Gender equality in China: progress,
challenges, and future strategy
Zheng, Zhenzhen
Institute of Population and Labor Econ...
Outline
• Promoting gender equality in China: a review
• Progress and current status
– Efforts for a supportive policy and...
Promoting gender equality in China: a review
• 1949-1956: Social movement with laws clearly define
women’s equal rights
– ...
Important progress in the 21st century
• Gender equality as a key national policy of social
development, development of su...
Important progress in the 21st century
• Gender mainstreaming and gender equality advocacy for a
more supportive social-cu...
Health: progress and current status
Life expectancy
at birth
Source: census data
69.3
70.5
73.3
75.3
77.4
65
70
75
80
1981...
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
15 20 25 30 35 40 45
High school
College
University
Post-graduate
Education: progress and curre...
Labor participation: progress and current status
• Women make 46% of employed labor
• More women work in education, cultur...
Current status: findings from the Third Wave
Survey on the Social Status of Women (2010)
• Labor participation: 71.1% wome...
More social interventions
• Poverty alleviation with special target in less developed
rural areas on
– Mothers of poor fam...
Political participation
• Women representatives in National People’s Congress
(2013): 23.4%
• Women in community leadershi...
Gaps and challenges
• Imbalanced sex ratio at birth: a consequence of boy preference
as fertility declines, reflecting gen...
• Further gender mainstreaming in all areas; more resource
investment; improve gendered statistics, analysis, and
evaluati...
Implementation, Monitor and evaluation on the major
indicators and strategies on women in
• Health
• Education
• Economy
•...
Thank you
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Gender equality in China: progress, challenges, and future strategy

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A igualdade de gênero na China, seus progressos, desafios e estratégias futuras, são o foco desta apresentação, exibida durante o seminário “População e Desenvolvimento na Agenda do Cairo: balanço e desafios”. Leia mais: www.sae.gov.br

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Gender equality in China: progress, challenges, and future strategy

  1. 1. Gender equality in China: progress, challenges, and future strategy Zheng, Zhenzhen Institute of Population and Labor Economics Chinese Academy of Social Sciences 2 March 2014 Mpumalanga, South Africa
  2. 2. Outline • Promoting gender equality in China: a review • Progress and current status – Efforts for a supportive policy and social environment – Health – Education – Economic participation – Political participation • Gaps and challenges • National strategies
  3. 3. Promoting gender equality in China: a review • 1949-1956: Social movement with laws clearly define women’s equal rights – The establish of All China Women’s Federation – The constitution, marriage law, labor protection law – Efforts to reduce maternal and infant death • 1957-1965: promoting women’s economic participation • 1966-1976: • 1977-1990: women’s role in reform and opening-up • 1990- 2000: more policies issued and more actions taken – 1992: Law on the protection of rights and interests of women – 1993: National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council – 1995: the first Program for the Development of Chinese Women (1995-2000)
  4. 4. Important progress in the 21st century • Gender equality as a key national policy of social development, development of supportive policies – Amendment of Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women: emphasized anti-gender discrimination and legal responsibility – Emphasize women’s rights protection and gender equity in related laws and regulations – Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2001-2010) and (2011-2020), monitor and evaluation • Strengthen national system to promote gender equality in all levels and all sectors – The coordination ministries/departments of NWCCW expended from 17 to 33 – Every province, city, and county has a coordinated work committee
  5. 5. Important progress in the 21st century • Gender mainstreaming and gender equality advocacy for a more supportive social-cultural environment – High rank advocacy – Collaborating with media, more news and reports to advocate – The role of CSOs: monitor media on stereotype or discriminative reports about women, analysis and intervention – More international collaboration, communication and exchange • Key projects – Fight against gender-based violence: change common views from ignorance to pay attention, gender sensitive and anti gender-based domestic violence training in legal system and health system, preparation for development of law – “Care for girls” Campaign: promote non-discriminating concepts to change the traditional views of weighting more on boys than girls, call for awareness on harmful practices that discriminate girls, and raising girls’ status in a family
  6. 6. Health: progress and current status Life expectancy at birth Source: census data 69.3 70.5 73.3 75.3 77.4 65 70 75 80 1981 1990 2000 2005 2010 Year Lifeexpectancyatbirth Total Men Women Health insurance coverage (%) Source: The report of the Third Wave Survey on the Social Status of Women in China, 2010 88.0 87.6 95.6 95.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Men,urban Women,urban Men,rural Women,rural
  7. 7. 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 High school College University Post-graduate Education: progress and current status • Special efforts to keep girls in school • Average years of schooling in 2010: women 8.4, men 9.2 • To reach the MDG goal of “eliminating gender disparities at all levels of education”: sex ratio by education, 2010 census
  8. 8. Labor participation: progress and current status • Women make 46% of employed labor • More women work in education, culture, health, sports, commercial and retail, and service • An increasing number of women work in new emerging and high-tech industry • Training for women provided by government and women’s organizations • Improvement in occupational protection for women – A high coverage of maternal insurance for urban employees, from 26% in 2000 to 95% in 2010 – More enterprises implemented “Regulation on Occupational Protection of Women Employees”, from 34.9% in 2005 to 54.9% in 2010
  9. 9. Current status: findings from the Third Wave Survey on the Social Status of Women (2010) • Labor participation: 71.1% women aged 18-64 • Distribution by industry: 45.3% primary, 14.5% secondary, 40.2% tertiary • Average annual income to that of men: 67.3% in urban, 56.0% in rural • 9.0% women and 14.0% men received loans for production and business; among them 37.3% women and 36.9% men receiving small loans including government- subsidized interest payments
  10. 10. More social interventions • Poverty alleviation with special target in less developed rural areas on – Mothers of poor families (Happiness Project); – Families only have daughters; – Girls drop out from school (Spring Bud Project); – Families with family member has health problems; – Families in difficult natural settings or suffered from natural disasters. • Activities also carried out by non-governmental organizations (such as family planning associations, women’s organizations, and others) • Migration from rural to urban: a way to poverty alleviation and human capital building
  11. 11. Political participation • Women representatives in National People’s Congress (2013): 23.4% • Women in community leadership (2010): 49.6% in urban, 21.4% in rural (a significant increase than a decade earlier) Findings from the Survey on the Social Status of Women (2010) • 54.1% have been involved in democratic supervision • 18.3% take the initiative to raise suggestions in work place or in communities • Over the last five years, 83.6% rural women have participated in village committee elections, and – 70.4% reported that they taken the elections seriously and “tried their best to know the candidates well before voting”
  12. 12. Gaps and challenges • Imbalanced sex ratio at birth: a consequence of boy preference as fertility declines, reflecting gender in-equality and discrimination against women and girls in a society in variety of forms • From view of human resource to evaluate women’s role – There are still some gender discrimination in labor market – Women’s income is lower – The official retire age of women staff is 5 years earlier – The proportion of women in decision making and management is still low, and more men in leading position in higher rank – Promotion of men is faster than women • Consequences of fast demographic change – The fast changes in population and family structure – The challenge in balancing work and life for working women – The traditional gender role: 61.6% men and 54.8% women agreed that “men are better at social issues and women are better at family issues” ( 2010 survey)
  13. 13. • Further gender mainstreaming in all areas; more resource investment; improve gendered statistics, analysis, and evaluation • Eliminate gender in-equality, to address the root causes of sex ratio imbalance problem, to improve the supportive social and policy environment for development of women and girls • To promote women’s participation in decision making and promote in high-rank position by more training and improved policy • Pay attention to possible consequences of demographic change to women, be aware potential gender inequality while response to demographic changes National strategies for the next decade
  14. 14. Implementation, Monitor and evaluation on the major indicators and strategies on women in • Health • Education • Economy • Decision making and management • Social welfare • Environment • Legal protection The Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020)
  15. 15. Thank you

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