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khan safdar khan

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  1. 1. Presenter Safdar khan Roll No. 181 Department of Management Sciences
  2. 2.  Denotation is the dictionary definition of a term. It is the basic meaning of a word, what a term means.  In the others words, The Denotation of a term consists of the individual things or objects to which the term can be applied.
  3. 3.  Connotation is the emotions, thoughts, images, and associations attached to a word.  Terms can have positive, negative, or even neutral connotations. It all depends on the context, how and where the word is used.
  4. 4.  In the others words, the connotation of a term consists of the qualities necessarily possessed by the objects denoted by the term.
  5. 5.  For examples The Denotation of a term ‘man’ consists of all the individual things called ‘men’---of all things to which the term ‘man’ can be applied.  While its connotation consists of the attributes of ‘animality’ and ‘rationality’ implied by it and possessed by all men
  6. 6.  As we know that, the proposition consists of subject and predicate.  Now, the relation in which the predicate stands to the subject is called predicable.
  7. 7.  There are five different ways in which a predicate may be related to its subject.  Genus  species  Differentia  Property (or proprium)  Accident (or accidence)
  8. 8.  The larger class which includes a smaller class in denotation is called Genus.  The smaller class, which is so included is called Species  For example, “animal” is a wide class which includes the smaller class “man”  Hence „animal‟ is Genus and the „man‟ is Species
  9. 9.  Differentia means the attribute or attributes which a species possesses in excess of the connotation of its genus.  For example ‘rationality’ is the differentia of man, as it distinguishes ‘man’ from it genus ‘animal’
  10. 10.  A property is a quality or attribute which does not form part of connotation of a term but necessarily follows from it.  For example, a triangle has its three angles equal to two right angles and its two sides greater than the Third
  11. 11.  An accident is a quality which neither forms part of a the connotation of a term nor follows from it.  It means that which happens accidently and Has no necessary connection with the nature of a thing.  For example, the colour of a man is an accident.  He may be Black or white.