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Social development and gender – Brazil


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Documento produzido pela Secretária de Políticas para Mulheres da Presidência da República e apresentado no seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”, realizado nos dias 21 e 22 de fevereiro, em Brasília. Autor: Tatau Godinho. Mais informações:

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Social development and gender – Brazil

  1. 1. Social development and gender - Brazil Tatau Godinho Secretary of Policies for Women’s Work and Economic Autonomy Secretariat of Policies for Women Presidency of The Republic of Brazil
  2. 2. Secretary of Policies for Women  Established in 2003  Ministerial level  Responsible for the formulation of public policies for improving rights and living condition of Brazilian women  Advisor to the Presidency on themes related to formulation, coordination and articulation of policies for women  Inter relation with all areas of government to develop policies for women
  3. 3. Political Guidelines  Build citizenship and autonomy for women, from personal, economic, social and cultural perspectives  New challenges of equality:  Social, political and economic rights  Sexual and reproductive rights  Greater participation in leadership positions in society  A life free from violence.
  4. 4. Presence in paid work  Increasing participation of women in labour market  From 2001 to 2011- an increase of 24% of women in economically active population  Still women are less available for working out Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 2012
  5. 5. 42,1 10 52,1 36,1 20,8 56,9 Paid work Unpaid Work Paid + Unpaid Work Men Women Average weekly hours by sex Paid and non-paid work  Persistency of the sexual division of labour.  Initiatives to have broader time-use research Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 2012
  6. 6. Family arrangement and care  Changes on family arrangements  The proportion of women as the reference person of family arrangements increased from 28% in 2002 to 38% in 2012  Increasing responsibility for raising children and care duties/tasks by themselves  Acceleration of aging process of population  New needs for social policies
  7. 7. Social Equality Promotion and Work Policies Income Social Security Some affirmative actions
  8. 8. Improvement of formal labour sector  In the last decade, an increase of 27,6% of workers in formal market.  Proportion of formal workers went from 44,6 in 2002 to 56,9% in 2012- (da PEA)  Slightly more positive for women: 12,3 pp in total – 13,1pp for women  Rate of women in the formal private sector is growing faster than rate for men – (carteira de trabalho) Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 20011/2012
  9. 9. Women are still the majority in informal labour Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 20011/2012
  10. 10. Still in lower paid working areas  ¼ of all women workers are concentrated in domestic work, self consumed production and non-paid jobs/tasks. For men it is 5,6%.  5.8 million domestic workers, 92% women.  Constitutional Amendment n°72/2013 to ensure more 16 labor rights to domestic workers. Domestic workers Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 2012 Coverage rate
  11. 11. Appreciation of minimum wage  In the last 10 years, an increase of 239%.  Reflex on social protection and pension system
  12. 12. Some results  In the last decade, an increase of 31,4% on female net income. Of 38,5% in informal market.  In 2002, average income gap of 30%. In 2012, 27%. Slow but important reduction. Source: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, PNAD 2012
  13. 13. Income-transfer policy  Bolsa Família:  More than 14 million families receiving allowances ranging from US$ 35 to US$ 120.  Women represent 54% of the beneficiaries and 93% of Program´s card holders.  Coordination/integration of public policies – access to existing policies and creation of subsidiary ones. Ex:  Health assistance  Improvement in child care attendance.  Playing areas for children while women are attending courses
  14. 14. Policies for rural producers  Food Acquisition Program (PAA)  5% of program budget for organizations run exclusively or mainly by women;  40% quota for women in accepted proposals;  Rural Technical Assistance and Extension (ATER)  30% quota for contracted technicians.;  50% quota for beneficiaries;  Family Farming Funding for Women (PRONAF-Mulher)  A specific line apart from the family credit;  Documents Issuing  1 million women between 2004 and 2012.
  15. 15. Care and Education Policies  Daycare Policies  Increase in the proportion of children which attend daycare centres (up to 3 years of age)  2000: 9,4% of children attending daycare centres.  2012: 33,9% of children attending daycare centres  Full-time education (schedule)  Nowadays over 3 million students attend a full time elementary school.  For those enrolled in public schools, 8,3% were in full time schools;  For those enrolled in private schools, 1,9%.
  16. 16. Access to social security  Women are majority of pension holders and only 1/3 of retirement benefit holders.  Growth in social security enrolment – slow process related to labour market  Implementation of retirement benefit for rural women is more difficult due to family production/tradition – specific measures taken  New family arrangements – new rights  Gays and lesbians rights to social security benefits.
  17. 17. Special Social Security Measures  Housewives in lower income are entitled to retirement and other social benefits with a smaller contribution  Law approved in 2013  Over 400 thousand housewives included  Special social security benefit for people with disability (or low income elderly people)-BPC
  18. 18. Sexual and reproductive rights  Planning of reproduction is a necessary asset for women’s economic and personal independence – age of reproduction and number of children.  Determinants of the decline in fertility rates  A demanding society – for better and more access to services  Policies addressing specific groups – adolescents, gays and lesbians, women in more remote areas etc.
  19. 19. Leadership position A very strong participation in social movements but small presence in formal leadership position and political representation.
  20. 20. Women in Parliament and Executive Office Women Candidates Election (year) President Senator Governor Federal Congresswoman State Congresswoman 2002 0% 11,5% 9,85% 8,19% 12,56% 2006 28,60% 15,91% 12,68% 12,66% 14,27% 2010 22,20% 13,28% 11,04% 19,42% 21,06%
  21. 21. Women in Parliament and Executive Offices Women elected Election (year) President Senator State Governor Federal Congresswoman State Congresswoman 2002 0% 12,3% 7,4% 8,2% 12,56 2006 0% 14,8% 11,11% 8,97% 11,61% 2010 100% 14,81% 7,4% 8,77% 12,85%  Law of women quotas is not effective in the existing electoral system. Vote is not on a list but on an individual.
  22. 22. Combating violence against women Approval of a legal framework, coordination of policies and services, reinforcing support for women.
  23. 23. National Policy on Violence against Women Prevention cultural and educational actions for interfering on sexist standards Face-off and Combating Punitive actions and fulfillment of the Maria da Penha Law Assistance strengthening the service network and training of public servants Access and guarantee of rights compliance with national/ international legislation and initiative to empower women National Policies on Violence Against Women
  24. 24. AXIS I – Assurance of the applicability of the Maria da Penha Law AXIS II – Increase and Strengthening of the Services for Women in Violence Situation AXIS III – Assure the citizen safety and access to Justice AXIS IV- Assurance of the Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Tackling Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking women AXIS V – Assurance of Autonomy for Women in Situation of Violence and Broadening of their Rights National Covenant to Face Violence Against Women
  25. 25. National Covenant to Face Violence Against Women Formal covenant between the Federal Government and: • State Governments • Judiciary system at national and states level • Health system - Federal and local • Social assistance services • Police departments Local Coordinators: Secretaries or coordinations of Women’s Affairs at State level.
  26. 26. National Program – Women Living Without Violence Integrate services in a physical facility Emergency call service coordination – Call 180 Public educational campaigns
  27. 27. Some Challenges:  Reorganization of the unpaid work inside families – social change much beyond gov’t  Access to child care facilities is key to being in the labour market  Development of care policies with a gender perspective  Process of deinstitutionalization of health policies – Who is going to take care of:  The elderly  Dependent people – health problems/ with disabilities  Need of advancing on access to sexual and reproductive rights.  Sustained economic development policies - integrate areas in a long term gender perspective.
  28. 28. Thank you! Tatau Godinho Secretary of Policies for Women’s Work and Economic Autonomy SPM/PR - Brazil