3g Technology Report Safal


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(3G) Technology, one of the leading Technologies in today’s wireless technology. NTT DoCoMo of Japan on October 1, 2001 is the first one to commercially launch this service. It was first implemented on CDMA phones. Now this service is coming with GSM. Third Generation (3G) mobile devices and services will transform wireless communications into on-line, real-time connectivity. 3G wireless technology will allow an individual to have immediate access to location-specific services that offer information on demand.

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3g Technology Report Safal

  1. 1. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 1 Bhujbal Knowledge City MET's Institute Of Engineering Adgaon, Nashik - 422003. ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 A SEMINAR ON ““33GG TTEEHHNNOOLLOOGGYY”” SUBMITTED IN DEPARTMENT OF MCA GGUUIIDDEEDD BBYY PPrrooff.. …………………… PPRRSSEENNTTEEDD BBYY MMrr.. SSaaffaall AAggrraawwaall SYMCA ROLL NO. ..
  2. 2. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 2 Bhujbal Knowledge City MET's Institute Of Engineering Adgaon, Nashik - 422003. Affiliated to University Of Pune Department Of Master of Computer Application Certificate This is to certify that seminar entitled “3G TECHNOLOGY“ Has satisfactorily completed by Mr. Safal Agrawal In partial fulfillment of term work for Degree in Master of Computer Application For the academic year 2009 – 2010 (Prof. …………….) (Prof……………………) Seminar Guide Head of Department
  3. 3. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 3 AACCKKNNOOWWLLEEDDGGEEMMEENNTT Every work is source which requires support from many people and areas. It gives me proud privilege to complete the seminar on “3G TECHNOLOGY” under valuable guidance and encouragement of my guide Prof……………. I am also extremely grateful to our respected Prof……………… (Head of Department) and Prof. …….. … (Seminar Coordinator) for providing all facilities and every help for smooth progress of seminar. I would also like to thank all the Staff Members of MCA Department for timely help and inspiration for completion of the seminar. At last I would like to thank all the unseen authors of various articles on the Internet, helping me become aware of the research currently ongoing in this field and all my colleagues for providing help and support in my work. Mr. Safal Agrawal S Y (MCA)
  4. 4. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 4 CONTENTS Page 1. Introduction. 05 2. Evolution. 2.1 First Generation Technology (1G). 06 2.2 Second Generation Technology (2G). 07 2.2.1 Advantages. 2.2.2 Disadvantages. 2.3 Second Generation + Technology (2G +). 11 2.3.1 High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD). 2.3.2 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). 2.3.3 Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). 3. Third Generation (3G) Technology. 16 4. Technical Architecture. 19 5. Features of 3G Technology. 20 6. International Standardization. 21 7. 3G Technology in India. 22 8. Loopholes of 3G Technology. 24 9. Future of 3G Technology. 25 9.1 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). 9.2 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). 9.3 Fourth Generation Technology (4G). 10. Conclusion. 29 11. Bibliography. 30
  5. 5. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 5 1. INTRODUCTION The Third Generation (3G) Technology, one of the leading Technologies in today’s wireless technology. NTT DoCoMo of Japan on October 1, 2001 is the first one to commercially launch this service. It was first implemented on CDMA phones. Now this service is coming with GSM. Third Generation (3G) mobile devices and services will transform wireless communications into on-line, real-time connectivity. 3G wireless technology will allow an individual to have immediate access to location-specific services that offer information on demand. The rapid evolution of fixed and mobile networks witnessed during the last decade has created new opportunities to deliver increasingly advanced services to the mobile user. Work for specifying and standardizing the 3 rd Generation (3G) mobile communication systems has been going on for several years. The First generation of mobile phones consisted of the analog models that emerged in the early 1980s. The Second generation of digital mobile phones appeared about ten years later along with the first digital mobile networks. During the second generation, the mobile telecommunications industry experienced exponential growth both in terms of subscribers as well as new types of value-added services. Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry. The rapid and efficient deployment of new wireless data and Internet services has emerged as a critical priority for communications equipment manufacturers. Wireless data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet services and wireless voice services have seen in recent years. 3G networks combine a choice of Quality of Service (QoS) levels with increased bandwidth, enabling Bandwidth - intensive applications and paving the way towards QoS-aware applications for the mobile user. Even though 3G and its evolution are expected to continue for several years, there is still a need to consider other (possibly) revolutionary air interface and network solutions. By dropping out the backwards compatibility requirements with current and future 3G systems there is more room for new innovations which could lead to quantum leap in system capabilities. It should be noted, however, that any beyond 3G revolutionary solution must be clearly better than evolved 3G in order to justify any technical or commercial interest. Therefore, the targets for future wireless research must be set considerably higher than the anticipated capabilities of evolved 3G systems The third generation of mobile communications will greatly enhance the implementation of sophisticated wireless applications. Users will be able to utilize personal, location-based wireless information and interactive services.
  6. 6. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 6 2. EVOLUTION 2.1 First Generation (1G) Technology The concept was developed in 1947 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signalling. Analog systems, implemented in 1970 by AT&T in North America, were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS), while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of the world was typically identified as a variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice, not data. AMPS were a first-generation cellular technology that uses separate frequencies, or "channels", for each conversation. It therefore required considerable bandwidth for a large number of users. In general terms, AMPS was very similar to the older "0G" Improved Mobile Telephone Service, but used considerably more computing power in order to select frequencies, hand off conversations to PSTN lines, and handle billing and call setup. What really separated AMPS from older systems is the "back end" call setup functionality. In AMPS, the cell centres could flexibly assign channels to handsets based on signal strength, allowing the same frequency to be re-used in various locations without interference. This allowed a larger number of phones to be supported over a geographical area. AMPS pioneers fathered the term "cellular" because of its use of small hexagonal "cells" within a system. It suffered from some weaknesses when compared to today's digital technologies. Since it was an analog standard, it is very susceptible to static and noise and has no protection from eavesdropping using a scanner. In the 1990s, "cloning" was an epidemic that cost the industry millions of dollars. Mobile phones began to proliferate through the 1980s.At this time analogue transmission was in use in all systems. They used Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (FDMA). In September 1981 the first cell phone network with automatic roaming was started in Saudi Arabia. It was a Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) system. One month later the Nordic countries started an NMT network with automatic roaming between countries. First-generation wireless technology is based on analog signals .Analog signals are radio transmissions sent in a wave-like form. A mobile device sends the waves to a base station where they are processed to determine the signal’s next destination (i.e., another base station, mobile phone, land- line phone etc.). Once the destination is determined, the signal is reconstructed as accurately as possible into its original wave form by the base station. The analog signal received by the end user may closely resemble the original transmission but rarely duplicate it. Early AMPS systems and other analog-based networks had difficulty handing off cellular transmissions effectively. Users could
  7. 7. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 7 communicate with other users (i.e., mobile phone users, landline phone users, etc.) only if the mobile phone user remained in one specific cell. If a user moved to a different cell area, the call was often lost as handoffs (The transfer of signals from one base station to another) would not always occur correctly. Users often had to re-dial numbers or reconnect to the base station in the new cell area. FIGURE 1: Marty Cooper http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/2007/3/2007_3_20.shtml This is Marty Cooper – he worked for Motorola and is considered the Father of the mobile phone. The Motorola researcher made the first-ever wireless call from a busy New York street corner in April 1973. 2.2 Second Generation (2G) Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signalling. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). GSM systems, first implemented in 1991, are now operating in about 219 countries and territories around the world. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight timeslots. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHz and 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band.
  8. 8. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 8 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signalling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM). GSM also pioneered a low- cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls, the short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide emergency telephone number, 112. This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number. One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries. In Australia, North America and Europe many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidised with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's mobiles. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee, utilize private services to remove the lock, or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee, some do it for free. The locking applies to the handset, identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). In some countries such as New Zealand, Bangladesh, Belgium, Costa Rica, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Pakistan, all phones are sold unlocked. However, in Belgium, it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. This was also the case in Finland until April 1, 2006, when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal, though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months).In New Zealand, since May 2008, it is illegal for operators to lock handsets, and any phones purchased locked in the country before that date can be unlocked for free. In addition to GSM, a similar technology, called Personal Digital Communications (PDC), using TDMA-based technology emerged in Japan. Since then, several other TDMA-based systems
  9. 9. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 9 have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. While GSM Technology was developed in Europe; Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. CDMA uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small, digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. While GSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant 2G wireless technologies, CDMA technology is recognized as providing clearer voice quality with less background noise, fewer dropped calls, enhanced security, greater reliability and greater network Capacity. The Second Generation (2G) wireless networks mentioned above are also mostly based on circuit-switched technology. 2G wireless networks are digital and expand the range of applications to more advanced voice services. 2G wireless technology can handle some data capabilities such as fax and short message service at the data rate of up to 9.6 kbps, but it is not suitable for web browsing and multimedia applications. 2.2.1 Advantages: Digital systems were embraced by consumers for several reasons.  The lower powered radio signals require less battery power, so phones last much longer between charges, and batteries can be smaller.  The digital voice encoding allowed digital error checking which could increase sound quality by increasing dynamic range and lowering the noise floor.  The lower power emissions helped address health concerns.  Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and email.  Greatly reduced fraud. With analog systems it was possible to have two or more "cloned" handsets that had the same phone number.  Enhanced privacy. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised, 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phone, which have no protection against eavesdropping. 2.2.2 Disadvantages: The downsides of 2G systems, not often well publicized, are:  In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed.  Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions
  10. 10. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 10 worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through.  While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise, the lossy compression used by the codec takes a toll; the range of sound that they convey is reduced. You'll hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cell phone, but you will hear it more clearly. FIGURE 2: The GSM Network Architecture. http://www.mobilemastinfo.com/information/masts.htm The Home Location Register (HLR) is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. The Authentication Centre (AuC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services.
  11. 11. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 11 The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a temporary database of the subscribers who have roamed into the particular area which it serves. Each base station in the network is served by exactly one VLR; hence a subscriber cannot be present in more than one VLR at a time. The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is often integrated to the HLR. The EIR keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned from the network or monitored. This is designed to allow tracking of stolen mobile phones. In theory all data about all stolen mobile phones should be distributed to all EIRs in the world through a Central EIR. The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile stations. Some EIR also have the capability to log Handset attempts and store it in a log file. 2.3 Second Generation + (2G +) Technology The intermediate between 2G and 3G networks is called 2.5G or 2G+ technology. 2.5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies. The term "second and a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet switched domain in addition to the circuit switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit switched data services (HSCSD) as well. 2.5G provides some of the benefits of 3G (e.g. it is packet-switched) and can use some of the existing 2G infrastructure in GSM and CDMA networks. GPRS is a 2.5G technology used by GSM operators As stated in a previous section, the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. However, the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow -- too slow for today's Internet. As a result, GSM, PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies:  High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD).  General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).  Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE).
  12. 12. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 12 2.3.1 High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD): High-speed circuit-switched data (HSCSD) is an enhancement to circuit-switched data (CSD), the original data transmission mechanism of the GSM mobile phone system, four times faster than GSM. Most 2.5G technologies have moved to packet-switched network technology. HSCSD a 2.5G technology is circuit-switched technology designed to enhance GSM networks and improves the data rates up to 57.6kbps by introducing 14.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.4 kbps. It is four times faster than GSM. One innovation in HSCSD is to allow different error correction methods to be used for data transfer. The original error correction used in GSM was designed to work at the limits of coverage and in the worst case that GSM will handle. This means that a large part of the GSM transmission capacity is taken up with error correction codes. HSCSD provides different levels of possible error correction which can be used according to the quality of the radio link. HSCSD requires the time slots being used to be fully reserved to a single user. It is possible that either at the beginning of the call, or at some point during a call, it will not be possible for the user's full request to be satisfied since the network is often configured to allow normal voice calls to take precedence over additional time slots for HSCSD users. The user is typically charged for HSCSD at a rate higher than a normal phone call (e.g., by the number of time slots allocated) for the total period of time that the user has a connection active. This makes HSCSD relatively expensive in many GSM networks and is one of the reasons that packet-switched general packet radio service (GPRS), which typically has lower pricing (based on amount of data transferred rather than the duration of the connection), has become more common than HSCSD. Apart from the fact that the full allocated bandwidth of the connection is available to the HSCSD user, HSCSD also has an advantage in GSM systems in terms of lower average radio interface latency than GPRS. This is because the user of an HSCSD connection does not have to wait for permission from the network to send a packet. HSCSD uses TDMA technology to enhance Web browsing and the transfer of files over wireless. Developers using HSCSD technology include Nokia and Ericsson. Nokia uses HSCSD in its Card Phone 2.0 technology for wireless communications. This technology has limited number of users. Service providers in Europe include E-Plus (Germany), Orange (UK), Telia (Sweden) and Telenor (Norway).
  13. 13. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 13 2.3.2 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS): GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range Of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. GPRS Technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM, PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz-frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of 56kbps to 115kbps. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet, such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail, ftp and HTTP-based Web services. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN), Base Station Services (BSS), Mobile handsets (MS), and Mobile Switching Centres (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN), e.g. an Internet backbone or an X.25 network. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA, TDMA), providing wireless voice and data connectivity to the mobile handsets. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). MSC switches the voice calls to circuit- switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the Destination BSS. On the data side, the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN, and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. GPRS was standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).Provides Push to talk (PTT) service, Point-to-point (P2P) service, instant messaging.
  14. 14. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 14 FIGURE 3: GPRS Network Architecture http://irshadwap.com/web/archives/7
  15. 15. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 15 2.3.3 Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE): EDGE was deployed on GSM networks in beginning of 2003 are often referred as 2.75G Systems. EDGE was brought by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD, whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. The performance of EDGE has improved steadily since its introduction: today it offers user bit-rates of up to 236.8 Kbit/s, with end-to-end latency of less than 150 ms .This performance is sufficient to make any data service available today attractive for users. The Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) states that, as of January 2009, there were 413 GSM/EDGE networks in 177 countries, from a total of 441 mobile network operator commitments in 184 countries. EDGE system drawbacks include bandwidth and channel-allocation obstacles. The system does not operate on its own frequency band. Instead, EDGE is built with other technologies (e.g., GSM) over existing networks. EDGE/EGPRS is implemented as a bolt-on enhancement for 2G and 2.5G GSM and GPRS networks, making it easier for existing GSM carriers to upgrade to it. EDGE/EGPRS is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrade. EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be made in GSM core networks. EDGE compatible transceiver units must be installed and the base station subsystem needs to be upgraded to support EDGE. If the operator already has this in place, which is often the case today, the network can be upgraded to EDGE by activating an optional software feature. EDGE can be used for any packet switched application, such as an Internet connection. EDGE- delivered data services create a broadband internet-like experience for the mobile phone user. High bandwidth data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS' increased data capacity. Application Benefit with EDGE  Web browsing: Significantly faster browsing for all data users.  Messaging: Much faster interaction – good for chat environment.  E-mail: Synchronization of mail accounts significantly faster.  Push-to-Talk: Significantly improved end-user quality and higher capacity.  Gaming: Real-time gaming is enabled.  Mobile TV: Good TV quality is enabled.  Music download: Good experience with EDGE and progressive download. EDGE Evolution, currently being standardized in 3GPP, will improve performance and coverage even further, with bit-rates of up to 1 Mbit/s and latency below 100 ms.
  16. 16. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 16 3. Third Generation (3G) Technology 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. With 3G we can do everything we do now, but we can do it much better, a lot faster and from almost anywhere! Some of the main advantages are that 3G allows for higher call volumes and supports multimedia data applications such as video, email, SMS, games etc. The 3G idea was hatched in 2000. There were many hiccups along the road towards releasing 3G technology. Each planned roll-out was delayed for a number of reasons, the biggest of which was the enormous cost for frequency licensing. Because 3G was dependent on an entirely different technology than 2G, completely new networks had to be built. Other delays were due to the expense of buying and upgrading equipment for the new technology. NTT DoCoMo originally planned to launch the world's first 3G services, branded Frontier of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA), in May of 2001. However, by May 2001, NTT DoCoMo had postponed the full-scale launch until October 2001, claiming they had not completed testing of their entire infrastructure, and would only launch an introductory trial to 4,000 subscribers. In doing so, they also renamed the service to Freedom of Mobile multimedia Access. In June of 2001 trial subscribers complained the mobile phones had insufficient battery life and crashed frequently, that there was inadequate network coverage, and that there were security issues within the handset itself. As a result, DoCoMo recalled 1,500 handsets by the end of June of 2001. FOMA successfully launched in October 2001 providing mobile telecommunications coverage to Tokyo and Yokohama. 3G wireless networks support the following maximum data transfer rates:  2.05 Mbit/second to stationary devices.  384 Kbits/second for slowly moving devices, such as a handset carried by a walking user.  128 Kbits/second for fast moving devices, such as handsets in moving vehicles
  17. 17. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 17 FIGURE 4: Features of 3G
  18. 18. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 18 4. Technical Architecture FIGURE 5: Technical Architecture 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain, which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs, which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system, and a circuit-switched domain, which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF), which is also part of the core network. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. The access network provides a core network technology independent access for mobile terminals to different types of core networks and network services.
  19. 19. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 19 The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements, known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. It provides the radio resource management, handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. Suppose a user want to use the 3G service then he/she first request for the service to its nearest Base Transceiver Station which further sends the request to Radio Access Network or the Core Network via Radio Network Controller where the proper authentication is done. And then as per requirement of user the network allows access to the service requested. If the user wants to access Internet then his request is send to the Core Network where Serving GPRS support Node (SGSN) Provides voice and packet data services and management of mobile subscriber. And Gateway GPRS support Node (GGSN) provides a gateway interface to external Packet Data Networks (PDN) and manages the routing of the tunnelled mobile network protocol data units (PDUs) across the PDN. And Charging Gateway Function (CGF) is responsible for billing Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) A Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is responsible for the delivery of data packets from and to the mobile stations within its geographical service area. Its tasks include packet routing and transfer, mobility management (attach/detach and location management), logical link management, and authentication and charging functions. The location register of the SGSN stores location information (e.g., current cell, current VLR) and user profiles (e.g., IMSI, addresses used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with this SGSN. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a main component of the 3G network. The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between the 3G network and external packet switched networks, like the Internet and X.25 networks. From an external network's point of view, the GGSN is a router to a sub-network, because the GGSN ‘hides’ the 3G infrastructure from the external network. When the GGSN receives data addressed to a specific user, it checks if the user is active. If it is, the GGSN forwards the data to the SGSN serving the mobile user, but if the mobile user is inactive, the data is discarded. On the other hand, mobile- originated packets are routed to the right network by the GGSN.
  20. 20. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 20 5. Features of 3G Technology  Fixed and variable data rates. o 2.05 Mbit/second to stationary devices. o 384 Kbits/second for slowly moving devices, such as a handset carried by a walking user. o 128 Kbits/second for fast moving devices, such as handsets in moving vehicles  Interoperability between service providers.  More bandwidth( between 5-20 MHz), security, and reliability  Packet switched data services.  Universal global roaming.  Multimedia (voice, data & video).  Video Conferencing.  Video Messaging.  Access to corporate applications.
  21. 21. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 21 6. International Standardization The International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) is the global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications, defined by a set of interdependent ITU Recommendations. IMT-2000 provides a framework for worldwide wireless access by linking the diverse systems of terrestrial and/or satellite based networks. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards – IMT-2000 – to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications. The aim of IMT-2000 is to harmonize worldwide 3G systems to provide global roaming. Europe, Japan, and Asia have agreed upon a 3G standard called the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), which is WCDMA operating at 2.1GHz. The International Telecommunication Union is the second-oldest international organization still in existence (the oldest being the Rhine Commission), established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on 17 May 1865. Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls. t is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, next to the main United Nations campus The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations, to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 3GPP specifications are based on evolved Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) specifications. 3GPP standardization encompasses Radio, Core Network and Service architecture. The project was established in December 1998. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is a collaboration between telecommunications associations to make a globally applicable third generation (3G) mobile phone system specification within the scope of the ITU's IMT-2000 project. These are some of the telecommunication governing bodies across the world which makes standard.  European Telecommunications Standards Institute(Europe),  Association of Radio Industries and Businesses/  Telecommunication Technology Committee (ARIB/TTC) (Japan),  China Communications Standards Association(China),  Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (North America)  Telecommunications Technology Association (South Korea)
  22. 22. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 22 7. 3G Technology in India In India the telecommunication Standardization is controlled by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) established in the year 1997. TRAI's mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society. First mobile telephone service started on non-commercial basis in Delhi. Indian Telecommunication industry, the fastest growing cellular market in the world with about 464.82 million phone connections (June 2009), is the third largest telecommunication network in the world and the second largest in terms of number of wireless connections. The first and largest operator is the state-owned incumbent Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), which is also the 7th largest telecom company in the world in terms of its number of subscribers. BSNL was created by corporatization of the erstwhile DTS (Department of Telecommunication Services), a government unit responsible for provision of telephony services. MTNL is the first Mobile operator in India to launch 3G services. Centre has allotted two state-owned operators — Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL) — for the roll out of 3G services in over 12 Indian cities. BSNL has voice-based pre-paid plans ranging between Rs. 350 and Rs. 1,350, while subscribers who opt for the post-paid model will pay between Rs. 500 and Rs. 2,500 per month. For data services, BSNL will charge additionally. Across the country, this costs between Rs. 250 and Rs. 3,001. After the telecommunication policies were revised to allow private operators, companies such as Bharti Telecom, Reliance Communication, Tata Indicom, Vodafone, Idea, Vodafone, Spice and BPL, have entered the space. Out of these companies Bharti Telecom is supposed to launch 3G services by October 2010. BSNL launched 3G service in Sikkim on Sept 16, 2009
  23. 23. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 23 FIGURE 6: http://coai.in This is the charge which BSNL users will have to pay for using the 3G services. Data Plans: Prepaid Recharge Voucher in Rs.(Service Tax Extra) Day/Any time usage in GB Night * usage in GB Total bundled free Usage in GB Validity (days)** Date Charges in Rs./MB*** 249 0.5 -- 0.5 30 2.00 399 1 -- 1.0 30 2.00 549 1 5 6.0 30 2.00 649 2 -- 2.0 30 2.00 999 5 -- 5.0 30 2.00 1099 10 -- 10.0 30 2.00 1299 5 10 15.0 30 2.00 1699 10 15 25.0 30 2.00 2999 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 30 -- *11.00 PM to 07.00 A M ** This will increase the validity of Main and dedicated accounts both. *** Data charges beyond free usage shall be deducted from the available balance in his main account.
  24. 24. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 24 Data Plans: Post-paid* Fixed Monthly Charge in Rs.(Service Tax Extra) # Day/Any time usage in GB Night * usage in GB Total bundled free Usage in GB Validity (days)** Date Charges in Rs./MB 249 0.5 -- 0.5 30 2.00 399 1 -- 1.0 30 2.00 549 1 5 6.0 30 2.00 649 2 -- 2.0 30 2.00 999 5 -- 5.0 30 2.00 1099 10 -- 10.0 30 2.00 1299 5 10 15.0 30 2.00 1699 10 15 25.0 30 2.00 2999 Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 30 -- * Unutilized balance of data usage in Post-Paid plans shall not be carried forward to next month. # Service Tax as applicable extra.
  25. 25. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 25 8. Loopholes of 3G Technology  Expensive input fees for the 3G service licenses: The initial installation cost of 3G service is in millions, which the companies need to spend to start this service  Cost of 3G phones: The cost of 3G enabled mobile devices are high which the common people cannot afford.  Lack of coverage in some areas: The network coverage of the service providers is limited to specific areas only. These are limited to metropolitan cities, and some of the developing cities.  Battery life of 3G phones: The battery consumption during the usage of the 3G services is quite high which affect the battery life. The battery needs to be charged frequently when it using the 3G services.  Base stations need to be closer to each other (more cost): The Base station i.e. the mobile towers needs to be kept at closer distance as the devices using 3G services need high signal strength to receive or send any information.  Tremendous spectrum-license costs, Network deployment costs, handset subsidies to subscribers, etc.: The cost of acquiring the right to provide the 3G services requires a huge amount of money which needs to pay to the telecom authority. The Telecommunication Department of India (TRAI) has offered this service to two of state owned telecommunication companies BSNL, MTNL .And Private companies will be allowed to provide this service by paying a huge amount of Rs.3500 crores.  3G networks will not be able to withstand the bandwidth intensive services being planned to be offered by mobile operators, even with only a small number of subscribers utilizing the service within a service area. 3G wireless technology was never built to deliver the streaming media services  The bandwidth consumed for a certain media will increase exponentially as users requesting the certain media increases within a cell. As more subscribers start using these services, more base stations are needed to boost the shared bandwidth.  Currently mobile operators have to depend on additional overlay networks to broadcast high bandwidth media.
  26. 26. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 26 9. Future of 3G Technology With the current speeds that are available on WCDMA proving inadequate, operators are looking to upgrade their 3G networks—barely a year after launch. The first step in the upgrade path is High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), followed by High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). Beyond HSUPA, a “Super 3G” upgrade is being considered, to counter the threat of future “4G” technologies. Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are currently working on further extensions to 3G standards, named Long Term Evolution and Ultra Mobile Broadband, respectively 9.1 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) only requires software upgrade to the existing WCDMA network. It enables a two-fold improvement in network capacity—enhancing download data speeds by more than five times than the current WCDMA networks to 14Mbps and shortening the round-trip delay between the network and the terminal. These advances translate directly into improved service delivery performance and a superior user experience, especially for services such as video streaming and bandwidth-intensive downloads. Many operators across the world are already trailing HSDPA, with large-scale deployments expected in 2006 when handsets become widely available. In its HSDPA trials in the Netherlands, T-Mobile has indicated the possibility of reaching ADSL speeds, which can blur the boundaries of user experience whether at home, office or while mobile. As of August 28, 2009, 250 HSDPA networks have commercially launched mobile broadband services in 109 countries. 169 HSDPA networks support 3.6 Mbit/s peak downlink data throughput. A growing number are delivering 21 Mbit/s peak data downlink and one network has been upgraded to 28Mbit/s. Several others will have this capability by end 2009 and the first network supporting 42Mbit/s network is set to come online in late 2009. High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5.76 Mbit/s. The name HSUPA was created by Nokia. The 3GPP does not support the name 'HSUPA', but instead uses the name Enhanced Uplink (EUL). High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is the next step of network enhancement to enhance uplink speed performance, again requiring only a software upgrade. Peak uplink throughput increases to 14Mbps compared to 64Kbps on WCDMA/HSDPA. This means that real-time applications such as video telephony and voice, which are uplink-bandwidth–constrained on WCDMA and HSDPA data networks, can be made available on the packet data networks. This will be the first step to moving towards a converged network over which both voice and data services can be delivered.
  27. 27. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 27 HSUPA handsets and equipment are expected to be available for wide-scale deployment by 2008. Similarly to HSDPA, HSUPA uses a packet scheduler. 9.2 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) WiMAX combines the familiarity of Wi-Fi with the mobility of cellular that will deliver personal mobile broadband that moves with you. It will let you get connected to the Internet, miles from the nearest Wi-Fi hotspot. Soon, Mobile WiMAX will blanket large areas— metropolitan, suburban, or rural—delivering mobile broadband Internet access at speeds similar to existing broadband WiMAX promises to deliver wireless broadband within a coverage area of up to 50km at peak data rates of up to 70Mbps. Though it will require licensed spectrum for wide-scale deployment, the cost of hardware for setting up a citywide WiMAX network will be much less than WCDMA. Current versions of the technology do not offer mobility but a mobile WiMAX standard (802.16e) is under development and is expected to be available by 2007. Many competitive players have already started launching fixed wireless broadband services using WiMAX. For example, Libera, a UK broadband wireless start up, is providing pre-standard WiMAX-based services in Bristol and has plans to cover 75% of UK businesses in the next two years. Tower Stream in the US has the largest pre-standard WiMAX deployment, offering fixed wireless broadband access to the business segment across New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and San Francisco with aggressive plans to extend the coverage throughout the rest of the country. WiMAX is backed by the IEEE consortium with more than 220 members encompassing an entire ecosystem of equipment manufacturers, operators, application providers, etc. Intel is at the forefront of promoting this technology and if successful, one can envisage a scenario where all laptops and PDAs are WiMAX-ready. In the event that regulatory conditions also co-operate and move towards a technology-neutral approach, mobile WiMAX deployments may start posing a real threat to mobile operators’ data revenues.
  28. 28. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 28 FIGURE 7: WiMAX blankets large Area with broadband Internet 9.4 Fourth Generation (4G) Technology One of the most notable advanced applications for 4G systems is location based services. The 4G service is proposed to launch in the year 2010. It is also known as “beyond 3G," since it provides a comprehensive and secure IP (Internet Protocol) solution. Users will enjoy high quality streaming video and "anytime, anywhere" voice and data at a much higher speed than previous generations. 4G location applications would be based on visualized, virtual navigation schemes that would support a remote database containing graphical representations of streets, buildings, and other physical characteristics of a large metropolitan area. This database could be accessed by a subscriber in a moving vehicle equipped with the appropriate wireless device, which would provide the platform on which would appear a virtual representation of the environment ahead. For example, one would be able to see the internal layout of a building during an emergency rescue. This type of application is sometimes referred to as "Telegeoprocessing", which is a combination of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) working in concert over a high-capacity wireless mobile system. Telegeoprocessing over 4G networks will make it possible for the public safety community to have wireless operational functionality and specialized applications for everyday operations, as well as for crisis management. The emergence of next generation wireless technologies will enhance the effectiveness of the existing methods used by public safety. At the present rates of 15-30 Mbit/s, 4G is capable of providing users with streaming high- definition television. At rates of 100 Mbit/s, the content of a DVD-5 (for example a movie) can be downloaded within about 5 minutes for offline access. The Fourth-generation wireless may include OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), SDR (Software-Defined Radio) receivers, OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) UTMS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), and MIMO (Multiple Input/Multiple Output Technologies). All these technologies will ensure high rates of data transmissions. The 4G working group has defined several objectives of the fourth-generation wireless communication standard. This includes: a high data rate of 100 Mbps between any two points in the world, seamless connectivity allowing users to enjoy global roaming across multiple networks, and support for high quality multimedia. The fourth-generation will interoperate with third generation systems as well as with broadband broadcasting systems. It also intends to integrate FWA (Fixed Wireless Access, WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), WLL (wireless local loop and PAN (Personal Area Network), to provide fully IP-based wireless internet.
  29. 29. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 29 FIGURE 7: Future of 3G Technology
  30. 30. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 30 FIGURE 8: Data Consumption per month from year 2008-13 10. Conclusion: 3G is an exciting new technology that is being incorporated into mobile devices across the globe. Users are now able to make person-to-person calls, download data and do a variety of other tasks they never imagined possible all via their 3G cell phones at a great speed. 3G is a new radio communications technology that will provide mobile access to Internet-based services. 3G will allow transactions; will allow m-payment, m-ticketing, m-signature, gaming, betting, more data flows music, video, personal data, personal pictures. More protection, privacy, services to corporations, copyrights, and openness. 3G devices have been designed to interact between different terminals with different shapes such as mobile phones with larger screens, digital cameras, PDA, videophones, etc. 3G is an exciting new technology that is being incorporated into mobile devices across the globe. Users are now able to make person-to-person calls, download data and do a variety of other tasks they never imagined possible all via their 3G cell phones. FIGURE 10:
  31. 31. 3G TECHNOLOGY Submitted By Safal Agrawal Page 31 11. Bibliography  www.wikipedia.com/4G  www.mobilecomms-technology.com  www.three-g.org.uk  www.intel.com  www.ntt.org  www.trai.gov.in  www.bsnl.co.in  www.mtnl.net.in  www.umtsworld.com  www.techcrunch.com  www.gemalto.com  www.nmss.com