increasing. But, we all have a
sedentar...
Economical help
•We all need a device for our
mobility (in a faster way), but cars
are not “available” for all of us.
In t...
The involvement in culture
•The appearance of bicycles and their evolution, the innovations
according this device and the ...
http://www.jimlangley.net/ride/bicyclehistorywh.html
http://www.arvindguptatoys.com_arvindgupta_bicyclestory
english.pdf...
Evolution of Bicycle
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Evolution of Bicycle

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A vivid presentation on evolution and design changes in bicycle.

Published in: Design
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Evolution of Bicycle

  1. 1. Presented by: SUSHIL LAMBA (10406EN008) UPPU HARISH (10406EN015)
  2. 2. Timeline of the Bicycle 1791 •Toy-like machine which was simply a wooden beam on two wheels and propelled by the rider himself 1817 •Hobby-Horse or Draisienne (after the German Baron von Drais) or Velocifere 1839 •The first true bicycle “Velocipede” developed by a Scottish blacksmith named Kirkpatrik Macmillan 1863 •The first commercially successful bicycle “Velocipede” developed by Pierre Michaux also called as “Bone Shaker” 1870 •High wheeled bicycles or “Penny Farthing” developed by James Starley 1879 •“The Safety Machine” which was chain driven was patented by Henry.J.Lawson, also known as “Bicyclette” 1889 •The Rover Safety completes the development of the bicycle form.
  3. 3. Hobby Horse (1791)  A wooden beam on two wheels, one behind the other  Rider sat on the beam and drove the machine by pushing his feet alternately against the ground, as if skating  One could not turn this machine except by lifting and dragging front wheel  It was displayed for the first time in 1791 in a Parisian park as “Plaything of the Rich”
  4. 4. Draisienne (1817)  The first notable improvement in the hobby horse was introduced by Baron von Drais when the front wheel was turned by a handle  The steerable front wheel was an important addition  A man on Draisienne could exceed the speed of runners or even horse driven carts  The awkward posture of the rider brought ridicule  Bumpy ride on solid wheels over rough roads resulted in many cases of hernia
  5. 5. The Treadle and Crank (1830)  First true bicycle which could be ridden with both feet entirely off the ground (out of mud)  Kirkpatrik Macmillan employed the power of leg muscles to turn the rear wheel instead of dragging  Mechanism involves two bars suspended from front end of the frame, whose lower ends, known as treadles, carried pedals which were driven alternately by feet.  The linkage through the connecting rod and crank the push and pull to rotary motion of the rear wheel
  6. 6. Bone-shaker (1863)  First commercially successful bicycle  Developed by Pierre Michaux  It had a pair of pedals connected to the front wheel and was ridden in same manner as the basic children’s tricycles of today  Its wooden wheels with iron tyres on cobbled roads gave the rider a very rough ride and hence, nicknamed as Bone-Shaker  However, some comfort was achieved by having seat on the leaf spring
  7. 7. The Penny Farthing (1870)  For a bone shaker to move at speeds of modern bicycles, one would have to pedal at very high RPM which would not at all be comfortable  Hence, the main aim was to increase the velocity ratio  A simple and obvious way to increase the velocity ratio was to use a larger front wheel  However, with the increase in velocity ratio, there was a decrease in mechanical advantage
  8. 8. The Safety Machine (1879)  These were low machines in which the rider sat between two wheels and paddled a low crank which drove the rear wheel through a chain  However, it was identified that the size of the wheel no longer determined the velocity ratio  The low and rearward centre of gravity removed the tendency of the machine to come a cropper and hence called as safety
  9. 9. A video presentation
  10. 10. DESIGN OF BICYCLE Bicycle Frame Seat Wheels Rim Spokes Tire Brakes Gears
  11. 11. 1. WHEEL • In the early days of bicycle development, the wheels were made of wooden spokes as used in carts. These wooden spokes were very bulky to support the compression load. • The first breakthrough in the wheel design came with Penny-Farthings. The load was carried by thin wire spokes from the top portion of the rim, rather than being supported by thick columnar spokes on the lower portion of the rim. • The earlier tensioned-wire spokes ran straight in to the centre of the wheel. These spokes could take the vertical load at the hub but couldn’t transmit the torque at the hub to the rim. A couple of rigid bars with their own tensioned spokes were added for the purpose. • This problem was solved by placing the spokes tangent to the hub.
  12. 12. • When a torque was applied to the hub of such a wheel through its sprocket, the wire-spokes were tensioned, driving the rim in the same direction. A series of triangles formed by spokes and the hub ensured that all loads were resisted by just the tensioning of spokes. Pneumatic Tyres • The air-filled tyres of modern bicycles were first introduced on the safety bicycles in 1888. • The air is contained in a thin pressurized inner tube which is protected by a thicker outer tyre. • It has two steel-wire beads which snap into grooves in the wheel rim keeping the tyre in place. Fig.: Cross-section of a Rim
  13. 13. 2. BEARINGS • The typical design of a bicycle bearing consists of a row of balls rolling between an outer cup and an inner cone. • The balls, cone and the cup, all are made of hardened steel to resist wear and deformation. Fig: A section of the front hub bearing
  14. 14. 3. CHAIN  The modern bush-roller chain was designed in 1880. It has high efficiency, low weight and long life. 4. Free Wheel • A free wheel is a device which connects the sprocket of the driven wheel to its hub.
  15. 15. • It engages the wheel to the sprocket when the sprocket rotates in the forward direction, but lets the wheel roll forward freely when the sprocket runs in the backward direction. 5. Brakes • The earliest of the bicycle brakes consisted of just a metal spoon which was operated by a hand lever and was pressed against the rim of the front wheel. It was effective only on a solid rubber tyre. • Later on, stirrup brake was developed. It is still used on many bicycles. Modern bicycles use calliper brakes.
  16. 16. The stirrup brakes operate on the underside of the rim. The friction pressure is build up using lever mechanisms that transmits the motion of hand operated brake lever to the brake pads with a large value of mechanical advantage. Calliper brakes operate against the sides of the rim. The outer sleeve is attached at A and the inner cable at B Calliper brakes are operated through a flexible cable which is made up of an inner-wire running through an outer sleeve. The tension and compression act on the two halves of the calipers closing the brake shoes against the rim.
  17. 17. 6. Frame • The classical diamond frame is well triangulated and quite efficient. It has been the standard frame since last 100 years. • The top member resists load by bending. The bending is reduced in the other arrangement, resulting in much more efficient structures.
  18. 18. 7. Derailleur Gears  A transmission system consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets, and a mechanism (derailleur) to shift the chain from one sprocket to another (more common than hub gears).  Move lever on handlebar, changes tension in derailleur cable.  Change in tension moves derailleur to one side or the other moving the chain from one sprocket to another.  There are two pulleys: the guide pulley and the tension pulley. Guide pulley pushes chain from one sprocket to the other. The tension pulley maintains tension in the chain.
  19. 19. Chainless Bicycles  These have Shaft Drives which use precisely cut gears and shaft rod to smoothly and efficiently transfer power from the pedals to the rear wheel  Runs quieter, shifts smoother and last longer than bikes with chains.  These will be less expensive and less work to maintain  Also, called as Dynamic Bicycles use the Sussex Shaft Drive System (SDS)
  20. 20. When the bicycle was invented, people never thought that this “machine” will be closely related to culture and society. Well, sometimes unexpected things can happen, like in this case, considering that the appearance of the bicycle influenced the entire world!
  21. 21. Helping the Environment •Cycling is not only important to the health of the people riding, but also those of the surrounding environment •The bicycle does not pollute any air or sound. More bicycles, less cars, more green space. In conclusion, a healthy environment for all of us.
  22. 22. Helping our health •A lot of diseases, like obesity or cardiovascular diseases are increasing. But, we all have a sedentary lifestyle, because we find no time for practicing sports. •We can use the bicycle in our daily activities, and in this way we can get the “sports benefits”.
  23. 23. Economical help •We all need a device for our mobility (in a faster way), but cars are not “available” for all of us. In this case, bicycles are the most useful for us. •Bicycles are more cheaper than cars, and they don’t need any taxes or fuels to be paid;
  24. 24. The involvement in culture •The appearance of bicycles and their evolution, the innovations according this device and the changements made by the first called “The Walking Machine”, have led to the apparition of museums and important exhibitions of bicycles in the entire world • In sports, cycling and the competitions dedicated to it, are bringing more and more tourists and lovers of bicycles together, spreading the culture in terms of cycling, bikes, athletes of this sports and the history of this machine,all over the world. EuroBike in France Technical Museum-Bucharest France Tour
  25. 25. http://www.jimlangley.net/ride/bicyclehistorywh.html http://www.arvindguptatoys.com_arvindgupta_bicyclestory english.pdf http://www.google.com/images http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling http://resource.www.pedalinghistory.com

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