Urbanization and Population
Migration in China
Wang Qian, National Health and Family Planning
Commission of China
March 1,...
Industrialization and
urbanization developed
relatively late in China.
In 1978, the proportion
of urban population wan
onl...
Since 1978, China has been
practicing a reform and open policy,
energetically developed its economy
and sped up the proces...
Migrant Population: status of
household registration unchanged
Space: away from the province, city,
county, township (sub-...
Migration in China is not only related
to time and space, but also related to the
hukou status (household registration)
Mi...
6
Migrant size and average increase rate
6.57
18.1
70.73
221.43
147.35
102.29
21.35
0
50
100
150
200
250
1982 1987 1990 19...
7
Migration profile, 2005-2010
• Size
– household registration differs from residence: 260.94 million
– exclude registrati...
8
Major destination
• About 70% to
Pearl River
Delta,
Changjiang
Delta, and
Beijing/Tianjin
• Cities with
largest
migratio...
9
Age structure of migrants
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
0~4
5~9
10~14
15~19
20~24
25~29
30~34
35~39
40~44
45~49
50~54
55~59
60~64
65...
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
Intra-provincial Inter-provincial Age 20~24, national total
Education M F M F M F
Primary or lower 17.3...
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
Note: This is the data in 2010.
In 2012, rate of urbanization in China already reached
52.6%.
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
1983年
22274
1983年
80734
1978年
79014
1978年
17245
1994年
85681
1994年
34169
2010年
67113
2010年
66978
Changes...
Characteristics of migrant population:
Annual increase is over 10 million, and those with rural
household registration aco...
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
Future pattern of urbanization and
population congregation in China
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
Problems confronted in the
development of urbanization:
Distribution of urban areas does not match the
...
Countermeasures:
Promote coordinated development of
medium and small cities and small towns and
guide for orderly movement...
Countermeasures:
Gradually change the agricultural transit
population into urban residents (with stable
employment, perman...
Thank You!
国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
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Urbanization and Population Migration in China

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Apresentação sobre urbanização e migração populacional na China, exibida durante o seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”. Leia mais em: www.sae.gov.br

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Urbanization and Population Migration in China

  1. 1. Urbanization and Population Migration in China Wang Qian, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China March 1, 2014 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  2. 2. Industrialization and urbanization developed relatively late in China. In 1978, the proportion of urban population wan only 17.9%. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  3. 3. Since 1978, China has been practicing a reform and open policy, energetically developed its economy and sped up the process of industrialization. As a result, a great quantity of surplus workforce in rural areas are shifting to non-agricultural industries. Therefore, a large scale of population movement is formed. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  4. 4. Migrant Population: status of household registration unchanged Space: away from the province, city, county, township (sub-district) or village of household registration Duration: over half a year Immigrant Population: status of household registration changed 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  5. 5. Migration in China is not only related to time and space, but also related to the hukou status (household registration) Migrants: whose residence at the time of census is not the same as hukou registration place (town or streets) →they move across administrative border without hukou status change Note: the identity remains even if they stay in destination for more than 10 years 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  6. 6. 6 Migrant size and average increase rate 6.57 18.1 70.73 221.43 147.35 102.29 21.35 0 50 100 150 200 250 1982 1987 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Migrantsize(inmillion) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Annualincreaserate
  7. 7. 7 Migration profile, 2005-2010 • Size – household registration differs from residence: 260.94 million – exclude registration and residence in the same city: 221.03 million – household registration in other province: 85.88 million • Intra-provincial: nearly half from urban, about half migrate for work or study/training • Inter-provincial: mostly from rural, about 70% migrate for work Urban-urban Rural-urban Rural-rural Urban-rural Total migrants 34.4 52.7 10.3 2.6 Intra-provincial 42.9 45.8 8.2 3.2 Inter-provincial 17.0 67.0 14.6 1.4
  8. 8. 8 Major destination • About 70% to Pearl River Delta, Changjiang Delta, and Beijing/Tianjin • Cities with largest migration increase: – Shanghai – Beijing – Tianjin – Suzhou Population density,2000
  9. 9. 9 Age structure of migrants 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0~4 5~9 10~14 15~19 20~24 25~29 30~34 35~39 40~44 45~49 50~54 55~59 60~64 65+ Men Women
  10. 10. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Intra-provincial Inter-provincial Age 20~24, national total Education M F M F M F Primary or lower 17.3 22.0 17.3 22.0 6.7 8.1 Middle school 39.1 38.3 39.1 38.3 46.1 47.0 High school 26.2 23.5 26.2 23.5 22.2 19.2 College or above 17.4 16.3 17.4 16.3 25.0 25.7 Education structure of migrants, 2010 (%)
  11. 11. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Note: This is the data in 2010. In 2012, rate of urbanization in China already reached 52.6%.
  12. 12. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC 1983年 22274 1983年 80734 1978年 79014 1978年 17245 1994年 85681 1994年 34169 2010年 67113 2010年 66978 Changes of population quantity in urban and rural areas in China
  13. 13. Characteristics of migrant population: Annual increase is over 10 million, and those with rural household registration acount for over 75%. Trend of whole family migration and long-term residence is obvious. Individual migration in pendulum type is gradually changed to migration of the whole nuclear family. Over 30% migrant population have been living in place of destination for over 5 years. Nearly 70 % migrant population take along their spouses, children and parents. They enjoy a relatively low level of basic public services, such as housing, social insurance and child education. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  14. 14. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Future pattern of urbanization and population congregation in China
  15. 15. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC Problems confronted in the development of urbanization: Distribution of urban areas does not match the carrying capacity of resources and environment. Medium and small cities do not have sufficient functions in congregating industries and population. There are too heavy population pressure on large cities and megalopolises, “city illness” Ability in supplying public services in cities is insufficient. Residence environment of some migrants-congregated areas is relatively poor.
  16. 16. Countermeasures: Promote coordinated development of medium and small cities and small towns and guide for orderly movement of population Strengthen industrial support in cities, enhance economic vitality and competitive ability of cities, improve the level of social management and public services in cities, and promote the ability of cities to deal with population congregation and carrying capacity. 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  17. 17. Countermeasures: Gradually change the agricultural transit population into urban residents (with stable employment, permanent residence and the new generation) Promote equilibrium of basic public services (including child education, ensured housing, employment, social security, basic medical care and family planning service) Promote social integration of migrant population 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC
  18. 18. Thank You! 国家卫生和计划生育委员会 NHFPC

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